New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures
|New World Translation|
|Full name||New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures|
|Authorship||New World Bible Translation Committee|
|Textual basis||OT: Biblia Hebraica.|
NT: Westcott & Hort.
|Translation type||Formal Equivalence and Dynamic Equivalence|
|Copies printed||Over 238 million|
|Religious affiliation||Jehovah's Witnesses|
|Part of a series on|
The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) is a translation of the Bible published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society; it is used and distributed by Jehovah's Witnesses. The New Testament portion was released first, in 1950, as The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, with the complete New World Translation of the Bible released in 1961.
It is not the first Bible to be published by the Watch Tower Society, but it is its first original translation of ancient Biblical Hebrew, Koine Greek, and Old Aramaic biblical texts. Although commentators have said a scholarly effort went into the translation, critics have described it as "biased".
Until the release of the New World Translation, Jehovah's Witnesses in English-speaking countries primarily used the King James Version. According to the publishers, one of the main reasons for producing a new translation was that most Bible versions in common use, including the Authorized Version (King James), employed archaic language. The stated intention was to produce a fresh translation, free of archaisms. Additionally, over the centuries since the King James Version was produced, more copies of earlier manuscripts of the original texts in the Hebrew and Greek languages have become available. According to the publishers, better manuscript evidence had made it possible to determine with greater accuracy what the original writers intended, particularly in more obscure passages, allowing linguists to better understand certain aspects of the original languages.
A fresh translation of the New Testament, which Jehovah's Witnesses usually refer to as the Christian Greek Scriptures, was proposed in October 1946 by the president of the Watch Tower Society, Nathan H. Knorr. Work began on December 2, 1947, when the "New World Bible Translation Committee" was formed, composed of Jehovah's Witnesses who professed to be anointed. The Watch Tower Society is said to have "become aware" of the committee's existence a year later. The committee agreed to turn over its translation to the Society for publication and on September 3, 1949, Knorr convened a joint meeting of the board of directors of both the Watch Tower Society's New York and Pennsylvania corporations where he again announced to the directors the existence of the committee and that it was now able to print its new modern English translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures. Several chapters of the translation were read to the directors, who then voted to accept it as a gift. The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures was released at a Jehovah's Witness convention at Yankee Stadium, New York, on August 2, 1950.
The translation of the Old Testament, which Jehovah's Witnesses refer to as the Hebrew Scriptures, was released in five volumes in 1953, 1955, 1957, 1958, and 1960. The complete New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures was released as a single volume in 1961, and has since undergone various revisions. Cross references which had appeared in the six separate volumes were updated and included in the complete volume in the 1984 revision.
In 1961, the Watch Tower Society began to translate the New World Translation into Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish; the New Testament in these languages was released simultaneously in July 1963 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. By 1989, the New World Translation was translated into eleven languages, with more than 56,000,000 copies printed.
The New World Translation was produced by the New World Bible Translation Committee, formed in 1947. This committee is said to have comprised unnamed members of multinational background. The committee requested that the Watch Tower Society not publish the names of its members, stating that they did not want to "advertise themselves but let all the glory go to the Author of the Scriptures, God," adding that the translation, "should direct the reader, not to the translators, but to the Bible’s Author, Jehovah God". The publishers stated that "the particulars of [the New World Bible Translation Committee's members] university or other educational training are not the important thing" and that "the translation testifies to their qualification".
Former high-ranking Watch Tower staff have identified various members of the translation team. Former governing body member Raymond Franz listed Nathan H. Knorr, Fredrick W. Franz, Albert D. Schroeder, George D. Gangas, and Milton G. Henschel as members of the translation team, adding that only Frederick Franz had sufficient knowledge in biblical languages. Referring to the identified members, evangelical minister Walter Ralston Martin said, "The New World Bible translation committee had no known translators with recognized degrees in Greek or Hebrew exegesis or translation... None of these men had any university education except Franz, who left school after two years, never completing even an undergraduate degree." Fredrick Franz had stated that he was familiar with not only Hebrew, but with Greek, Latin, Spanish, Portuguese, German, and French for the purpose of biblical translation.
Translation Services Department
In 1989, a Translation Services Department was established at the world headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses, overseen by the Writing Committee of the Governing Body. The goal of the Translation Services Department was to accelerate Bible translation with the aid of computer technology. Previously, some Bible translation projects lasted twenty years or more. Under the direction of the Translation Services Department, translation of the Old Testament in a particular language may be completed in as little as two years. During the period from 1963 to 1989, the New World Translation became available in ten additional languages. Since the formation of the Translation Services Department in 1989, there has been a significant increase in the number of languages in which the New World Translation has been made available.
At the Watch Tower Society's annual meeting on October 5, 2013, a significantly revised translation was released. Referring to the new revision, the publishers stated, "There are now about 10 percent fewer English words in the translation. Some key Biblical terms were revised. Certain chapters were changed to poetic format, and clarifying footnotes were added to the regular edition."
The Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53 – 8:11) and the Short and Long Conclusions of Mark 16 (Mark 16:8–20)—offset from the main text in earlier editions—were removed. The new revision was also released as part of an app called JW Library. As of April 2020, the 2013 edition of the New World Translation has been translated into 31 languages.
According to the Watch Tower Society, the New World Translation attempts to convey the intended sense of original-language words according to the context. The original New World Translation employs nearly 16,000 English expressions to translate about 5,500 biblical Greek terms, and over 27,000 English expressions to translate about 8,500 Hebrew terms. The translators state that, where possible in the target language, the New World Translation prefers literal renderings and does not paraphrase the original text.
