New York City Sheriff's Office
|Office of the Sheriff of the City of New York|
|Common name||New York City Sheriff's Office|
Patch of the New York City Sheriff's Office
Flag of the City of New York City Sheriff's Office
|Motto||New York's First|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Operations jurisdiction*||City of New York in the state of New York, U.S.|
|Map of Office of the Sheriff of the City of New York's jurisdiction.|
|Legal jurisdiction||New York state|
|Deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators||150|
|Agency executive||Joseph Fucito, Sheriff of the City of New York|
|Parent agency||New York City Department of Finance|
|County Field Offices||
|* Divisional agency: Division of the country, over which the agency has usual operational jurisdiction.|
The New York City Sheriff's Office, officially the Office of the Sheriff of the City of New York, is the primary civil law enforcement agency of New York City. The Sheriff's Office is a division of the New York City Department of Finance, operating as both its criminal and civil law enforcement arm. The Sheriff's Office is headed by a sheriff, who is appointed to the position by the mayor, unlike most sheriffs in the State of New York who are elected officials.
The sheriff is the chief civil law enforcement officer for the City of New York, and automatically holds the position of deputy commissioner in the Department of Finance. The sheriff holds jurisdiction over all five county-boroughs within the city, with a subordinate undersheriff in charge of each one. Deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators of various ranks carry out the daily law enforcement duties of the Sheriff's Office. New York City Marshals perform similar civil enforcement duties.
The New York City Sheriff's Office originated in 1626 as the New York County Sheriff's Office. Originally each of the city's five county-boroughs had their own sheriff, each of which held the widest law enforcement jurisdiction in their respective county-borough. Like most sheriffs in the United States, these office holders were elected to their positions. Once the city was consolidated in 1898, the New York City Police Department took over responsibility for criminal investigations throughout the entire city, while the sheriffs continued to focus on civil law enforcement and administering the county prison systems. Sheriffs were compensated by charging fees for enforcing civil orders in addition to keeping a monetary percentage (known as poundage) of what their office would seize. By 1915, plans were made by the Commissioner of Accounts to alter the way sheriffs were compensated to include a determined salary instead of having the office holder personally retain fees and poundage. Although fees and poundage would still be charged by sheriffs, the monies would be retained for their respective county's use only.  In 1938, the first female deputy sheriff was appointed.
On January 1, 1942, each of the city's five county sheriff's offices were merged to become the Office of the Sheriff of the City of New York. The city's five county sheriffs were abolished and replaced with borough "chief deputies" (later undersheriffs) reporting to the now mayorally-appointed city-wide sheriff. A contemporary report of the changes emphasized professionalization of the office, which had become notorious for employing political patronage beneficiaries. The new top five commanders were "all college graduates" and "lawyers like their chief, who promises to keep out politics". At the same time, the sheriff's former responsibility for running prison systems was transferred to the newly established New York City Department of Correction.
In 2012, the New York City Sheriff's Office changed its emblems, uniforms and logos to more closely resemble those of the New York Police Department, and to avoid confusion with fire department or emergency services. Finance Department spokesman Owen Stone said "We had red and white. We changed it to blue and yellow, because it's more in line with other law enforcement."
Chain of command
|Title||Insignia||Badge Design||Uniform Shirt Color|
|Sheriff||Medallion with eagle and Four stars||
|First Deputy Sheriff||Medallion with eagle and Three stars||
|Chief of Staff||Medallion with eagle and Three stars||
|Undersheriff||Medallion with eagle and One star||
|Deputy Sheriff - Lieutenant||Medallion with Rank||
|Deputy Sheriff - Sergeant||Shield with eagle||
In order to be appointed as deputies, candidates must first pass a civil service entrance examination and meet strong educational/experiential requirements. Candidates must also pass medical and psychological examinations, physical ability tests, and a full background investigation. In addition to deputy sheriffs, the Sheriff's Office employs sworn criminal investigators and an assortment of civilian support personnel.
As of June 2014, Joseph Fucito was appointed the 121st Sheriff of the City of New York. Sheriff Fucito has over 25 years of experience in the New York City Sheriff's Office, and came up through the ranks of deputy sheriff. He has commanded a wide variety of units and county offices, and also served as acting sheriff two separate times before his official appointment to sheriff.
