New York City Sheriff's Office

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Office of the Sheriff of the City of New York
Common name New York City Sheriff's Office
Motto New York's First
Agency overview
Formed 1942
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdiction* City of New York in the state of New York, U.S.
Map of New York Highlighting New York City.svg
Map of Office of the Sheriff of the City of New York's jurisdiction.
Size 1,214.4 km²
Population 8,274,527
Legal jurisdiction New York state
General nature
Operational structure
Deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators 150
Agency executive Joseph Fucito, Sheriff of the City of New York
Parent agency New York City Department of Finance
Facilities
County Field Offices

5

Website
Official website
Footnotes
* Divisional agency: Division of the country, over which the agency has usual operational jurisdiction.

The New York City Sheriff's Office, officially the Office of the Sheriff of the City of New York, is the primary civil law enforcement agency of New York City.[1] The Sheriff's Office is a division of the New York City Department of Finance, operating as both its criminal and civil law enforcement arm.[2] The Sheriff's Office is headed by a sheriff, who is appointed to the position by the mayor, unlike most sheriffs in the State of New York who are elected officials.[3] The sheriff is the chief civil law enforcement officer for the City of New York, and automatically holds the position of deputy commissioner in the Department of Finance. The sheriff holds jurisdiction over all five county-boroughs within the city, with a subordinate undersheriff in charge of each one. Deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators of various ranks carry out the daily law enforcement duties of the Sheriff's Office.

History[edit]

The New York City Sheriff's Office originated in 1626 as the New York County Sheriff's Office. Originally each of the city's five county-boroughs had their own sheriff, each of which held the widest law enforcement jurisdiction in their respective county-borough. Like most sheriffs in the United States, these office holders were elected to their positions. Once the city was consolidated in 1898, the New York City Police Department took over responsibility for criminal investigations throughout the entire city, while the sheriffs continued to focus on civil law enforcement and administering the county prison systems. Sheriffs were compensated by charging fees for enforcing civil orders in addition to keeping a monetary percentage (known as poundage) of what their office would seize. By 1915, plans were made by the Commissioner of Accounts to alter the way sheriffs were compensated to include a determined salary instead of having the office holder personally retain fees and poundage. Although fees and poundage would still be charged by sheriffs, the monies would be retained for their respective county's use only. [4] In 1938, the first female deputy sheriff was appointed.[5]

On January 1, 1942, each of the city's five county sheriff's offices were merged to become the Office of the Sheriff of the City of New York. The city's five county sheriffs were abolished and replaced with borough "chief deputies" (later undersheriffs) reporting to the now mayorally-appointed city-wide sheriff. A contemporary report of the changes emphasized professionalization of the office, which had become notorious for employing political patronage beneficiaries. The new top five commanders were "all college graduates" and "lawyers like their chief, who promises to keep out politics".[6] At the same time, the sheriff's former responsibility for running prison systems was transferred to the newly established New York City Department of Correction.[7]

Chain of command[edit]

Title Insignia Badge Design Uniform Shirt Color
Sheriff
4 Gold Stars.svg
Medallion with eagle and Four stars
White
First Deputy Sheriff
3 Gold Stars.svg
Medallion with eagle and Three stars
White
Chief of Staff
3 Gold Stars.svg
Medallion with eagle and Three stars
White
Undersheriff
1 Gold Star.svg
Medallion with eagle and One star
White
Deputy Sheriff - Lieutenant
US-O1 insignia.svg
Medallion with Rank
White
Deputy Sheriff - Sergeant
NYPD Sergeant Stripes.svg
Shield with eagle
Dark Blue
Deputy Sheriff
Blank.jpg
Shield
Dark Blue

In order to be appointed as deputies, candidates must first pass a civil service entrance examination and meet strong educational/experiential requirements. Candidates must also pass medical and psychological examinations, physical ability tests, and a full background investigation. In addition to deputy sheriffs, the Sheriff's Office employs sworn criminal investigators and an assortment of civilian support personnel.

As of June 2014, Joseph Fucito was appointed the 121st Sheriff of the City of New York. Sheriff Fucito has over 25 years of experience in the New York City Sheriff's Office, and came up through the ranks of deputy sheriff. He has commanded a wide variety of units and county offices, and also served as acting sheriff two separate times before his official appointment to sheriff.[8]

Structure[edit]

The New York City Sheriff's Office is composed of three sections: Operations, Intelligence, and Support.