The master text used for translating the Old Testament into English was Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. The Hebrew texts, Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and Biblia Hebraica Quinta, were used for preparing the latest version of this translation. Other works consulted in preparing the translation include Aramaic Targums, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Samaritan Torah, the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, the Masoretic Text, the Cairo Codex, the Aleppo Codex, Christian David Ginsburg's Hebrew Text, and the Leningrad Codex.
The Greek master text by the Cambridge University scholars B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort (1881) was used as the basis for translating the New Testament into English. The committee also referred to the Novum Testamentum Graece (18th edition, 1948) and to works by Jesuit scholars José M. Bover (1943), and Augustinus Merk (1948). The United Bible Societies' text (1975) and the Nestle-Aland text (1979) were used to update the footnotes in the 1984 version. Additional works consulted in preparing the New World Translation include the Armenian Version, Coptic Versions, the Latin Vulgate, Sistine and Clementine Revised Latin Texts, Textus Receptus, the Johann Jakob Griesbach's Greek text, the Emphatic Diaglott, and various papyri.
Translation into other languages is based on the English text, supplemented by comparison with the Hebrew and Greek. The complete New World Translation has been published in more than one hundred languages or scripts, with the New Testament available in more than fifty additional languages.
When the Writing Committee approves the translation of the Bible into a new language, it appoints a group of baptized Jehovah's Witnesses to serve as a translation team. Translators are given a list of words and expressions commonly used in the English New World Translation with related English words grouped together (e.g. atone, atonement or propitiation). A list of vernacular equivalents is then composed. A database of Greek and Hebrew terms is available where a translator has difficulty rendering a verse. The vernacular terms are then applied to the text in the target language. Further editing and translation is then performed to produce a final version.
The layout resembles the 1901 edition of the American Standard Version. The translators use the terms "Hebrew-Aramaic Scriptures" and "Christian Greek Scriptures" rather than "Old Testament" and "New Testament", stating that the use of "testament" was based on a misunderstanding of 2 Corinthians 3:14. Headings were included at the top of each page to assist in locating texts; these have been replaced in the 2013 revision by an "Outline of Contents" introducing each Bible book. There is also an index listing scriptures by subject.
Square brackets [ ] were added around words that were inserted editorially, but were removed as of the 2006 printing. Double brackets were used to indicate text considered doubtful. The pronoun "you" was printed in small capitals (i.e., YOU) to indicate plurality, as were some verbs when plurality may be unclear. These features were discontinued in the 2013 release. The New World Translation attempts to indicate progressive rather than completed actions, such as "proceeded to rest" at Genesis 2:2 instead of "rested". The 2013 release indicates progressive verbs only where considered contextually important.
Use of Jehovah
The name Jehovah is a translation of the Tetragrammaton (Hebrew: יהוה, transliterated as YHWH, though the original pronunciation is unknown). The New World Translation uses the name Jehovah 6,979 times in the Old Testament. According to the Watch Tower Society, the Tetragrammaton appears in "the oldest fragments of the Greek Septuagint". In reference to the Septuagint, biblical scholar Paul E. Kahle stated, "We now know that the Greek Bible text as far as it was written by Jews for Jews did not translate the Divine name by Kyrios, but the Tetragrammaton written with Hebrew or Greek letters was retained in such MSS (manuscripts). It was the Christians who replaced the Tetragrammaton by Kyrios, when the divine name written in Hebrew letters was not understood any more." However, according to professor Albert Pietersma, since pre-Christian times adonai and the Tetragrammaton were considered equivalent to the Greek term kyrios. Pietersma stated, "The translators felt no more bound to retain the tetragram in written form than they felt compelled to render distinctively Hebrew el, elohim or shaddai." He also considers that old manuscripts containing the tetragram, like the papyrus Fouad 266, "is evidence of a secondary stage."
The New World Translation also uses the name Jehovah 237 times in the New Testament where the extant texts use only the Greek words kyrios (Lord) and theos (God). The use of Jehovah in the New Testament is very rare, but not unique to the New World Translation. Walter Martin, an evangelical minister, wrote, "It can be shown from literally thousands of copies of the Greek New Testament that not once does the tetragrammaton appear." However, the translators of the New World Translation believed that the name Jehovah was present in the original manuscripts of the New Testament when quoting from the Old Testament, but replaced with the other terms by later copyists. Based on this reasoning, the translators consider to have "restored the divine name", though it is not present in any extant manuscripts.
In 1984, a Reference edition of the New World Translation was released in addition to a revision of the regular volume. The regular edition includes several appendices containing arguments for various translation decisions, maps, diagrams and other information; and over 125,000 cross references. The reference edition contains the cross references and adds footnotes about translation decisions and additional appendices that provide further detail relating to certain translation decisions and doctrinal views. The Reference edition is out of print as of the release of the 2013 revision of the New World Translation.
Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures
The New World Bible Translation Committee included the English text from the New World Translation in its 1969 and 1985 editions of The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures. It also incorporates the Greek text published by Westcott and Hort in The New Testament in the Original Greek and a literal word-for-word translation.
In 1978, the Watch Tower Society began producing recordings of the New World Translation on audio cassette, with the New Testament released by 1981 and the Old Testament in three albums released by 1990. In 2004, the NWT was released on compact disc in MP3 format in major languages. Since 2008, audio downloads of the NWT have been made available in 18 languages in MP3 and AAC formats, including support for podcasts.
In 1983, the English Braille edition of the New World Translation's New Testament was released; the complete English Braille edition was released by 1988. NWT editions have since become available in several additional Braille scripts. Production of the NWT in American Sign Language began in 2006; the New Testament was made available by 2010, and the complete ASL edition was released in February 2020.