The New York City Sheriff's Office is composed of three sections: Operations, Intelligence, and Support.
The Operations Section is composed of the five county field offices and certain units working city-wide. Within the county field offices, deputy sheriffs assigned to civil law enforcement duties are referenced as Law Enforcement Bureau (LEB) personnel. LEB deputies perform a wide array of tasks such as evictions, warrants of arrest, orders to commit, and the seizure and sale of property pursuant to judicial mandates. Businesses and individuals that owe the city money pursuant to unpaid city tax warrants, environmental control board summons, and fire and health code violation fines, are targeted for enforcement action. LEB deputies also serve a wide variety of legal process, with orders of protection considered a priority. Each county field office is complemented by civilian support staff to assist in daily administrative functions and customer service. These field offices are accessible to the public, giving citizens of the county/borough a local place to file court process in need of enforcement. Deputies of the Operations Section may be assigned to duties separate from the LEB, either within a county field office or city-wide. These duties include arrests and apprehensions on behalf of other city agencies such as the Human Resources Administration, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and the Administration for Children's Services. Deputies may be assigned to scofflaw enforcement or security duties at the city treasury. The Operations Section will also provide deputies for any other assignment as deemed necessary by the agency.
The Intelligence Section is composed of the Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BCI) and the Intelligence Unit. The BCI investigates city tax crimes, real property larceny/deed fraud, synthetic narcotic enforcement (such as spice/K2 and bath salts) and other offenses against the Department of Finance. The Intelligence Unit collects, analyzes, and disseminates information from various sources to be readily available for agency use. Intelligence Section personnel include criminal investigators, deputy sheriffs, and civilian support personnel.
The Support Section handles communications, property disposition, evidence destruction and field support services for the entire agency. Support Section personnel include deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators.
In addition to these organizational sections, the Sheriff's Office is served by a Chaplain Support Unit and a Medical Support Unit.
Deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators are New York State peace officers and are authorized to make warrantless arrests, issue summonses, conduct vehicle stops, carry and use firearms, batons, pepper spray, handcuffs, and use physical and deadly force. Deputy sheriffs and criminal investigators have peace officer status both on-duty and off-duty. Deputy sheriffs receive their peace officer status pursuant to the New York State Criminal Procedure Law (CPL) §2.10 subdivision 2, while criminal investigators receive their peace officer status from CPL §2.10 subdivision 5.
Deputy sheriffs are also civil law enforcement officers with authorization to enforce the New York State Civil Practice Law and Rules (CPLR) concerning civil procedure.
Since the establishment of the sheriff's offices throughout the five counties of New York City, seven sworn officers have died in the line of duty.
|Officer||Department||Date of Death||Details|
|Deputy Sheriff Isaac Smith||Bronx County Sheriff's Office, NY||
|Deputy Sheriff Henry Wendelstorf||Queens County Sheriff's Department, NY||
|Sheriff Paul Stier||Queens County Sheriff's Department, NY||
|Keeper Morris Broderson||Bronx County Sheriff's Office, NY||
|Keeper Daniel D. Horgan||Bronx County Sheriff's Office, NY||
|Deputy Sheriff John T. Miller||Queens County Sheriff's Department, NY||
|Deputy Sheriff Fred D'Amore||Queens County Sheriff's Department, NY||
New York City
Effective January 1, 1942, one city-wide sheriff began serving all five counties within the City of New York. The following is a list of the city-wide sheriffs since the original five county positions were merged. The position is appointed by the Mayor of New York City.
