New York City Police Commissioner

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Police Commissioner
of the City of New York
NYPD Commissioner.png
New York Police Department Commissioner's shield
James P Oneill.jpg
Incumbent
James P. O'Neill

since September 16, 2016
Style The Honorable
Appointer Mayor of New York City
Term length Five years
Renewable at Mayor's pleasure
Constituting instrument New York City Charter[1]
Inaugural holder George W. Matsell (as Superintendent)
Formation 1845
Deputy First Deputy Commissioner
Website Office of the Commissioner

The New York City Police Commissioner is the head of the New York City Police Department. The Commissioner is appointed by the Mayor, and serves at the Mayor's pleasure.[1] The Commissioner is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the department as well as the appointment of deputies and subordinate officers. Commissioners are civilian administrators, and they and their subordinate deputies are civilians under an oath of office, not uniformed members of the force who are sworn officers of the law. There is a separate position of Chief of Department, the holder of which serves as the senior sworn uniformed member of the force.[2]

Theodore Roosevelt, in one of his final acts as Governor of New York before becoming Vice President of the United States in March 1901, continued reforms he began when he was Police Superintendent by signing legislation that replaced the police commission and office of Police Chief (previously superintendent) with a single Police Commissioner.[3]

The current Police Commissioner is James P. O'Neill, who was appointed by Mayor Bill de Blasio and took office on September 19, 2016. The longest serving Commissioner was Raymond W. Kelly who served for 13 years in two separate appointments (1992–1994, 2002–2013), under Mayors David Dinkins and Michael Bloomberg, respectively.

List of Superintendents, Chiefs, and Commissioners[edit]

Pre-1901[edit]

Prior to 1901, the New York City Police Department was run by a board of four to six Commissioners. The following is a list of some of the most famous members of the Police Commission:

Post-1901[edit]

Since 1901, a single commissioner has been in charge of the New York Police Department. The following is a list of the commissioners:

Name Dates in Office Mayoral Administration
Michael Cotter Murphy[9][11][12] February 22, 1901 – January 1, 1902 Robert Van Wyck
John Nelson Partridge[13][14][15] January 1, 1902 – January 1, 1903 Seth Low
Francis Vinton Greene[16][17] January 1, 1903 – January 1, 1904 Seth Low
William McAdoo[18][19][20] January 1, 1904 – January 1, 1906 George Brinton McClellan, Jr.
Theodore A. Bingham[21][22] January 1, 1906 – July 1, 1909 George Brinton McClellan, Jr.
William Frazer Baker[23][24][25] July 1, 1909 – October 20, 1910 George Brinton McClellan, Jr., William Jay Gaynor
James Church Cropsey[24][26] October 20, 1910 – May 23, 1911 William Jay Gaynor
Rhinelander Waldo[27][28][29][30] May 23, 1911 – December 31, 1913 William Jay Gaynor, Ardolph Loges Kline
Douglas Imrie McKay[31][32][33] December 31, 1913 – April 8, 1914 Ardolph Loges Kline, John Purroy Mitchel
Arthur Hale Woods[34][35][36] April 8, 1914 – January 1, 1918 John Purroy Mitchel
Frederick Hamilton Bugher[37][38] January 1, 1918 – January 23, 1918 John Francis Hylan
Richard Edward Enright[39][40] January 23, 1918 – January 1, 1925 John Francis Hylan
George Vincent McLaughlin[41][42][43] January 1, 1926 – April 12, 1927 Jimmy Walker
Joseph A. Warren[44][45][46] April 12, 1927 – December 18, 1928 Jimmy Walker
Grover Aloysius Whalen[47][48][49] December 18, 1928 – May 21, 1930 Jimmy Walker
Edward Pierce Mulrooney[50][51][52] May 21, 1930 – April 11, 1933 Jimmy Walker, Joseph V. McKee, John P. O'Brien
James S. Bolan[53][54] April 15, 1933 – January 1, 1934 John P. O'Brien
John Francis O'Ryan[55][56][57] January 1, 1934 – September 25, 1934 Fiorello H. La Guardia
Lewis Joseph Valentine[58][59][60] September 25, 1934 – September 14, 1945 Fiorello H. La Guardia
Albert O. Williams[61] September 14, 1945 – September 23, 1945 (acting) Fiorello H. La Guardia
Arthur William Wallander[62][63][64] September 23, 1945 – February 28, 1949 Fiorello H. La Guardia, William O'Dwyer
William P. O'Brien[65] February 28, 1949 – September 25, 1950 William O'Dwyer, Vincent R. Impellitteri
Thomas Francis Murphy[66][67] February 21, 1950 – July 6, 1951 Vincent R. Impellitteri
George P. Monaghan[68][69][70] July 9, 1951 – January 1, 1953 Vincent R. Impellitteri
Francis William Holbrooke Adams[71] January 1, 1954 – August 2, 1955 Robert F. Wagner, Jr.
Stephen P. Kennedy[72][73] August 2, 1955 – February 23, 1961 Robert F. Wagner, Jr.
Michael J. Murphy[73][74][75] February 23, 1961 – June 7, 1965 Robert F. Wagner, Jr.
Vincent Lyons Broderick[76][77][78] June 7, 1965 – February 21, 1966 Robert F. Wagner, Jr., John V. Lindsay
Howard R. Leary[79][80][81] February 21, 1966 – October 9, 1970 John V. Lindsay
Patrick Vincent Murphy[82][83] October 9, 1970 – May 14, 1973 John V. Lindsay
Donald Francis Cawley[84][85] May 14, 1973 – January 1, 1974 John V. Lindsay
Michael Joseph Codd[86][87][88] January 1, 1974 – January 1, 1978 Abraham D. Beame
Robert Joseph McGuire[89][90][91][92] January 1, 1978 – December 30, 1983 Edward I. Koch
William J. Devine[91][92][93] December 30, 1983 – January 1, 1984 Edward I. Koch
Benjamin Ward[91][92][94] January 1, 1984 – October 23, 1989 Edward I. Koch
Richard J. Condon[95] October 23, 1989 – January 22, 1990 Edward I. Koch
Lee Patrick Brown[96][97][98] January 22, 1990 – September 1, 1992 David N. Dinkins
Raymond Walter Kelly[99] September 1, 1992 – October 16, 1992 (acting)
October 16, 1992 – January 1, 1994
David N. Dinkins
William Joseph Bratton[100] January 1, 1994 – April 15, 1996 Rudolph W. Giuliani
Howard Safir[101][102] April 15, 1996 – August 18, 2000 Rudolph W. Giuliani
Bernard Bailey Kerik[103] August 21, 2000 – January 1, 2002 Rudolph W. Giuliani
Raymond Walter Kelly[104] January 1, 2002 – January 1, 2014 (second appointment) Michael R. Bloomberg
William Joseph Bratton[105][106] January 1, 2014 – September 16, 2016 (second appointment) Bill De Blasio
James P. O'Neill[107][106] September 16, 2016- Bill De Blasio

In popular culture[edit]