In 1992, a digital edition of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References was released on floppy disk. Since 1994, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References has been included in the Watchtower Library on CD-ROM. Both editions of the New World Translation are available online in various languages and digital formats. Since 2015, a Study Edition of the New World Translation has been gradually released online starting with the books of the New Testament, based on the 2013 revision with additional reference material.
|The Bible in English|
In its review of Bible translations released from 1955 to 1985, The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary listed the New World Translation among the major modern translations.
In 1982, Pentecostal theologian Gordon Fee and Douglas K. Stuart in their, How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, refer to the New World Translation without a critical examination or discussion as being an "extremely literal translation" filled with "heretical doctrines". In 1985, Alan Stewart Duthie responded to the assertion by Fee & Stuart that the NWT is "filled with the heretical doctrines of this cult", stating that although "there are some heretical doctrines to be found ... [it] does not reach even 0.1% of the whole, which is very far from 'full'".
Cees Houtman wrote in 1984: "respect and knowledge are the requirements that a translator must meet. It was noted above that in the past distrust was often expressed regarding the translation work of persons belonging to a different modality or denomination and there was a fear of the theological points of view being reflected in the translation. A purely objective evaluation of translations, however, must conclude that only in very exceptional cases can passages be pointed out in which the confessional (or political and social) point of view of the translators shines through. Even the New World Translation of the Jehovah's Witnesses can survive the scrutiny of the critics. In this context, one should also note, for example, that Remonstrants and Mennonites were able to use the SV [(Statenvertaling)]. Scripture and religious beliefs tend to come to light in notes and introductions to translations."
In 2004, Anthony Byatt and Hal Flemings published their anthology 'Your Word is Truth', Essays in Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (1950, 1953). They included essays responding to criticism of the New World Translation from non-Witnesses, and a bibliography of reviews of the work.
George D. Chryssides stated in 2019 that the unfavourable criticisms by Harold Henry Rowley, Julius R. Mantey and William Barclay "were extremely vague", but that Bruce M. Metzger "mentioned a few specific passages which he believed were wrongly translated."
Regarding the New World Translation's use of English in the first volume of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (Genesis to Ruth, 1953), biblical scholar Harold Henry Rowley was critical of what he called "wooden literalism" and "harsh construction". He characterized these as "an insult to the Word of God", citing various verses of Genesis as examples. Rowley concluded, "From beginning to end this [first] volume is a shining example of how the Bible should not be translated." He added in a subsequent review that "the second volume shows the same faults as the first." While a member of the denomination, Rolf Furuli—a former professor in Semitic languages—said that a literal translation that follows the sentence structure of the source language rather than target language must be somewhat wooden and unidiomatic. Furuli added that Rowley's assessment based on his own preference for idiomatic translations ignores the NWT's stated objective of being as literal as possible.
Samuel Haas, in his 1955 review of the first volume of the NWT in the Journal of Biblical Literature, stated that he did not agree with the introduction of the name Jehovah: "religious bias is shown most clearly in the policy of translating the tetragrammaton as Jehovah." He concluded, "this work indicates a great deal of effort and thought as well as considerable scholarship, it is to be regretted that religious bias was allowed to colour many passages."
In 1960, Frederick William Danker wrote, "not to be snubbed is the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, Rendered from the Original by the New World Translation Committee... 'the orthodox' do not possess all the truth, yet one does well to 'test the spirits'."
In 1981, biblical scholar Benjamin Kedar-Kopfstein stated that the Old Testament work is largely based on the formal structure of biblical Hebrew. In 1989, Kedar-Kopfstein said, "In my linguistic research in connection with the Hebrew Bible and translations, I often refer to the English edition of what is known as the 'New World Translation.' In so doing, I find my feeling repeatedly confirmed that this work reflects an honest endeavor to achieve an understanding of the text that is as accurate as possible. Giving evidence of a broad command of the original language, it renders the original words into a second language understandably without deviating unnecessarily from the specific structure of the Hebrew. ... Every statement of language allows for a certain latitude in interpreting or translating. So the linguistic solution in any given case may be open to debate. But I have never discovered in the 'New World Translation' any biased intent to read something into the text that it does not contain." In 1993 Kedar-Kopfstein said that the NWT is one of his occasionally quoted reference works.
Negative criticism of the New World Translation is particularly concentrated on Christological issues, mainly the translation of the word kurios (Greek: κύριος) as "Jehovah"—usually translated "Lord" by the classical translators and its rendering of John 1:1.
Edgar J. Goodspeed, translator of the New Testament in An American Translation, positively criticized the New World translation. According to the October 15, 1999 issue of The Watchtower, Goodspeed wrote to the Watch Tower Society in 1950 stating, "I am interested in the mission work of your people, and its world wide scope, and much pleased with the free, frank and vigorous translation. It exhibits a vast array of sound serious learning, as I can testify."
In 1952, religious writer Alexander Thomson wrote of the New World Translation: "The translation is evidently the work of skilled and clever scholars, who have sought to bring out as much of the true sense of the Greek text as the English language is capable of expressing. ... We heartily recommend the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, published in 1950 by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society." In 1959, Thomson added that on the whole the version was quite a good one, even though it was padded with many English words which had no equivalent in the Greek or Hebrew.
Allen Wikgren (member of the New Revised Standard Version committee, as well as the committee which produced the USB Greek text) said in 1952, "independent readings of merit often occur in other modern speech versions, such as Verkyl's New Testament (1945) and the Jehovah's Witnesses' edition of the New Testament (1950)".