|Order||Name||Term||Notes and references|
|106||John J. McCloskey||1942-1971|| He was the first to serve all 5 counties.|
|107||H. William Kehl||1971-1973|
|108||Joseph P. Brennan||1973-1974|
|109||Frederick Weinberger||1974-1975||Acting sheriff|
|110||Edward A. Pichler||1975-1987|
|111||Vincent M. Pharao||1987-1989|
|112||Harry Weisberg||1989-1990||Acting sheriff|
|113||Philip A. Crimaldi||1990-1994|
|117||Henry Coira||2001-2001||Acting sheriff|
|118||Caliph T. Mathis||2001-2002|
|120||Joseph Fucito||2010-2011||Acting sheriff|
|121||Edgar A. Domenech||2011-2014||He is the 121st Sheriff of New York City including acting sheriffs in the count. "Mr. Domenech will become the city’s 117th sheriff [excluding acting sheriffs] and will oversee a staff of 174 employees, including 118 deputy sheriffs, and an annual budget of $16 million."|
|Name||Term||Notes and references|
|Sheriff Stillwell||1683-1685||Term began in October|
|Roeloff Martense||1685-1686||Term began in October|
|Gerrit Strycker||1686-1690||Term began in October|
|Myndert Coerten||1690-1691||Term began on December 13, 1690|
|Gerrit Strycker||1691-1694||Term began on March 21, 1691|
|Jacobus Kiersted||1694-1698||Term began in May 24, 1694|
|Englebert Lott||1698-1699||Term began in October|
|John Elbertson||1699-1700||Term began in October|
|Benjamin Vandewater||1715-1717||October. This was his second non-consecutive term.|
|Dominicus Vanderveer||1730-1736||October. This was his second non-consecutive term.|
|Dominicus Vanderveer||1738-1740||Term started on February 24, 1738|
|Nicholas Couwenhoven||1766||Term began in October|
|Alexander Forbush||1766-1767||Term started on November 24, 1766|
|Rutger Van Brunt||1767-1784||Term began in October|
|William Boerum||1784-1785||Term began on February 4|
|Peter Vandervoort||1785-1788||Term began on September 28|
|Charles Turnbull (sheriff)||1788-1791||Term began on December 29|
|John Vanderveer||1791-1793||Term began on March 8|
|Cornelius Bergen||1793-1797||Term began on February 18, 1793|
|Peter S. Cortelyou||1797-1800||Term began on February 7, 1797|
|Cornelius Bergen||1800-1804||Term began on February 17, 1800|
|John Schoonmaker||1804-1807||Term began on February 16|
|Benjamin Birdsall (sheriff)||1807-1810||Term began on March 9|
|John Dean (sheriff)||1810-1811||Term began on February 26, 1810.|
|Abiel Titus||1811||Term began on February 5|
|William D. Creed||1811-1813||Term began on June 5|
|John Dean (sheriff)||1813-1815||Term began on March 23|
|Lawrence Brower||1815-1817||Term began on March 28|
|Jacob Garrison||1817||Term began on March 19|
|John Wyckoff (sheriff)||1817-1821||Term began on August 29|
|John Teunis Bergen (1786-1855)||1821-1822||Term began on February 12, 1821.|
|John Teunis Bergen (1786-1855)||1822-1825||Term began in November of 1822.|
|John Teunis Bergen||1828-1831||Term began in November of 1828. He resigned from office. This was his second non-consecutive term.|
|John Lawrence (sheriff)||1831-1834||He was appointed vice sheriff (acting sheriff) on March 15, 1831 to replace John Teunis Bergen, who had resigned.|
|John Van Dyne||1834-1937||November|
|William M. Udall||1837-1841||November|
|Francis B. Strycker||1841-1843||November|
|William Jenkins (sheriff)||1843-1846||November|
|Daniel Van Voorhies||1846-1849||November|
|Andrew B. Hodges||1849-1852||November|
|Jerome Ryerson||1855-1857||November. He died in office.|
|George Remson||1857||Appointed vice sheriff (acting sheriff) on April 3, 1857 to complete the term of Jerome Ryerson.|
|Anthony F. Campbell||1860-1863||November|
|John McNamee (sheriff)||1863-1866||November|
|Patrick Campbell (sheriff)||1866-1869||November|
|Andrew Walter (sheriff)||1869-1872||November|
|Aras G. Williams||1872-1875||November|
|Thomas M. Riley||1878-1881||November|
|Lewis R. Stegman||1881-1884||Term began in November.|
|Charles B. Farley||1884-1887||November|
|Clark D. Rhinehart||1887-1890||November|