Operations Section

The Operations Section is composed of the five county field offices and certain units working city-wide. Within the county field offices, deputy sheriffs assigned to civil law enforcement duties are referenced as Law Enforcement Bureau (LEB) personnel. LEB deputies perform a wide array of tasks such as evictions,[9] warrants of arrest,[10] orders to commit, and the seizure and sale of property pursuant to judicial mandates.[11][12] Businesses and individuals that owe the city money pursuant to unpaid city tax warrants, environmental control board summons, and fire and health code violation fines, are targeted for enforcement action. LEB deputies also serve a wide variety of legal process,[13] with orders of protection considered a priority. Each county field office is complemented by civilian support staff to assist in daily administrative functions and customer service. These field offices are accessible to the public, giving citizens of the county/borough a local place to file court process in need of enforcement.[14] Deputies of the Operations Section may be assigned to duties separate from the LEB, either within a county field office or city-wide. These duties include arrests and apprehensions on behalf of other city agencies such as the Human Resources Administration, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and the Administration for Children's Services. Deputies may be assigned to scofflaw enforcement or security duties at the city treasury. The Operations Section will also provide deputies for any other assignment as deemed necessary by the agency.

Intelligence Section

The Intelligence Section is composed of the Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BCI) and the Intelligence Unit. The BCI investigates city tax crimes,[15] real property larceny/deed fraud,[16][17] synthetic narcotic enforcement (such as spice/K2 and bath salts)[18] and other offenses against the Department of Finance. The Intelligence Unit collects, analyzes, and disseminates information from various sources to be readily available for agency use. Intelligence Section personnel include criminal investigators, deputy sheriffs, and civilian support personnel.

Support Section

The Support Section handles communications, property disposition, evidence destruction and field support services for the entire agency. Support Section personnel include deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators.

In addition to these organizational sections, the Sheriff's Office is served by a Chaplain Support Unit and a Medical Support Unit.

Power and authority[edit]

Deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators are New York State peace officers and are authorized to make warrantless arrests, issue summonses, conduct vehicle stops, carry and use firearms, batons, pepper spray, handcuffs, and use physical and deadly force. Deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators have peace officer status both on-duty and off-duty. Deputy sheriffs receive their peace officer status pursuant to the New York State Criminal Procedure Law (CPL) §2.10 subdivision 2, while criminal investigators receive their peace officer status from CPL §2.10 subdivision 5.

Deputy sheriffs are also civil law enforcement officers with authorization to enforce the New York State Civil Practice Law and Rules (CPLR) concerning civil procedure.[19]

Fallen officers[edit]

Since the establishment of the sheriff's offices throughout the five counties of New York City, seven sworn officers have died in the line of duty.[20]

Officer Department Date of Death Details
Deputy Sheriff Isaac Smith Bronx County Sheriff's Office, NY
Thursday, May 17, 1792
Gunfire
Deputy Sheriff Henry Wendelstorf Queens County Sheriff's Department, NY
Friday, June 25, 1897
Assault
Sheriff Paul Stier Queens County Sheriff's Department, NY
Friday, October 13, 1916
Gunfire
Keeper Morris Broderson Bronx County Sheriff's Office, NY
Thursday, July 19, 1928
Gunfire
Keeper Daniel D. Horgan Bronx County Sheriff's Office, NY
Thursday, July 19, 1928
Gunfire
Deputy Sheriff John T. Miller Queens County Sheriff's Department, NY
Thursday, March 30, 1939
Automobile accident
Deputy Sheriff Fred D'Amore Queens County Sheriff's Department, NY
Thursday, March 30, 1939
Automobile accident

Historical sheriffs[edit]

New York City[edit]

Effective January 1, 1942, one city-wide sheriff began serving all five counties within the City of New York. The following is a list of the city-wide sheriffs since the original five county positions were merged. The position is appointed by the Mayor of New York City.