In 1953, former American Bible Society board member Bruce M. Metzger concluded that "on the whole, one gains a tolerably good impression of the scholarly equipment of the translators," but identified instances where the translation has been written to support Jehovah's Witness doctrines, with "several quite erroneous renderings of the Greek." Metzger said there were a number of "indefensible" characteristics of the translation, including its use of "Jehovah" in the New Testament.
In 1954, Unitarian theologian Charles Francis Potter stated about the New World Translation: "Apart from a few semantic peculiarities like translating the Greek word stauros as 'stake' instead of 'cross', and the often startling use of the colloquial and the vernacular, the anonymous translators have certainly rendered the best manuscript texts, both Greek and Hebrew, with scholarly ability and acumen."
Frederick E. Mayer wrote in 1954: "It is a version that lends support to denial of doctrines which the Christian churches consider basic, such as the co-equality of Jesus Christ with the Father, the personhood of the Holy Spirit, and the survival of the human person after physical death. It teaches the annihilation of the wicked, the non-existence of hell, and the purely animal nature of man's soul."
In his review in Andover Newton Quarterly Robert M. McCoy reported in 1963, "The translation of the New Testament is evidence of the presence in the movement of scholars qualified to deal intelligently with the many problems of Biblical translation. One could question why the translators have not stayed closer to the original meaning, as do most translators. ... In not a few instances the New World Translation contains passages which must be considered as 'theological translations.' This fact is particularly evident in those passages which express or imply the deity of Jesus Christ."
In 1963, theologian Anthony A. Hoekema wrote, "Their New World Translation of the Bible is by no means an objective rendering of the sacred text into modern English, but is a biased translation in which many of the peculiar teachings of the Watchtower Society are smuggled into the text of the Bible itself."
In 1967, Robert H. Countess wrote that the "NWT has certain praiseworthy features—for example, an apparatus criticus—everyone must admit", but described the NWT's rendering of "a god" at John 1:1 as "most unfortunate for several reasons". In 1982, in his critical analysis The Jehovah's Witness' New Testament he wrote that the NWT "must be viewed as a radically biased piece of work. At some points it is actually dishonest. At others it is neither modern nor scholarly."
Julius R. Mantey, co-author of A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament and A Hellenistic Greek Reader, said in 1980 that the NWT's rendering of John 1:1 is "a shocking mistranslation" and "Obsolete and incorrect".
In October 1996, James Parkinson stated, "the Jehovah's Witnesses' New World Translation (NWT, 1950) offers a relatively accurate translation from a different theological perspective. Like Rotherham, though, it is often not smooth reading."
Theologian William Barclay concluded, "the deliberate distortion of truth by this sect is seen in the New Testament translation. ... It is abundantly clear that a sect which can translate the New Testament like that is intellectually dishonest."
Theologian John Ankerberg accused the New World Translation's translators of renderings that conform "to their own preconceived and unbiblical theology." John Weldon and Ankerberg cite several examples wherein they consider the NWT to support theological views overriding appropriate translation.
The 2003 edition of the New Catholic Encyclopedia states, "[Jehovah's Witnesses] are allowed no other books than the Bible and the society's own publications, which includes its own translation of the Bible with an impressive critical apparatus. The work is excellent except when scientific knowledge comes into conflict with the accepted doctrines of the movement. In their so-called New World Translation, the term Kyrios is rendered Jehovah instead of Lord everywhere in the New Testament (237 times) except at Philippians 2.11, where St. Paul refers the word to Christ."
In 2004, historian Jason BeDuhn examined New Testament passages in which he believed "bias is most likely to interfere with translation" from nine of "the Bibles most widely in use in the English-speaking world". For each passage, he compared the Greek text with the renderings of each English translation, and looked for biased attempts to change the meaning. BeDuhn said that the New World Translation was "not bias free", adding that whilst the general public and various biblical scholars might assume that the differences in the New World Translation are the result of religious bias, he considered it to be "the most accurate of the translations compared", and a "remarkably good translation". He added that "most of the differences are due to the greater accuracy of the NW as a literal, conservative translation". Despite his positive review, BeDuhn said the introduction of the name "Jehovah" into the New Testament 237 times was "not accurate translation by the most basic principle of accuracy", and that it "violate[s] accuracy in favor of denominationally preferred expressions for God". In rebuttal, Thomas Howe strongly criticized BeDuhn's positive review of the New World Translation, stating that BeDuhn's main goal is to deny the deity of Christ.
George D. Chryssides noted that the New World Translation's rendering of passages about Christ's role in the creation of the world—for example, Colossians 1:15-17—are phrased in such a way as to suggest that Christ was created and not, as the Nicene Creed states, "begotten of the Father before all worlds, God of God."
Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures
Thomas Nelson Winter considered the Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures to be a "highly useful aid toward the mastery of koine (and classical) Greek," adding that the translation "is thoroughly up-to-date and consistently accurate."
Julius R. Mantey stated that the KIT "changed the readings in scores of passages to state what Jehovah's Witnesses believe and teach. That is a distortion not a translation."
According to the February 1, 1998 issue of The Watchtower, Jason BeDuhn ordered copies of the KIT for his students at Indiana University Bloomington, and wrote that "it is the best interlinear New Testament available".
Much criticism of the New World Translation involves the rendering of certain texts in the New Testament considered to be biased in favor of specific Witness practices and doctrines. These include:
- the use of "torture stake" instead of "cross" as the instrument of Jesus' crucifixion;
- the use of the indefinite article ("a") in its rendering of John 1:1 to give "the Word was a god";
- the term "public declaration" at Romans 10:10, which may reinforce the imperative to engage in public preaching;
- the term "taking in knowledge" rather than "know" at John 17:3 (in the 1984 revision), to suggest that salvation is dependent on ongoing study;
- the placement of the comma in Luke 23:43, which affects the timing of the fulfillment of Jesus' promise to the thief at Calvary.