|John Courtney (sheriff)||1890-1893|
|William J. Buttling||1893-1898||November|
|Frank D. Creamer (1859-1913)||1898-1900|||
|Charles S. Guden||1902||He was removed from office by Governor Benjamin Odell in 1902.|
|Norman Staunton Dike, Sr. (1862-1953)||1902-1904||He was born in 1862. He was appointed as vice sheriff (acting sheriff) by Governor Benjamin Odell in 1902 to complete the term of Sheriff Guden. He died on April 15, 1953.|
|Alfred T. Hobley||1908-1910||He was elected on November 5, 1907 and took office on January 1, 1908.|
|J. S. Shea||1910-1912||Crowley Wentworth (1869-1928) was the deputy sheriff.|
|Charles Blakeslee Law (1872–1929)||1913-1914||Term expired on December 31, 1913.|
|Lewis M. Swasey||1914-1915||Term expired on December 31, 1915|
|Edward J. Riegelmann (1870–1941)||1916-1917|||
|Daniel Joseph Griffin (1880-1926)||1918-1919||He was born in 1880. His term expired on December 31, 1919. He died in 1926.|
|John Drescher||1920-1921||Term expired on December 31, 1921|
|P. B. Seery||1922-1923||Term expired on December 31, 1923|
|John N. Harman||1924-1925||> He was the Park Commissioner prior to sheriff. Term expired on December 31, 1925|
|Frank J. Taylor||1927-1928||Term expired on December 31, 1928|
|Herman M. Hessberg||1929-1930||Term expired on December 31, 1930|
|Name||Term||Notes and references|
|Paul Stier||? to 1916||He died on October 13, 1916 while trying to arrest Frank Taff at Whitestone Landing.|
New York County
The first Sheriff of New York County was in office in 1626. Prior to 1942 the Sheriff of New York County was an elected position.
|Name||Term||Notes and references|
|Marinus Willett (1740-1830)||1784-1787|
|Peter Hercules Wendover (1768-1834)||1822-1825|||
|Jacob Westervelt (1794-1881)||1831-1834|
|John Jacob V.B. Westervelt (1805–1866)||1846-1849|
|Aaron B. Rollins (1818-1878)||1853 to 1859||Deputy sheriff.|
|James O'Brien (1841-1907)||1867|||
|William C. Conner||1874|
|Bernard Reilly||? to 1880|||
|Peter Bowe (1833-1903)||1880 to ?||He was born in 1833 in Ireland. He was elected sheriff in November of 1879 on the Irving Hall ticket, and took office on January 1, 1880. Joel O. Stevens was his Under-Sheriff and Daniel E. Finn, Sr. (1845-1910) was his Deputy Sheriff. He died on March 2, 1903.|
|Bernard F. Martin, (1845-1914)||circa 1885||Deputy sheriff.|
|Hugh J. Grant (1858-1910)||1887 to 1888||He later served as the 88th Mayor of New York City|
|Daniel Edgar Sickles (1819-1914)||1890|
|Edward J.H. Tamsen, Sr. (1849-1907)||1895 to 1896||He was born in Hamburg, Germany in 1849. He was elected sheriff of New York County in November of 1894. Governor Levi Parsons Morton removed him from office in 1896. He died on July 24, 1907.|
|Nicholas J. Hayes (1856-1928)||? to 1907|||
|Thomas F. Foley||1908 to 1910||He was elected in November 1907 and took office on January 1, 1908.|
|Julius Harburger (1850-1914)||1911 to 1913|||
|Daniel E. Finn, Jr. (1880–1949)||?|
|Al Smith (1873-1944)||1915||"As a reward for faithful service, Tammany's leaders named Mr. Smith as their candidate for Sheriff of New York while the convention was still in session. At that time the office of Sheriff was still on the fee system and was worth at least $50,000 (approximately $1,184,000 today) a year to the incumbent." Note: This number appears too large to be accurate.|
|Peter Joseph Dooling (1857-1931)||1924|||
|James George Donovan (1898-1987)||1934 to 1941||Undersheriff. After 1941 one sheriff served all five counties.|
|Name||Term||Notes and references|
|Harman Barkaloo Cropsey, Jr. (circa 1775-?)||1829 to 1831|
|William J. Dempsey||? to 1941||He was the last Sheriff of Richmond County, New York before the office became the New York City Sheriff's Office.|
|Name||Term||Notes and references|
|Edward Joseph Flynn (1891-1953)||1922 to 1925|
- List of law enforcement agencies in New York
- Law enforcement in New York City
- Coroner of New York City
- "Divisions". NYC Department of Finance.