Order Name Term Notes and references
106 John J. McCloskey 1942-1971 [21] He was the first to serve all 5 counties.
107 H. William Kehl 1971-1973
108 Joseph P. Brennan 1973-1974
109 Frederick Weinberger 1974-1975 Acting sheriff
110 Edward A. Pichler 1975-1987
111 Vincent M. Pharao 1987-1989
112 Harry Weisberg 1989-1990 Acting sheriff
113 Philip A. Crimaldi 1990-1994
114 Kerry Katsorhis 1994-1995
115 Raul Russi 1995-1996
116 Teresa Mason 1996-2000
117 Henry Coira 2001-2001 Acting sheriff
118 Caliph T. Mathis 2001-2002
119 Lindsay Eason 2002-2010
120 Joseph Fucito 2010-2011 Acting sheriff
121 Edgar A. Domenech 2011-2014 He is the 121st Sheriff of New York City including acting sheriffs in the count. "Mr. Domenech will become the city’s 117th sheriff [excluding acting sheriffs] and will oversee a staff of 174 employees, including 118 deputy sheriffs, and an annual budget of $16 million."[22]
122 Joseph Fucito 2014-present

Kings County[edit]

See: Category:Sheriffs of Kings County, New York
Name Term Notes and references
Sheriff Stillwell 1683-1685 Term began in October
Roeloff Martense 1685-1686 Term began in October
Gerrit Strycker 1686-1690 Term began in October
Myndert Coerten 1690-1691 Term began on December 13, 1690
Gerrit Strycker 1691-1694 Term began on March 21, 1691
Jacobus Kiersted 1694-1698 Term began in May 24, 1694
Englebert Lott 1698-1699 Term began in October
John Elbertson 1699-1700 Term began in October
Benjamin Vandewater 1700-1702 October
Richard Stillwell 1702-1715 October
Benjamin Vandewater 1715-1717 October. This was his second non-consecutive term.
Tunis Lott 1717-1730 October
Dominicus Vanderveer 1730-1736 October. This was his second non-consecutive term.
Peter Strycker 1736-1738 October
Dominicus Vanderveer 1738-1740 Term started on February 24, 1738
Jacobus Ryder 1740-1754 October
Maurice Lott 1754-1762 October
Rem Vanderbilt 1762-1763 October
Jeremiah Vanderbilt 1763-1766 October
Nicholas Couwenhoven 1766 Term began in October
Alexander Forbush 1766-1767 Term started on November 24, 1766
Rutger Van Brunt 1767-1784 Term began in October
William Boerum 1784-1785 Term began on February 4
Peter Vandervoort 1785-1788 Term began on September 28
Charles Turnbull (sheriff) 1788-1791 Term began on December 29
John Vanderveer 1791-1793 Term began on March 8
Cornelius Bergen 1793-1797 Term began on February 18, 1793
Peter S. Cortelyou 1797-1800 Term began on February 7, 1797
Cornelius Bergen 1800-1804 Term began on February 17, 1800
John Schoonmaker 1804-1807 Term began on February 16
Benjamin Birdsall (sheriff) 1807-1810 Term began on March 9
John Dean (sheriff) 1810-1811 Term began on February 26, 1810.
Abiel Titus 1811 Term began on February 5
William D. Creed 1811-1813 Term began on June 5
John Dean (sheriff) 1813-1815 Term began on March 23
Lawrence Brower 1815-1817 Term began on March 28
Jacob Garrison 1817 Term began on March 19
John Wyckoff (sheriff) 1817-1821 Term began on August 29
John Teunis Bergen (1786-1855) 1821-1822 Term began on February 12, 1821.[23]
John Teunis Bergen (1786-1855) 1822-1825 Term began in November of 1822.
John Wyckoff 1825-1828 November
John Teunis Bergen 1828-1831 Term began in November of 1828. He resigned from office. This was his second non-consecutive term.
John Lawrence (sheriff) 1831-1834 He was appointed vice sheriff (acting sheriff) on March 15, 1831 to replace John Teunis Bergen, who had resigned.
John Van Dyne 1834-1937 November
William M. Udall 1837-1841 November
Francis B. Strycker 1841-1843 November
William Jenkins (sheriff) 1843-1846 November
Daniel Van Voorhies 1846-1849 November
Andrew B. Hodges 1849-1852 November
Englebert Lott 1852-1855 November
Jerome Ryerson 1855-1857 November. He died in office.
George Remson 1857 Appointed vice sheriff (acting sheriff) on April 3, 1857 to complete the term of Jerome Ryerson.
Burdett Stryker 1857-1860 November
Anthony F. Campbell 1860-1863 November
John McNamee (sheriff) 1863-1866 November
Patrick Campbell (sheriff) 1866-1869 November
Andrew Walter (sheriff) 1869-1872 November
Aras G. Williams 1872-1875 November
Albert Daggett 1875-1878 November
Thomas M. Riley 1878-1881 November
Lewis R. Stegman 1881-1884 Term began in November.[24][25]
Charles B. Farley 1884-1887 November
Clark D. Rhinehart 1887-1890 November
John Courtney (sheriff) 1890-1893
William J. Buttling 1893-1898 November
Frank D. Creamer (1859-1913) 1898-1900 [26]
William Waltton 1900-1902
Charles S. Guden 1902 He was removed from office by Governor Benjamin Odell in 1902.[27]
Norman Staunton Dike, Sr. (1862-1953) 1902-1904 He was born in 1862. He was appointed as vice sheriff (acting sheriff) by Governor Benjamin Odell in 1902 to complete the term of Sheriff Guden.[27] He died on April 15, 1953.[27][28]
Henry Hesterberg 1904-1908
Alfred T. Hobley 1908-1910 He was elected on November 5, 1907 and took office on January 1, 1908.
J. S. Shea 1910-1912 Crowley Wentworth (1869-1928) was the deputy sheriff.[29]
Julis Harburger 1912-1913
Charles Blakeslee Law (1872–1929) 1913-1914 Term expired on December 31, 1913.[30]
Lewis M. Swasey 1914-1915 Term expired on December 31, 1915
Edward J. Riegelmann (1870–1941) 1916-1917 [31]
Daniel Joseph Griffin (1880-1926) 1918-1919 He was born in 1880. His term expired on December 31, 1919. He died in 1926.[32]
John Drescher 1920-1921 Term expired on December 31, 1921
P. B. Seery 1922-1923 Term expired on December 31, 1923
John N. Harman 1924-1925 > He was the Park Commissioner prior to sheriff. Term expired on December 31, 1925
Frank J. Taylor 1927-1928 Term expired on December 31, 1928
Herman M. Hessberg 1929-1930 Term expired on December 31, 1930