The New World Translation was banned in Russia in 2017, after the prosecution used quotes from Wikipedia to argue that the translation is extremist and not a true Bible. This decision was questioned by international observers, and even by Alexander Dvorkin, who had previously asked for the Jehovah's Witnesses' organization to be banned.
- Jehovah's Witnesses publications
- List of Bible translations by language
- List of Watch Tower Society publications
- "Jehovah's Witnesses Reach Translation Milestone With Bible Release in Mozambique". Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- "The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures Now Available in Krio". Watch Tower Society.
- BeDuhn 2003, pp. 93.
- All Scripture Is Inspired by God and Beneficial1990 p. 326 paras. 32–33 Study Number 7—The Bible in Modern Times: New World Translation A Literal Translation, 1990
- "Principles of Bible Translation from Hebrew and Greek | NWT". JW.ORG. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
- "Online Bible". Watch Tower Society.
- "Baybul we De Insay di Langwej we Pipul dɛn De Tɔk Ɛvride". Watch Tower Society.
- Torres-Pruñonosa, Jose; Plaza-Navas, Miquel-Angel; Brown, Silas (2022). "Jehovah's Witnesses' adoption of digitally-mediated services during Covid-19 pandemic". Cogent Social Sciences. 8 (1). doi:10.1080/23311886.2022.2071034. S2CID 248581687. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
- "Are All Religions Good?", The Watchtower, August 1, 2009, p. 4, "Jehovah's Witnesses, produce a reliable Bible translation known as the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. However, if you are not one of Jehovah's Witnesses, you may prefer to use other translations"
- Scorgie, Strauss & Voth 2009, pp. 185.
- Geisler & Nix 2012, pp. 455.
- Andrews 2018, pp. 24.
- Gordon 2010, pp. 280.
- Geisler & Nix 2012, pp. 456.
- Chryssides 2016, pp. 140.
- The Watchtower, 1 November 1959, p. 672: "Up until 1950 the teachings of Jehovah's witnesses were based mainly upon the King James Version of the Bible"
- Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8020-6545-2.
The King James Bible was used by the Witnesses prior to the release of their own version, which began with the Greek Scriptures, in 1950.
- Chryssides 2009, pp. lx.
- "Announcements", The Watchtower, August 1, 1954, p. 480
- "Bible Knowledge Made Plain Through Modern Translation", The Watchtower, October 15, 1961, p. 636
- "Part Three—How the Bible Came to Us", The Watchtower, October 15, 1997, p. 11, "With this objective, associates of the Society set out in 1946 to produce a fresh translation of the Scriptures. A translation committee of experienced anointed Christians was organized to produce the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in English."
- Mattingly 1951, pp. 439.
- "Stand Complete and With Firm Conviction—The New World Translation Appreciated by Millions Worldwide", The Watchtower, November 15, 2001, p. 7.
- "How the Governing Body Differs From a Legal Corporation:, The Watchtower, January 15, 2001, p. 30.
- Chryssides 2016, pp. 137.
- "New Bible Translation Completed, Released", The Watchtower, October 1, 1960, p. 599.
- "New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures", The Watchtower, September 15, 1950, p. 315.
- Chryssides 2009, pp. 100.
- Taylor 1955, pp. 75.
- Paul 2003, pp. 85.
- Watchtower October 1st, 1960 p. 601 para. 13
- Bradshaw 2002, pp. 261.
- Foreword, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, 1984.
- All Scripture is Inspired of God and Beneficial 1990 p. 331
- New York Times, August 3, 1950 p. 19.
- The Watchtower, September 15, 1950, p. 320
- Walsh vs Honorable James Latham, Court of Session Scotland, 1954, cross examination of Frederick Franz pp. 90–92
- The Watchtower, November 15, 1950, p. 454
- The Watchtower, December 15, 1974, p. 768.
- Raymond V. Franz, Crisis of Conscience (Atlanta: Commentary Press, 1983), p. 50.
- Tony Wills, M.A., A People For His Name—A History of Jehovah's Witnesses and An Evaluation, Lulu, 2006. Originally published in 1967 by Vantage Press. "[Frederick] Franz is a language scholar of no mean ability—he supervised the translation of the Bible from the original languages into the New World Translation, completed in 1961." (p. 253)
- Walter Martin, Kingdom of the Cults—Expanded Anniversary Edition, October 1997, Bethany House Publishers, p. 123-124. "the New World Bible translation committee had no known translators with recognized degrees in Greek or Hebrew exegesis or translation. While the members of the [NWT] committee have never been identified officially by the Watchtower, many Witnesses who worked at the headquarters during the translation period were fully aware of who the members were. They included Nathan H. Knorr (president of the Society at the time), Frederick W. Franz (who later succeeded Knorr as president), Albert D. Schroeder, George Gangas, and Milton Henschel'."
- Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8020-7973-2.
- A Milestone for Lovers of God's Word (Watchtower October 15, 1999 pp. 30–31)
- 2012 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 26
- JW.org, "The 2013 Revision of the New World Translation"
- Chryssides 2016, pp. 142.
- "Jehovah's Witnesses distribute free Bibles", The Daytona Beach News-Journal, October 26, 2013
- How Can You Choose a Good Bible Translation? (Watchtower May 1, 2008 pp. 18–22)
- "All Scripture is Inspired of God and Beneficial" 1990 pp. 305-314
- How the Bible Came to Us, Appendix A3 of 2013 REVISION
- Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (1993) Chap. 27 p. 611, subheading Translation Into Other Languages.