- http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/nycode/NYC/58/1526 "New York City Charter § 1526 Office of city sheriff. 1. There shall be within the department an office of the city sheriff which shall be subject to the supervision and control of the commissioner of finance. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the commissioner of finance may exercise or assign within the department such management functions of the office of the sheriff, including but not limited to those functions related to the appointment and removal of deputy sheriffs and other personnel of such office pursuant to the civil service law, as he or she may deem appropriate to achieve effective and efficient functioning and management of such office. 2. Except as otherwise provided by law, the city sheriff shall exercise the functions, powers and duties formerly exercised by the sheriffs of the several counties.
- http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/nycode/NYC/58/1502 "The mayor may appoint three deputy commissioners. In addition, the mayor shall appoint one deputy commissioner whose functions shall be to serve as the city sheriff. The commissioner and deputy commissioners shall provide a bond. The first deputy commissioner shall supervise and be responsible for the operations of the parking violations bureau."
- "Fees Of $400,000 To Five Sheriffs. Commissioner Wallstein Reports Collections Made by the Officials in Nine Years. In Favor of Bill Which Proposes to Limit Income of the Office to a Salary". New York Times. February 25, 1915.
- "Woman Named Sheriff's Aide". New York Times. January 5, 1938.
- "McCLOSKEY PICKS HIS 5 CHIEF AIDES". New York Times. 2 January 1942. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- McKinley, Jesse. "F.Y.I.", The New York Times, November 27, 1994. Accessed January 21, 2008. "Established in 1626, the Sheriff's office in Manhattan and its equivalents in the other boroughs served as a major part of the patchwork of law-enforcement agencies that existed before the city's consolidation in 1898. After that, the new New York City Police Department took over the responsibility for criminal investigations and arrests. Prior to the merger into one department, the sheriff was responsible for maintaining the city jails and maintained custody over all inmates sentenced or awaiting trial for criminal cases. In 1941, The city charter was amended by public referendum votes to transfer custodial duties of inmates in criminal cases to the New York City Department of Correction. Today, the city sheriff's primary duties are enforcing court-ordered judgments and fines, including unpaid parking tickets and littering fines, and collecting judgments from reluctant losers in private lawsuits, said John George, the Sheriff's executive assistant. "
- Annese, John M. "New color scheme for NYC Sheriff's cars looks a lot like NYPD". silive.com. Staten Island Advance. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Matthew Taub. "Talking Deed Fraud With the City Sheriff and Finance Commissioner - Brooklyn Brief". Brooklyn Brief.
- "Evictions". NYC Department of Finance.
- "sheriff-arrest-warrants". NYC Department of Finance.
- "sheriff-collecting-judgments". NYC Department of Finance.
- "Collecting Judgments & Orders of Seizure". NYC Department of Finance.
- "Serving Process". NYC Department of Finance.
- "contact-us-by-visit In-Person". NYC Department of Finance.
- "sheriff-tax-evasion-deed-fraud". NYC Department of Finance.
- Ernest Johnson. "New York City Police Officer Indicted for Stealing Townhouse; Allegedly Transferred Title to Bedford-Stuyvesant Property to Herself – The Brooklyn District Attorney's Office". Brooklyn District Attorney.
- Ernest Johnson. "Long Island Men Charged In Connection With Stealing Nine Homes From Owners by Illegally Transferring Titles, Filing False Documents – The Brooklyn District Attorney's Office". Brooklyn District Attorney.
- "Manhattan U.S. Attorney Announces Major Law Enforcement Action Taken Against Synthetic Cannabinoid Manufacturers And Distributors, Including Criminal Charges Against Ten Members Of An International Trafficking Organization". U.S. Department of Justice.