Queens County[edit]

Name Term Notes and references
Sheriff Quinn 1910
Paul Stier ? to 1916 He died on October 13, 1916 while trying to arrest Frank Taff at Whitestone Landing.[33]

New York County[edit]

See: Category:Sheriffs of New York County, New York

The first Sheriff of New York County was in office in 1626. Prior to 1942 the Sheriff of New York County was an elected position.

Name Term Notes and references
Marinus Willett (1740-1830) 1784-1787
Peter Hercules Wendover (1768-1834) 1822-1825 [34]
Jacob Westervelt (1794-1881) 1831-1834
John Jacob V.B. Westervelt (1805–1866) 1846-1849
Sheriff Orser 1853
Sheriff Willett 1853
Aaron B. Rollins (1818-1878) 1853 to 1859 Deputy sheriff.[35]
James O'Brien (1841-1907) 1867 [36][37]
Sheriff Brennan 1872
William C. Conner 1874
Bernard Reilly ? to 1880 [38]
Peter Bowe (1833-1903) 1880 to ? He was born in 1833 in Ireland.[39] He was elected sheriff in November of 1879 on the Irving Hall ticket, and took office on January 1, 1880. Joel O. Stevens was his Under-Sheriff and Daniel E. Finn, Sr. (1845-1910) was his Deputy Sheriff.[38] He died on March 2, 1903.[39]
Bernard F. Martin, (1845-1914) circa 1885 Deputy sheriff.[40]
Hugh J. Grant (1858-1910) 1887 to 1888 He later served as the 88th Mayor of New York City
Daniel Edgar Sickles (1819-1914) 1890
Edward J.H. Tamsen, Sr. (1849-1907) 1895 to 1896 He was born in Hamburg, Germany in 1849. He was elected sheriff of New York County in November of 1894. Governor Levi Parsons Morton removed him from office in 1896.[41] He died on July 24, 1907.
Nicholas J. Hayes (1856-1928) ? to 1907 [42][43]
Thomas F. Foley 1908 to 1910 He was elected in November 1907 and took office on January 1, 1908.[42]
Julius Harburger (1850-1914) 1911 to 1913 [44]
Daniel E. Finn, Jr. (1880–1949) ?
Al Smith (1873-1944) 1915 "As a reward for faithful service, Tammany's leaders named Mr. Smith as their candidate for Sheriff of New York while the convention was still in session. At that time the office of Sheriff was still on the fee system and was worth at least $50,000 (approximately $1,170,000 today) a year to the incumbent." Note: This number appears too large to be accurate.[45]
Peter Joseph Dooling (1857-1931) 1924 [46]
James George Donovan (1898-1987) 1934 to 1941 Undersheriff.[47] After 1941 one sheriff served all five counties.