- Appendix 7E in the New World Translation reference edition
- Revised New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures Archived 2013-11-01 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 14 October 2013.
- Insight on the Scriptures, Vol. II p. 9, 1988; Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
- The Cairo Geniza, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1959, p. 222
- De Septuaginta: Studies in Honour of John William Wevers on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday, Albert Pietersma, 1984, pages 98-99
- De Septuaginta: Studies in Honour of John William Wevers on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday, Albert Pietersma, 1984, pages 99-100
- Gutjahr 2017, pp. 655–656.
- Bowman, Robert M. Understanding Jehovah's Witnesses. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1991. p. 114
- Translations in English with similar renderings include A Literal Translation of the New Testament ... From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript (Heinfetter, 1863); The Emphatic Diaglott (Benjamin Wilson, 1864); The Epistles of Paul in Modern English (George Stevens, 1898); St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans (Rutherford, 1900); The Christian's Bible — New Testament (LeFevre, 1928) and The New Testament Letters (Wand, 1946).
- Walter Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults Revised, Updated, and Expanded Anniversary Edition, Bethany House Publishers, Minneapolis, Minnesota 1997, p. 125.
- The Watchtower, August 1, 2008. Brooklyn, New York: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2008. pp. 18–23.
- "Lord". Insight on the Scriptures. Vol. 2. p. 267.
- "Announcements", Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1988, p. 4
- Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 614
- "Study—Rewarding and Enjoyable", The Watchtower, October 1, 2000, p. 16
- Paul 2003, pp. 127.
- Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published 1993 by Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 27: Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word", p. 610
- ""Between-the-Lines" Translations of the Bible", The Watchtower, November 15, 1969, p. 692.
- Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1978, p. 3
- Our Kingdom Ministry, October 1981, p. 7
- The Watchtower, February 15, 1990, p. 32
- Watchtower Publications Index 1986–2007, "Compact Discs"
- Our Kingdom Ministry, August 1983, pp. 3–4
- Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published 1993 by Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 27: Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word", pp. 614–615
- Awake!, November, 2007 p. 30
- 2007 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, pp. 21–22
- Sign Language Connection on jw.org
- The Complete New World Translation of the Bible Is Available in ASL
- "The Compact Disc—What Is It All About?", Awake!, April 22, 1994, p. 23
- Our Kingdom Ministry, September 2007, p. 3.
- "Watch Tower Online Library". Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
- "Online Bible-Jehovah's Witnesses: jw.org". Watch Tower Society. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- "JW Library APP-Jehovah's Witnesses". Watch Tower Society. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- JW.org, "New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)"
- Bratcher 1996, pp. 292.
- Fee, Gordon D.; Stuart, Douglas K. (1982). How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth: A Guide to Understanding the Bible. Zondervan. p. 41. ISBN 9780310373612.
Among the whole Bible translations not discussed are some that are theologically biased, such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ New World Translation (1961). This is an extremely literal translation filled with the heretical doctrines of this cult
- Duthie 1985, pp. 20.
- Duthie 1985, pp. 70.
- Houtman 1984, pp. 279–280.
- Williams, J. T. (June 2006). "'Your Word is Truth': Essays in Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (1950, 1953)". Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. 30 (5): 54. – via EBSCO's Academic Search Complete (subscription required)
- Chryssides 2019, pp. 232.
- H.H. Rowley, How Not To Translate the Bible, The Expository Times, 1953; 65; 41
- Gruss, Edmond C. (1970). Apostles of Denial: An Examination and Exposé of the History, Doctrines and Claims of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co. pp. 212–213. ISBN 978-0-87552-305-7.
- Furuli, Rolf (1999). "An evaluation of NWT's critics". The Role of Theology and Bias in Bible Translation. Huntington Beach, California: Elihu books. pp. 293–294. ISBN 0-9659814-9-5.
- Haas 1955, pp. 282.
- Haas 1955, pp. 283.
- Danker 1960, pp. 194.
- Kedar-Kopfstein 1981, pp. 262.
- Andrews 2018, pp. 18.
- Kedar-Kopfstein 1994, pp. 17.
- "A Milestone for Lovers of God's Word". The Watchtower. Watch Tower Society. October 15, 1999. p. 31.
- Byington 1950, pp. 589.
- Alexander Thomson, The Differentiator, 1952, 55, 57 Nos. 2, 6
- The Differentiator (June 1959), cited in Ian Croft, "The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures: Does It Really Have the Support of Greek Scholars?", Perth, Western Australia, Concerned Growth Ministries, 1987, p. 2
- Wikgren 1952, pp. 99.
- Metzger 1964, pp. 151.
- Metzger 1953, pp. 74.
- Metzger 1964, pp. 152.
- The faiths men live by, Kessinger Publishing, 1954, 239. ISBN 1-4254-8652-5.
- Mayer, Frederick E. (1954). The Religious Bodies of America (1st edition) (1961 Revised ed.). Concordia Publishing House. p. 469. ISBN 978-0-75860-231-2.
- Gruss, Edmond C. (1970). Apostles of Denial: An Examination and Exposé of the History, Doctrines and Claims of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-87552-305-7.
- McCoy, Robert (January 1963). "Jehovah's Witnesses and Their New Testament". Andover Newton Quarterly. 3 (3): 15–31.
- MacLean, Gilmour (September 1966). "The Use and Abuse of the Book of Revelation". Andover Newton Quarterly. 7 (1): 25–26.