- "Sheriff / Court & Trust Funds". NYC Department of Finance.
- The Officer Down Memorial Page
- "Sheriff Choices Upheld. Court Rules Against Seekers After New City Jobs". New York Times. June 19, 1942.
- Harris, Elizabeth A. (December 7, 2010). "City Sheriff Is Named (You Read That Right)". New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- "John Teunis Bergen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "Col. L. R. Stegman Dies in Brooklyn. Once Sheriff of Kings County, Civil War Veteran and Journalist was 84". New York Times. October 8, 1923. Retrieved 2010-11-30.
- "Charged With Stealing. Indictment And Arrest Of Ex-Sheriff Stegman, Of Kings County". The New York Times. May 13, 1886. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
- "Ex-Sheriff Creamer Dies". New York Times. July 20, 1913.
- "Guden "Morally Unfit". Gov. Odell's Stated Reason for Removing Kings County Sheriff. Col. N. S. Dike Succeeds Him. His Own Testimony, Says the Official Decision, Proved Him Incapable and Unqualified for a Public Trust". New York Times. March 8, 1902. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "Norman Dike Dies. On Bench 25 Years. Former State Supreme Court Justice, Had Been Kings County Judge, Sheriff". New York Times. April 16, 1953.
- "Crowley Wentworth Dies From Injuries. Body of Former Attorney in U.S. Department of Justice Sent to Washington After Services Here". New York Times. January 12, 1928.
- "Charles Blakeslee Law". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "Ed Riegelmann, Ex-Justice. Former Borough President of Brooklyn Served in Supreme Court for 14 Years. Reached Age Limit in '39. One-Time Kings County Sheriff, Who Began as Messenger. Had Practiced Law Here". New York Times. January 16, 1941.
- "Daniel Joseph Griffin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "Two Wives Share in Estate. One Is Widow of Sheriff Stier, the Other Her Sister, Whom He Divorced". New York Times. October 29, 1916.
- "Peter Hercules Wendover". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "Death Of Ex-Coroner Rollins. He Is Found Dead In His Bed At The Union-place Hotel. A Sketch Of His Career" (PDF). New York Times. December 5, 1878. Retrieved 2015-07-03.
- "Tweed's Arch Foe, James O'Brien, Dead. Long Conspicuous in Politics and in Daring Wall Street Speculations. He Once Ran For Mayor. Was Sheriff, Alderman, and State Senator, and Fought Tammany Hall for Years". New York Times. March 6, 1907. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
- "James O'Brien". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "New Public Officers. Sheriff Bowe And County Clerk Butler Take Possession Of Their Offices". New York Times. January 2, 1880. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
- "Death Of Peter Bowe. Harlem Politician Who Was Elected Sheriff on the Irving Hall Ticket. Major of Tammany Regiment". New York Times. March 3, 1903.
- "Barney Martin, Old Tammany Man, Dies". New York Times. August 11, 1914.
- "Tamsen Enters His Denial. The Sheriff Says Charges Against Him Are Founded in Malice". New York Times. May 12, 1896.
- "Sheriff Foley Tries The Big Jail Key". New York Times. January 2, 1908.
- "Nicholas J. Hayes Dies Suddenly. Commissioner Of Water Supply Is Stricken With Heart Disease In His Home. Once a Power In Tammany. Served as Sheriff And as Head Of Fire Department. Was Friend Of Late C. F. Murphy". New York Times. January 3, 1928. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
- "Julius Harburger Dies Suddenly. Ex-Sheriff and ex-Congressman Succumbs at Home from Congestion of Lungs. Political Speaker at 18. Energetic Official Noted for His Flights of Oratory. His Deputies from All Ranks of Life" (PDF). New York Times. November 10, 1914. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
- "Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70. 4 Times Governor". New York Times. October 4, 1944. Retrieved 2016-01-31.
- "Peter Joseph Dooling". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "James George Donovan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- "Elected in 1939 for 3-Year Term, W.J. Dempsey Says He Still Has 'Year to Go'". New York Times. January 1, 1942.
- "Sheriff Turns Over Office". New York Times. January 4, 1942.