Richmond County[edit]

See Category:Sheriffs of Richmond County, New York
Name Term Notes and references
Harman Barkaloo Cropsey, Jr. (circa 1775-?) 1829 to 1831
William J. Dempsey ? to 1941 He was the last Sheriff of Richmond County, New York before the office became the New York City Sheriff's Office.[48][49]

Bronx County[edit]

See: Category:Sheriffs of Bronx County, New York
Name Term Notes and references
Edward Joseph Flynn (1891-1953) 1922 to 1925

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Divisions". NYC Department of Finance. 
  2. ^ http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/nycode/NYC/58/1526 "New York City Charter § 1526 Office of city sheriff. 1. There shall be within the department an office of the city sheriff which shall be subject to the supervision and control of the commissioner of finance. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the commissioner of finance may exercise or assign within the department such management functions of the office of the sheriff, including but not limited to those functions related to the appointment and removal of deputy sheriffs and other personnel of such office pursuant to the civil service law, as he or she may deem appropriate to achieve effective and efficient functioning and management of such office. 2. Except as otherwise provided by law, the city sheriff shall exercise the functions, powers and duties formerly exercised by the sheriffs of the several counties.
  3. ^ http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/nycode/NYC/58/1502 "The mayor may appoint three deputy commissioners. In addition, the mayor shall appoint one deputy commissioner whose functions shall be to serve as the city sheriff. The commissioner and deputy commissioners shall provide a bond. The first deputy commissioner shall supervise and be responsible for the operations of the parking violations bureau."
  4. ^ "Fees Of $400,000 To Five Sheriffs. Commissioner Wallstein Reports Collections Made by the Officials in Nine Years. In Favor of Bill Which Proposes to Limit Income of the Office to a Salary". New York Times. February 25, 1915. 
  5. ^ "Woman Named Sheriff's Aide". New York Times. January 5, 1938. 
  6. ^ "McCLOSKEY PICKS HIS 5 CHIEF AIDES". New York Times. 2 January 1942. Retrieved 9 January 2012. 
  7. ^ McKinley, Jesse. "F.Y.I.", The New York Times, November 27, 1994. Accessed January 21, 2008. "Established in 1626, the Sheriff's office in Manhattan and its equivalents in the other boroughs served as a major part of the patchwork of law-enforcement agencies that existed before the city's consolidation in 1898. After that, the new New York City Police Department took over the responsibility for criminal investigations and arrests. Prior to the merger into one department, the sheriff was responsible for maintaining the city jails and maintained custody over all inmates sentenced or awaiting trial for criminal cases. In 1941, The city charter was amended by public referendum votes to transfer custodial duties of inmates in criminal cases to the New York City Department of Correction. Today, the city sheriff's primary duties are enforcing court-ordered judgments and fines, including unpaid parking tickets and littering fines, and collecting judgments from reluctant losers in private lawsuits, said John George, the Sheriff's executive assistant. "
  8. ^ Matthew Taub. "Talking Deed Fraud With the City Sheriff and Finance Commissioner - Brooklyn Brief". Brooklyn Brief. 
  9. ^ "Evictions". NYC Department of Finance. 
  10. ^ "sheriff-arrest-warrants". NYC Department of Finance. 
  11. ^ "sheriff-collecting-judgments". NYC Department of Finance. 
  12. ^ "Collecting Judgments & Orders of Seizure". NYC Department of Finance. 
  13. ^ "Serving Process". NYC Department of Finance. 
  14. ^ "contact-us-by-visit In-Person". NYC Department of Finance. 
  15. ^ "sheriff-tax-evasion-deed-fraud". NYC Department of Finance. 
  16. ^ Ernest Johnson. "New York City Police Officer Indicted for Stealing Townhouse; Allegedly Transferred Title to Bedford-Stuyvesant Property to Herself – The Brooklyn District Attorney's Office". Brooklyn District Attorney. 
  17. ^ Ernest Johnson. "Long Island Men Charged In Connection With Stealing Nine Homes From Owners by Illegally Transferring Titles, Filing False Documents – The Brooklyn District Attorney's Office". Brooklyn District Attorney. 
  18. ^ "Manhattan U.S. Attorney Announces Major Law Enforcement Action Taken Against Synthetic Cannabinoid Manufacturers And Distributors, Including Criminal Charges Against Ten Members Of An International Trafficking Organization". U.S. Department of Justice. 
