New York Central 3001

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New York Central 3001
NYC locomotive 3001.jpg
On display at its home in Elkhart, Indiana.
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer Paul W. Kiefer
Builder American Locomotive Company
Serial number 69338
Build date November 1940
 • Whyte 4-8-2
 • UIC 2′D1′ h2
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Leading dia. 33 in (838 mm)
Driver dia. 69 in (1,753 mm)
Trailing dia. 44 in (1,118 mm)
Wheelbase 95 ft 11.5 in (29,248 mm)
Length 109 ft 6.5 in (33,388 mm)
Width 11 ft 0.875 in (3,375 mm)
Height 14 ft 11.5 in (4,559 mm)
Adhesive weight 262,000 lb (118.8 tonnes)
Loco weight 388,500 lb (176.2 tonnes)
Tender weight 302,240 lb (137.1 tonnes)
Tender type Rectangular, Water-bottom
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 43 Tons
Water cap 15,500 Gallons
Sandbox cap. 2700 lbs
Boiler pressure 250 lbf/in2 (1.72 MPa)
Feedwater heater Worthington 5 1/2 SA Heaters
Heating surface:
 • Tubes
7278 sq. ft
 • Flues 44948 sq. ft
 • Tubes and flues 4248 sq. ft
 • Firebox 373 sq. ft
 • Type Type E, 100-unit
 • Heating area 2080 sq. ft
Cylinders Two
Cylinder size 25.5 in × 30 in (648 mm × 762 mm)
Valve gear Baker
Valve type Piston valves
Train heating Yes
Loco brake Air
Train brakes Air
Performance figures
Maximum speed 80+ mph
Tractive effort 60,077 lbf (267.24 kN)
Factor of adh. 4.40
Operators New York Central Railroad
Class L-3a
Number in class 2
Numbers 3001
Official name Mohawk
Delivered December of 1940
First run December of 1940
Retired Feb. 14, 1957
Current owner Lakeshore Railroad Historical Foundation
Disposition On display at National New York Central Railroad Museum

New York Central 3001 is a 4-8-2 "Mohawk", (Mountain), type steam locomotive built in 1940 by the American Locomotive Company for the New York Central Railroad. Normally known as "Mountain" types, New York Central 4-8-2 steam locomotives were dubbed "Mohawk" types after the Mohawk River, which the New York Central followed. Built for dual service work, the 3001 was used heavily for freight and passenger trains until being retired in 1957. Today the locomotive is currently on display at the National New York Central Railroad Museum in Elkhart, Indiana. It is the largest New York Central steam locomotive still in existence and is one of only two surviving New York Central "Mohawks"; the other, No. 2933, is currently on display at the Museum of Transportation in St. Louis, MO.


In the late 1930s, when looking for heavier steam power to move freight and passenger trains swiftly, the New York Central looked at a dual service steam locomotive. The modern 1940 L3a from ALCo was able to move both heavy passenger trains and freights with relative ease. So, the NYC acquired both the L-3 and L-4 classes of Mohawks from the American Locomotive Company and Lima Locomotive Works from 1940 to 1943.

Service Life[edit]

New York Central No. 3001 is a member of the L-3a class of locomotives. Based in Ohio after the NYC dieselized east of Cleveland on August 7, 1953, the Mohawk powered many general freight and passenger trains, such as the 20th Century Limited. Until dieselization of that division in 1949, No. 3001 could often be seen hauling passenger trains on the Boston & Albany. No. 3001 was often used to haul freight trains due to many NYC Hudsons being occupied pulling passenger trains; in later years, diesel-electric locomotives hauled the passenger trains. In the final years of steam on the New York Central, the No. 3001 and other modern Mohawks were demoted to lighter trains; due to Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad (NYC subsidiary) 2-8-4 "Berkshires" and NYC 4-8-4 Niagaras handling increasingly heavier freight and passenger trains on the system. As diesels flooded the NYC, the No. 3001 and the other steam locomotives still in service saw the end coming nearer and nearer. No. 3001 was finally retired on February 14, 1957.


The New York Central sold L3a No. 3001 to Texas & Pacific Railroad in March 1957, to replace heavily vandalized and subsequently scrapped Texas & Pacific 2-10-4 No. 638 that was on display at the Texas State Fairgrounds there. The Texas & Pacific Railroad donated No. 3001 (disguised as Texas & Pacific No. 909) to the city of Dallas, TX. The city later donated No. 3001 (still disguised as Texas & Pacific No. 909) to the Museum of the American Railroad in Dallas. In May 1984, after trading Pennsylvania Railroad GG-1 No. 4903 to the Museum of the American Railroad, No. 3001 made its way east to Elkhart, IN after being acquired by the Lakeshore Railroad Historical Foundation. The sale to the Texas & Pacific Railroad is the sole reason why No. 3001 was not scrapped by the New York Central.

Today, No. 3001 is on display at the National New York Central Railroad Museum.

See also[edit]

PRR 6755- This is the Pennsylvania Railroad's version of the Mohawk that survives. Just like the 3001, the 6755 was a dual service locomotive.