In the popular TV show Blue Bloods, the fictional New York City Police Commissioner Frank Reagan is played by Tom Selleck.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "New York City Charter" (PDF). City of New York. 
  2. ^ "Administration of the New York Police Department". City of New York. 
  3. ^ "The Life of Theodore Roosevelt". National Park Service. 
  4. ^ Lankevich, George L. (1998). American Metropolis: A History of New York City. New York: NYU Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-8147-5186-5. 
  5. ^ "Death of George W. Matsell — Sketch of the Career of the Ex-Superintendent of Police — His Connection with the Riots of 1857". New York Times. July 26, 1877. Retrieved 2011-05-10. George Washington Matsell, ex-President of the Board of Police, and twice Superintendent of Police in the City, died at 7:10 A.M. yesterday, at his residence in East Fifty-eighth-street, after an illness extending over three weeks. At his bedside were his wife, three sons, and his daughter. He was conscious and... 
  6. ^ "John B. Sexton, Ex-Sheriff, Dead — Former Police and Health Commissioner Was a Power in Tammany Ten Years Ago — Leader of Old Nineteenth — But Defeated In 1903 by James J. Hagan, Who Routed "Old Timers" with Backing of Murphy". New York Times. April 2, 1910. p. 11. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  7. ^ "Chief M'Cullagh Out — Mayor Removes Two Police Commissioners and Appoints a New One — W.S. Devery is Acting Chief — Jacob Hess Succeeds T.L. Hamilton on the Board — Mr. Van Wyck Gives His Reasons for the Sudden Action in Most Emphatic Language". New York Times. May 22, 1898. p. 12. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  8. ^ "New Police Commissioner — Henry E. Abell of Brooklyn Is Named to Succeed William E. Philips — Place for John P. Windolph — He Is Appointed to Succeed Charles H. Murray on the Aqueduct Commission — William S. Devery Is Elected Chief of Police". New York Times. July 1, 1898. p. 12. Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  9. ^ a b "Col. Murphy New Head of Police Force — Appoints Devery as His First Deputy Commissioner — Gov. Odell Indignant — Thinks Ex-Chief's Retention Is An Affront and May Remove the Mayor — John B. Sexton President of the Health Board". New York Times. February 23, 1901. p. 1. Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  10. ^ "'Big Bill' Devery Dies of Apoplexy — New York's Picturesque Police Chief of Long Ago Stricken at Far Rockaway — Famed for His Philosophy — First "Chief of Police" City Had — Van Wyck Called Him the Best — Later Ran for Mayor". New York Times. June 21, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  11. ^ "Colonel Murphy Resigns — Police Commissioner Forestalls Removal by Mr. Low — Transfers Nine Captains and Sergeants — Devery to Renew His Claim to Title of Chief of Police". New York Times. January 1, 1902. p. 5. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  12. ^ "Death of Col. Murphy — Ex-Police Commissioner Succumbs to Old Stomach Trouble — His Civil War Record and Varied Career in New York City Democratic Politics". New York Times. March 5, 1903. p. 9. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  13. ^ "Col. Partridge Now Head Of The Police — He Succeeds Col. Murphy as Commissioner and Chief — Devery Loses His Place — The Deputy Commissioner Makes a Formal Protest Against His Removal — Col. Partridge's Address". New York Times. January 2, 1902. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  14. ^ "Police Commissioer Partridge Resigns — Says He Needs Rest and Intimates He Is Tired of Criticism — City Club Was to Have Demanded His Removal — Some of Those Mentioned as Likely to Succeed Him". New York Times. December 13, 1902. p. 1. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  15. ^ "Col. J.N. Partridge Dies at 82 Years — Police Commissioner of New York in 1902 Was Long Prominent in Public Life". New York Times. April 9, 1920. p. 13. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  16. ^ "Gen. Greene Is Chosen As Police Commissioner — Col. Partridge's Successor to Have Full Sway — West Point Graduate and Personal Friend of President Roosevelt and Gov. Odell". New York Times. December 24, 1902. p. 1. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  17. ^ "Gen. F.V. Greene Dies After Long Illness — Ex-Police Commissioner and Colonel of 71st Regt. Passes Away at His Home Here — In His Seventy-First Year — Had Long and Varied Career as Soldier, Author and Business Executive". New York Times. May 16, 1923. p. 15. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  18. ^ "New Mayor In Office — Col. McClellan's Address In Taking Over City Government — Promises to Administer Affairs in the Interest of All the People — Compliments His Predecessor on the Esteem Which He Has Earned". New York Times. January 2, 1904. p. 14. Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  19. ^ "M'Adoo Upbraids Mayor And Dismisses Eggers — Says Mr. McClellan Ignored Gentlemanly Usages — Howell Blamed For Split — Former Head of Vice Squad Threatens Disclosures, and Says He Will Fight for Vindication". New York Times. December 31, 1905. p. 3. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  20. ^ "Magistrate M'Adoo Dies Suddenly at 76 — Chief of Lower Courts for 20 Years Succumbs at His Home After Illness of 4 Days — In Public Life 50 Years — In Congress 4 Terms, Assistant Secretary of Navy and Once Police Commissioner". New York Times. June 8, 1930. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  21. ^ "To Enforce The Laws My Policy — Bingham — Backbone and Public Confidence Will Abolish Graft — Hopes to Close Poolrooms — That Is, If He Finds They Are Running — Daniel Slattery Gets Howell's Job". New York Times. December 31, 1905. p. 3. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  22. ^ "Gen. Bingham Dies at Summer Home — Former Police Commissioner of New York Succumbs in Canada at Age of 76 — Ruled With an Iron Hand — His Rugged Leadership Brougt Political Protests — Served in Bridge Department Also". New York Times. September 7, 1934. p. 21. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  23. ^ "Ousts Bingham, Puts Baker In — Mayor Acts Quickly When the Commissioner Refuses to Obey All His Orders — A Clean Sweep Follows — Hanson, Slattery, and Woods Resign — Stover Succeeds Hanson — Russell Reduced to Captain — "I'll Be Back" -- Bingham — Sees Politics in His Removal and Leaves Office Full of Fight — A Mr. Pratt May Take Charge in Brooklyn". New York Times. July 2, 1909. p. 1. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  24. ^ a b "Mayor Drops Police Heads; New Men In — Baker, Bugher, and Kirby Go — James C. Cropsey Is Made Commissioner — Driscoll First Deputy — Flynn, the Secret Service Head, Second Deputy and Chief of Detective Bureau — The Upheaval Sudden — The Appointees Hurry to Headquarters and Find Baker Locked in His Office — Bugher Attacks Gaynor — Says the Mayor Broke Faith with Him — His Honor Doesn't "Acquiesce" in That Statement". New York Times. October 21, 1910. p. 1. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  25. ^ "W.F. Baker Dead; Head of Phillies — President df National League Team of Philadelphia Stricken in Montreal — Once Police Head Here — Served Under Mayors McClellan and Gaynor — Manager of Coler's Campaign for Governor". New York Times. December 5, 1930. p. 25. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  26. ^ "James C. Cropsey, Jurist, Dies at 64 — Supreme Court Justice, Long Active in Legal Circles, Is Stricken in Brooklyn — Was Police Commissioner — Headed Department Here Short Time in 1910-11 — Later Kings County District Attorney". New York Times. June 17, 1937. p. 23. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  27. ^ "Gaynor Puts Waldo In Cropsey's Place — Tells Him to Banish Favoritism from Police as He Did from Fire Department — Inspector O'Brien Out — Cropsey's Last Official Act — Resigned Thursday After a Tilt — Croker or O'Keeffe for Fire Head". New York Times. May 24, 1911. p. 1. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  28. ^ "Waldo Resigns; Will Go Wednesday — Police Department Headless When Mayor Mitchel's Administration Begins — Protest From Mayor Kline — Commissioner Rescinds Order Transferring Heads of Bureaus and His Personal Staff". New York Times. December 30, 1913. p. 1. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  29. ^ "Kline Ousts Waldo — Calls Him Childish — Willing to Break Down Police Department to Satisfy His Pique, Mayor Writes — Puts McKay In His Place — Waldo Hurries Out of Town After Telling Kline Removal is Illegal — McKay Revises His Orders". New York Times. January 1, 1914. p. 1. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  30. ^ "Col. Waldo, 50, Dies Of Septic Poisoning — Former Police and Fire Head Succumbs at Garrison, N.Y., of an Old Ailment — Served in the Philippines — Arduous Labors There Blamed for Fatal Illness — Storm Centre While In Office Here". New York Times. August 14, 1927. p. 28. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  31. ^ "Mitchel Names His City Helpers — Henry Bruere City Chamberlain, Adamson Fire Commissioner, as Predicted — John T. Featherston, Recognized Expert, to Clean the Streets — Miss Davis Commissioner — Republicans Get Many Places, Progressives Two, Independent Democrats the Rest". New York Times. January 1, 1914. p. 1. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  32. ^ "Mayor To Remodel The Police Himself — Will Do the Best He Can Under the Existing Law, Since He Can't Change That — But Goethals Is Out Of It — The Assembly, by Its Action, Has Eliminated Him as a Commissioner, He Says Regretfully". New York Times. March 26, 1914. p. 16. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  33. ^ "Douglas I. M'Kay, Ex-City Aide, Dies — Police Commissioner in '14 — Revived Revived the Line-Up". New York Times. September 28, 1962. p. 33. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  34. ^ "Woods To Become Police Head To-Day — Mayor Names His Private Secretary Commissioner "For the Full Term" — Two Will Shape Policy — But Woods Will Direct Its Carrying Out — Deputies May Stay — $1,000 For Honor Legion Fund". New York Times. April 8, 1914. p. 9. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  35. ^ "Woods Will Quite When Mayor Does — Police Commissioner Announces He Will Leave His Office on Dec. 31 — Shows Loyalty to Friend — Tammany Is Guessing Who Will Succeed Him, While Murphy Says He Will Suggest No One". New York Times. November 10, 1917. p. 4. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  36. ^ "Arthur Woods, 72, Is Dead In Capital — Police Commissioner Here in 1914 to '18 Introduced New Methods of Enforcement — Air Colonel With A.E.F. — Sociologist, Former Reporter, Taught Roosevelt at Groton — Wed Late J.P. Morgan Kin". New York Times. May 13, 1942. p. 19. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  37. ^ "Named By Hylan For Big City Posts — Alfred J. Johnson, City Chamberlain, Has Prominent Wall Street Connections — Many Veterans Appointed — Bird S. Coler, W.P. Burr, N.J. Hayes, J.A. Cantor, and Arthur Murphy All on the List". New York Times. January 2, 1918. p. 3. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  38. ^ "Hylan Tells Why He 'Fired' Bugher; His 23-Day-Policy Commissioner Was Only 'Negatively Honest,' Kiwanis Hear". The New York Times. October 20, 1921. Retrieved February 8, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Hylan Forces Bugher Out; Names Enright — Police Commissioner Resigns After Protesting That Mayor Hampered His Work — Split Over Appointees — Mayor Ousts Commissioner for Alleged Attitude Toward Motor Cycle Scandal — 'Pretext,' Says Bugher — Police Lieutenant, Summoned from Station Duty, Hurriedly Takes Charge of the Department". New York Times. January 24, 1918. p. 1. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  40. ^ "R.E. Enright Dies; Headed City Police — Commissioner Under Hylan, First to Rise From Ranks, Had Been Hurt in Fall — Organized Vice Squad — His Eight Years in Office Set Record for Length at Time — Eased Work Conditions". New York Times. September 5, 1953. p. 15. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  41. ^ "Walker Now Mayor — Dr. Louis I. Harris Named Health Head — New Mayor Picks Aids for All Posts but One — Formal Induction at Noon — Satisfied With Selections — Many Hylan Heads Retained — McCooey and Connelly Fare Well in Job Distribution. Nicholson to Stay a Year — Corporation Counsel Then to Quit on a Pension — Senator Downing Expected to Succeed Him". New York Times. January 1, 1926. p. 1. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  42. ^ "M'Lauglin Quites Police Force For $75,000 MacKay Polst; Warren To Succeed Him — Resignation Is Sudden — He and All Leaders Deny Politics or Gambling Raids Caused Action — Some Glee in Tammany — Commissioner, Not Yet 40, Is Said to Be Slated for Head of Cable Companies — Many Praise His Record — Warren Now in Accounts Post — Dates for Shift to Be Fixed Today — Police Sorrowful". New York Times. March 30, 1927. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  43. ^ "George McLaughlin, Banker, 80, Dies; Tried to Stamp Out Gambling". New York Times. December 8, 1967. p. 42. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  44. ^ "Warren Is Inducted As New Police Head; Outlines His Aims — Commissioner in First Speech Pledges He Will Follow McLaughlin's Policies — The Mayor Backs Him Up — "Outside Influences" Won't Be Tolerated — McLaughlin in Farewell Reviews Rookies — He Extols The Force — Finest in the World, His Final Official Word to 1,040 Recruits at the City Hall". New York Times. April 13, 1927. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  45. ^ "Warren Resigns; Shake-Up Is Likely Among Police Aides — Quitting, Commissioner Wants Deputies to Stay, but Walker In—dicates Some Will Go — Free Hand For Successor — Mayor Sees Whalen to Urge Him to Take Post After Praising Work of Retiring Official — Dec. 31 Fixed by Warren — But Wishes to Return to Law Earlier — Paterson and McCarthy, Ex-Federal Marshal, Considered". New York Times. December 14, 1928. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  46. ^ "Warren Dies At 47, A Victim Of Strain As Head Of Police; Former Commissioner Succumbs to a Stroke in Sanitarium After Steady Decline — Worn by Rothstein Case — Murder Caused Displacement, Ending Public Career Which Began in Assembly in 1911 — Police to Lower Flags — Ensigns on All Manhattan Public Buildings Also Ordered at Half Staff — Funeral on Friday". New York Times. August 14, 1929. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  47. ^ "Whalen Takes Police Post; All Deputies Will Resign To Make Way For Shake-Up; Demand Made For Loyalty — Commissioner Plans to Begin Reforms Today on Efficiency Basis — Bans 'Back-Door' Orders — Expects All His Instructions to Be Obeyed as Issued, He Informs Department. Walker Swears Him In — He Promptly Calls Inspectors for Parley This Afternoon — Flowers Fill His Office". New York Times. December 19, 1928. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  48. ^ "Whalen Wrought Changes In Police — Reorganized Machinery of the Force, Added 4,000 Men and Rewarded Good Work — Took Post at End of 1928 — Commissioner First Entered Public Affairs as Hyian Campaign Aide-- Joined Walker Ranks in 1925". New York Times. May 21, 1930. p. 20. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  49. ^ "Grover A. Whalen Dies at 75; Made City's Welcome Famous; Led World's Fair in '39 and '40 — Police Commissioner Under Mayor Walker". New York Times (April 21, 1962). p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  50. ^ "Mulrooney Sworn; Policy Is Restraint — "Won't Be Rash," Declares New Police Chief, Promising to Keep Whalen Innovations — City Hall Ceremony Brief — Walker Lauds Career — Veteran of Department Abashed by Headquarters Ceremonies". New York Times. May 22, 1930. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  51. ^ "Mulrooney To Quit Police Post Today — He Will Hand His Resignation to Mayor O'Brien at the City Hall — Successor Not Picked — McAndrew, Hoyt, Hoey and Inspectors Sullivan and Cummings Are Mentioned as Timber". New York Times. April 11, 1933. p. 2. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  52. ^ "Edward Mulrooney, 85, Dead; Police Commissioner 1930-33 — Also First Chairman of State Alcoholic Beverage Control — Held Correction Post". New York Times. May 1, 1960. p. 86. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  53. ^ "Bolan Heads Police As Choice Of Curry; Plans No Shake-Up — O'Brien, Swearing In the New Commissioner, Exhorts Him to Keep Free of Politics — Pledges Him Free Hand — McCooey, Disappointed in the Choice, Praises Appointee as a 'Fine Fellow' — Won Fame as a Raider — New Chief It Backed by Anti-Vice Society and Trade Groups — Walsh Gets His Command". New York Times. April 16, 1933. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  54. ^ "James Bolan Dies; Headed City Police — Commissioner for 8 Months in 1933 Was 79 — Served 37 Years in Department". New York Times. May 27, 1952. p. 27. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  55. ^ "LaGuardia Moves to Clean Up City; Starts Hunt for Graft in Bureaus; Tammany Organizes the Alderman — Mayor Swears in Aides — Tells Each to Remove 'Every One' if Needed to Get Efficiency — Pledges Them Free Hand — Politicians No Longer Will Interfere With Prisons or Relief, He Says — First Day Is Strenuous — New Executive Leaves Home at 8:28 A.M., Does Not Quit City Hall Till 6:30.". New York Times. January 2, 1934. p. 1. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  56. ^ "O'Ryan Accuses Mayor Of Undue Interference, Thus Encouraging Crime — Reviews Their Disputes — Statement Says 'Tirade' on Sept. 13 Brought Things to a Climax — General Quit That Night — Charges LaGuardia Disrupted Morale of the Force — Finds Their Views Far Apart — Fears for Public Safety — Believes Disorderly Elements Have Gained Impression City Hall Is Backing Them". New York Times. September 25, 1934. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  57. ^ "Gen. O'Ryan Dead; Headed The 27th — Commander of Division in France, 85, Was Police Commissioner in 1934 — Partner in Law Firm — Former Head of New York National Guard Was State Civilian Defense Director". New York Times. January 31, 1961. p. 29. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  58. ^ "LaGuardia Calls O'Ryan's Charges 'False, Malicious' — Says His Criticisms Are Those of 'an Ill-Tempered Former Police Official' — Valentine Takes Post — New Commissioner Asserts '2% of Force Are Potential Scandals and Disgraces'". New York Times. September 26, 1934. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  59. ^ "Valentine Retires; La Guardia Delays Naming Successor — Mayor Tells Police at Promotion Ceremonies New Head Will Come From Ranks". New York Times. September 15, 1945. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  60. ^ "Lewis J. Valentine Dies In Hospital, 64 — Former Police Commissioner, 42 Years in Department, Had Been Ill Since Japan Trip — Served in Post 1934-45 — Helped Reorganize System for MacArthur in East — Known as Stern and Fearless". New York Times. December 17, 1946. p. 31. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  61. ^ "Mayor Will Name Police Head Soon — La Guardia at Headquarters in Quest of a Man to Succeed Valentine". New York Times. September 18, 1945. p. 40. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  62. ^ "Wallander Sworn In Radio Ceremony — Police Commissioner Takes Oath in an Air Drama Staged by La Guardia". New York Times. September 24, 1945. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  63. ^ "Wallander Finishes His Career As 'Cop'". New York Times. March 1, 1949. p. 50. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  64. ^ Waggoner, Walter H. (November 5, 1980). "Arthur Wallander, Commissioner of Police of New York City in '40's". New York Times. p. B16. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  65. ^ "O'Brien Out As Police Head; Murphy Of Hiss Case Named; Jury Asks Reform Of Force — Climax of Inquiry — Retiring Commissioner Says Gambling Quest Forces His Step — His Integrity Defended — Impelliteri and O'Dwyer Voice Praise — Choice of New Aide Wins Wide Acceptance". New York Times. September 26, 1920. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  66. ^ "Police Commissioner Sworn In For Five Year Term". New York Times. February 22, 1951. p. 50. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  67. ^ "Murphy Sworn In As Federal Judge — Crowd Watches as Goddard Administers Oath — Ranking Police Officials Present". New York Times. July 7, 1951. p. 17. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  68. ^ "Monaghan Sworn As Head Of Police — Promotion of 9 to Lieutenants His Last Act in Retiring as Fire Commissioner". New York Times. July 10, 1951. p. 23. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  69. ^ "Police Official Ending 42 Years in Service". New York Times. December 31, 1953. p. 8. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  70. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (September 7, 1986). "George Monaghan, 85, Dead — Ex-Harness Racing Official". New York Times. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  71. ^ Crowell, Paul (January 2, 1954). "Wagner Pledges His Best To City At Inauguration — Mayor, in Ceremony, Voices Aims for Housing, Schools, Health and Security — Swears in His 36 Aides — Moses Retained in All Three Posts — Impellitteri Will Get His Judgeship Today". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  72. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (August 3, 1955). "Kennedy New Police Head; Nielson Is Chief Inspector". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  73. ^ a b Barrett, George (February 23, 1961). "Police Head Resigns Job; Accuses Mayor Of 'Drift' On Salary Rise For Force — Murphy is Named — Wagner Picks Chief Inspector — Refuses Promise on Pay". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  74. ^ Madden, Richard L. (May 19, 1965). "Murphy Quits as Police Commissioner — Denies Plan for Board Review is Issue". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  75. ^ Richardson, Lynda (May 18, 1997). "Michael J. Murphy, 83, Dies; Led New York Police in 1960's". New York Times. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  76. ^ Phillips, McCandlish (June 8, 1965). "Broderick Begins His Police Duties — New Commissioner Asks for 'Sympathetic' Avenues of 2-Way Communication — Would Revise Lexicon — Urges Public and Own Men to Drop 'Incendiary' Words — Sworn In by Mayor". New York Times. p. 43. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  77. ^ Weinraub, Bernard (February 22, 1966). "Broderick's Day: 'I Hate Leaving' — 11 Hours of Farewells and Advice Strain His Calm". New York Times. p. 20. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  78. ^ van Gelder, Lawrence (March 7, 1995). "Vincent Broderick, Federal Judge, Is Dead at 74". New York Times. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  79. ^ Pace, Eric (February 22, 1966). "Lindsay Attacks Critics on Police; Leary is Sworn In — 'Desperate Voices' That Say Force 'Is Law Unto Itself' Are Scored by Mayor — Responsibilities Cited — Speech Called 'Regrettable' by Adams — Broderick Goes on Skiing Trip". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  80. ^ Burnham, David (October 1, 1970). "Murphy Reported Seeking New Top Police Command". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
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