  19. ^ "Sheriff / Court & Trust Funds". NYC Department of Finance. 
  20. ^ The Officer Down Memorial Page
  21. ^ "Sheriff Choices Upheld. Court Rules Against Seekers After New City Jobs". New York Times. June 19, 1942. 
  22. ^ Harris, Elizabeth A. (December 7, 2010). "City Sheriff Is Named (You Read That Right)". New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  23. ^ "John Teunis Bergen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  24. ^ "Col. L. R. Stegman Dies in Brooklyn. Once Sheriff of Kings County, Civil War Veteran and Journalist was 84". New York Times. October 8, 1923. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  25. ^ "Charged With Stealing. Indictment And Arrest Of Ex-Sheriff Stegman, Of Kings County". The New York Times. May 13, 1886. Retrieved 2015-12-22. 
  26. ^ "Ex-Sheriff Creamer Dies". New York Times. July 20, 1913. 
  27. ^ a b c "Guden "Morally Unfit". Gov. Odell's Stated Reason for Removing Kings County Sheriff. Col. N. S. Dike Succeeds Him. His Own Testimony, Says the Official Decision, Proved Him Incapable and Unqualified for a Public Trust". New York Times. March 8, 1902. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  28. ^ "Norman Dike Dies. On Bench 25 Years. Former State Supreme Court Justice, Had Been Kings County Judge, Sheriff". New York Times. April 16, 1953. 
  29. ^ "Crowley Wentworth Dies From Injuries. Body of Former Attorney in U.S. Department of Justice Sent to Washington After Services Here". New York Times. January 12, 1928. 
  30. ^ "Charles Blakeslee Law". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  31. ^ "Ed Riegelmann, Ex-Justice. Former Borough President of Brooklyn Served in Supreme Court for 14 Years. Reached Age Limit in '39. One-Time Kings County Sheriff, Who Began as Messenger. Had Practiced Law Here". New York Times. January 16, 1941. 
  32. ^ "Daniel Joseph Griffin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  33. ^ "Two Wives Share in Estate. One Is Widow of Sheriff Stier, the Other Her Sister, Whom He Divorced". New York Times. October 29, 1916. 
  34. ^ "Peter Hercules Wendover". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  35. ^ "Death Of Ex-Coroner Rollins. He Is Found Dead In His Bed At The Union-place Hotel. A Sketch Of His Career" (PDF). New York Times. December 5, 1878. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  36. ^ "Tweed's Arch Foe, James O'Brien, Dead. Long Conspicuous in Politics and in Daring Wall Street Speculations. He Once Ran For Mayor. Was Sheriff, Alderman, and State Senator, and Fought Tammany Hall for Years". New York Times. March 6, 1907. Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
  37. ^ "James O'Brien". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  38. ^ a b "New Public Officers. Sheriff Bowe And County Clerk Butler Take Possession Of Their Offices". New York Times. January 2, 1880. Retrieved 2016-02-04. 
  39. ^ a b "Death Of Peter Bowe. Harlem Politician Who Was Elected Sheriff on the Irving Hall Ticket. Major of Tammany Regiment". New York Times. March 3, 1903. 
  40. ^ "Barney Martin, Old Tammany Man, Dies". New York Times. August 11, 1914. 
  41. ^ "Tamsen Enters His Denial. The Sheriff Says Charges Against Him Are Founded in Malice". New York Times. May 12, 1896. 
  42. ^ a b "Sheriff Foley Tries The Big Jail Key". New York Times. January 2, 1908. 
  43. ^ "Nicholas J. Hayes Dies Suddenly. Commissioner Of Water Supply Is Stricken With Heart Disease In His Home. Once a Power In Tammany. Served as Sheriff And as Head Of Fire Department. Was Friend Of Late C. F. Murphy". New York Times. January 3, 1928. Retrieved 2010-03-25. 
  44. ^ "Julius Harburger Dies Suddenly. Ex-Sheriff and ex-Congressman Succumbs at Home from Congestion of Lungs. Political Speaker at 18. Energetic Official Noted for His Flights of Oratory. His Deputies from All Ranks of Life" (PDF). New York Times. November 10, 1914. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  45. ^ "Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70. 4 Times Governor". New York Times. October 4, 1944. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  46. ^ "Peter Joseph Dooling". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  47. ^ "James George Donovan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  48. ^ "Elected in 1939 for 3-Year Term, W.J. Dempsey Says He Still Has 'Year to Go'". New York Times. January 1, 1942. 
  49. ^ "Sheriff Turns Over Office". New York Times. January 4, 1942. 

External links[edit]