New Women's Association
The New Women's Association (NWA, also known as New Women's Society 新婦人協会, Shin-fujin kyokai) was a Japanese women's rights organization founded in 1920. It played an important role in changing Article 5 of the Public Peace Police Law, which had prohibited women from participating in public meetings. The organization also enlisted the help of men as advocates for women in politics.
Raichō Hiratsuka asked Fusae Ichikawa to form a women's rights organization with Oku Mumeo starting in 1919. Mumeo had recently had a son, and she would carry him on her back to NWA meetings and use the pram to carry copies of the group's journal, Women's League (Josei dōmei). NWA's first meeting was held on February 21, 1920 in Tokyo at the YMCA hall in Kanda. This first meeting had around 500 in attendance and 70% of the audience were male.
The official charter of the group and membership rules were announced on March 28, 1920. The group's aims included raising the "social and political position of women in Japan." The leaders, Hiratsuka, Ichikawa and Mumeo also focused on repealing or modifying Article 5 of the Public Police Law. This law did not allow women to participate in political activity publicly.
Ichikawa and Hiratsuka differed politically and personally, so in 1920, Ichikawa left the NWA. Other critics of the NWA included Yamakawa Kikue and Itō Noe, who were former Bluestockings and who felt that NWA was lacking a socialist perspective.
- Hunter, Janet (1984). Concise Dictionary of Modern Japanese History. University of California Press. p. 243. ISBN 0520045572.
- North, Scott (March 2006). "Work in Progress". humanities and Social Sciences Online. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- Lublin, Elizabeth Dorn (2013). "Ichikawa Fusae (1893-1981)". In Perez, Louis G. Japan at War: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 133–134. ISBN 9781598847420.
- Loftus, Ronald P. (2004). Telling Lives: Women's Self-Writing in Modern Japan. University of Hawai'i Press. p. 44. ISBN 0824828348.
- Mackie, Vera (2003). Feminism in Modern Japan: Citizenship, Embodiment and Sexuality. Cambridge University Press. pp. 58–60. ISBN 0521820189.
- Hunter, Janet (1984). Concise Dictionary of Modern Japanese History. University of California Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 0520043901.
- Mackie, Vera (1996). "Feminist Critiques of Modern Japanese Politics". In Threlfall, Monica. Mapping the Women's Movement: Feminist Politics and Social Transformation in the North. Verso. p. 263. ISBN 1859849849.
- Mackie, Vera (1997). Creating Socialist Women in Japan: Gender, Labour and Activism, 1900-1937. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0521551374.