The New World translation was made by a committee whose membership has never been revealed-a committee that possessed an unusual competence in Greek ... It is clear that doctrinal considerations influenced many turns of phrase, but the work is no crack-pot or pseudo-historical fraud.* ... *See Robert M. McCoy 'Jehovah's Witnesses and Their New Testament', Andover Newton Quarterly, Jan., 1963, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 15–31
- Anthony A. Hoekema, The Four Major Cults, Christian Science, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Seventh-day Adventism, William B. Eerdmans, 1963, ISBN 0802831176, pp. 208–209
- Countess 1967, pp. 160.
- Robert Countess, The Jehovah's Witness' New Testament, A Critical Analysis of the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, Presbyterian & Reformed, 1982, ISBN 0875522106, pp. 91–93
- Julius Robert Mantey, Depth Exploration in the New Testament, Vantage Press, 1980, ISBN 0533045355, pp. 136–137
- Parkinson 1996.
- R. Rhodes, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, The Essential Guide to Their History, Their Doctrine, and Our Response, Zondervan, 2001, p. 94
- Ankerberg, John and John Weldon, 2003, The New World Translation of the Jehovah's Witnesses, accessible online Archived October 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Catholic University of America staff (2003). "Jehovah's Witnesses". In Berard L. Marthaler (ed.). The New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7: Hol-Jub (2 ed.). Detroit: Thompson/Gale. p. 751. ISBN 9780787640040. OCLC 773389253.
- BeDuhn 2003, pp. 165.
- BeDuhn 2003, pp. viii.
- Jason D. BeDuhn, Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament, 2004, pp. 163, 165, 169, 175, 176. BeDuhn compared the King James, the (New) Revised Standard, the New International, the New American Bible, the New American Standard Bible, the Amplified Bible, the Living Bible, Today's English and the NWT versions in Matthew 28:9, Philippians 2:6, Colossians 1:15–20, Titus 2:13, Hebrews 1:8, John 8:58, John 1:1.
- BeDuhn 2003, pp. 163.
- BeDuhn 2003, pp. 169.
- BeDuhn 2003, pp. 170.
- Thomas A Howe, Bias in New Testament Translations?, 2010, p. 326 (back cover), "In this critical evaluation, BeDuhn's arguments are challenged and his conclusions called into question."—See also Thomas A. Howe, The Deity of Christ in Modern Translations, 2015
- Winter 1974, pp. 376.
- ""It Is the Best Interlinear New Testament Available"". The Watchtower. Watch Tower Society. February 1, 1998. p. 32.
- Penton, M. J. (1997), Apocalypse Delayed (2nd ed.), University of Toronto Press, pp. 174–176
- Robert M. Bowman Jr, Understanding Jehovah's Witnesses, (Grand Rapids MI: Baker Book House, 1992)
- Samuel Haas,Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 74, No. 4, (Dec. 1955), p. 283, "This work indicates a great deal of effort and thought as well as considerable scholarship, it is to be regretted that religious bias was allowed to colour many passages."
- Rhodes R, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, The Essential Guide to Their History, Their Doctrine, and Our Response, Zondervan, 2001, p. 94
- Bruce M Metzger, "Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," Theology Today, (April 1953 p. 74); see also Metzger, "The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures," The Bible Translator (July 1964)
- C.H. Dodd: "The reason why [the Word was a god] is unacceptable is that it runs counter to the current of Johannine thought, and indeed of Christian thought as a whole." Technical Papers for The Bible Translator, Vol 28, No. 1, January 1977
- Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984), The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses, University of Toronto Press, pp. 98–101, ISBN 0-8020-6545-7
- Balmforth, Tom (August 18, 2017). "Russia Bans Jehovah's Witnesses' Translation Of Bible". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
- "Репортаж: Суд над Библией в Выборге" [Reportage: Trial of the Bible in Vyborg]. Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2018-12-12. The reference to Wikipedia is at time 14:45
- "АЛЕКСАНДР ДВОРКИН: РЕШЕНИЕ ВЫБОРГСКОГО СУДА О ПРИЗНАНИИ ЭКСТРЕМИСТСКИМ МАТЕРИАЛОМ «ПЕРЕВОДА НОВОГО МИРА» – ГРОМАДНАЯ ОШИБКА" [ALEXANDER DVORKIN: THE DECISION OF THE VYBORG COURT TO RECOGNIZE THE NEW WORLD TRANSLATION AS AN EXTREMIST MATERIAL IS A HUGE MISTAKE]. pravoslavie.ru (in Russian).
- Andrews 2018, pp. 60.
- Andrews, Edward D. (2018). REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah's Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision. Christian Publishing House. ISBN 9781945757785.
- BeDuhn, Jason D. (2003). Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament. G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. University Press of America. ISBN 9780761825555.
- Bradshaw, Paul F., ed. (2002). The New SCM Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship. Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd. ISBN 9780334028833.
- Bratcher, Robert G. (1996). Achtemeier, Paul J.; Boraas, Roger S.; Fishbane, Michael; Cummings, Nathan; Perkins, Pheme; Walker, William O.; The Society of Biblical Literature (eds.). English Bible, The. The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (revised and updated ed.). San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 288–293. ISBN 9780060600372. OCLC 34965544. (Revised and updated edition of Harper's Bible Dictionary, 1st ed. c1985)
- Byatt, Anthony; Flemings, Hal, eds. (2004). 'Your Word is Truth', Essays in Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (1950, 1953). ISBN 0-9506212-6-9.
- Byington, Steven T. (1950-11-01). "Review of the New World Translation". The Christian Century. 67: 588–9.
- Chryssides, George D. (2009). The A to Z of Jehovah's Witnesses. The A to Z Guide Series (reprinted ed.). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810870543.
- Chryssides, George D. (2016). Jehovah's Witnesses: Continuity and Change. Routledge New Religions. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315251561. ISBN 9781351925426.
- Chryssides, George D. (2019). Besier, Gerhard; Huhta, Ilkka (eds.). 'Be not conformed' - A historical survey of the Watch Tower Society's relationship with society. Religious Freedom: Its Confirmation and Violation During the 20th and 21st Centuries. 18. Jahrgang (2017), Heft 1+2. Issue 1-2 de Religion - Staat - Gesellschaft - Zeitsch, ISSN 1438-955X / Religion, Staat, Gesellschaft : Zeitschrift für Glaubensformen und Weltanschauungen. Vol. 18. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 9783643997456.
- Countess, Robert H. (1967). "The Translation of ΘΕΟΣ in the New World Translation" (PDF). Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society. 10 (3): 153–60. ISSN 0361-5138. OCLC 01776411.
- Countess, Robert (1982). Jehovah's Witnesses' New Testament: A Critical Analysis. ISBN 0-87552-210-6.
- Danker, Frederick W. (1960). Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study. Concordia Publishing House.
- Duthie, Alan S. (1985). Bible Translations: And how to Choose Between Them. Paternoster. ISBN 9780853644002.
- Furuli, Rolf (1999). The Role of Theology and Bias in Bible Translation: With a special look at the New World Translation of Jehovah's Witnesses. ISBN 0-9659814-9-5.
- Geisler, Norman L.; Nix, William E. (2012). From God To Us Revised and Expanded: How We Got Our Bible. Moody Publishers. ISBN 9780802483928.
- Gordon, Campbell (2010). Bible: The Story of the King James Version. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191624797.
- Gutjahr, Paul C., ed. (2017). The Oxford Handbook of the Bible in America. Oxford handbooks. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190258849.
- Haas, Samuel S. (1955). "Reviewed Work: New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, Vol. I by New World Bible Translation Committee". Journal of Biblical Literature. 74 (4): 282–283. doi:10.2307/3261681. JSTOR 3261681.
- Houtman, C. (1984). "De kritiek op de "Groot Nieuws Bijbel" in het licht van de kritiek op eerdere Nederlandse bijbelvertalingen". Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift (in Dutch). Boekencentrum. 38 (4): 265–289. doi:10.5117/NTT1984.4.001.HOUT. ISSN 2542-6583. OCLC 1776626.
- Kedar-Kopfstein, Benjamin (1981). "Die Stammbildung qôṭel als Übersetzungsproblem" [The rooting qôṭel as a translation problem]. Journal of Old Testament Scholarship (Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft) (in German, English, and Biblical Hebrew). 93 (2): 254–279. doi:10.1515/zatw.19184.108.40.206. S2CID 170623057. Retrieved 2017-12-09.
p. 262: In sharp contrast to this free translation [Die Heilige Schrift des Alten und Neuen Testamentes (1957)], LXX [Septuagint] and NWT are largely based on the formal structure of the source language [ancient Hebrew].
- Kedar-Kopfstein, Benjamin (1994). "On the Decoding of Polysemantic Lexemes in Biblical Hebrew". Zeitschrift für Althebraistik. W. Kohlhammer. 7 (1): 17–25. ISSN 0932-4461.
- Mattingly, John F. (October 1951). "Jehovah's Witnesses Translate the New Testament". The Catholic Biblical Quarterly. Catholic Biblical Association. 13 (4): 439–443. JSTOR 43720341.
- Metzger, Bruce M. (1953). "The Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ: A Biblical and Theological Appraisal". Theology Today. 10 (1): 65–85. doi:10.1177/004057365301000110. OCLC 18487857. S2CID 170358762.
- Metzger, B. M. (1964). "Book Review: New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures". The Bible Translator. 15 (3): 150–152. doi:10.1177/000608446401500311. ISSN 2051-6789. S2CID 220318160. Archived from the original on 2022-02-28.
- Parkinson, James (1996). "How to Choose a Bible Translation". Herald Magazine the Herald – of Christ's Kingdom. Milwaukee, Wis. Pastoral Bible Institute. ISSN 0884-8777. OCLC 3800192.
- Paul, William E. (2003). English Language Bible Translators. McFarland & Company. ISBN 9780786414253.
- Stafford, Greg (1997). Jehovah's Witnesses Defended. ISBN 0-9659814-7-9.
- Scorgie, Glen G.; Strauss, Mark L.; Voth, Steven M. (2009). The Challenge of Bible Translation: Communicating God's Word to the World. Zondervan Academic. ISBN 9780310321859.
- Taylor, William Carey (1955). Its Banishment of Many Bible Words § Jehovah – The Complete Banished Word. The New Bible, Pro and Con. New York: Vantage Press. OCLC 1085898453.
- Wikgren, Allen (1952). Buttrick, George Arthur; Bowie, Walter Russell; Scherer, Paul; Knox, John; Terrien, Samuel; Harmon, Nolan B. (eds.). The English Bible. The Interpreter's Bible. General and Old Testament Articles. Genesis. Exodus. A Commentary in Twelve Volumes. Vol. 1. Nashville, Tennessee: Abringdon Press. p. 99. ISBN 0-687-19207-2. LCCN 51012276.
- Winter, Thomas (April 1974). "Review of New World Bible Translation Committee's The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures". Faculty Publications, Classics and Religious Studies Department. The Johns Hopkins University Press: 376. JSTOR 3295986. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
I think it is a legitimate and highly useful aid toward the mastery of koine (and classical) Greek. After examining a copy, I equipped several interested second-year Greek students with it as an auxiliary text. ... a motivated student could probably learn koine Greek from this source alone. [...] translation by the anonymous committee is thoroughly up-todate and consistently accurate