New York General Assembly

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New York General Assembly
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Term limits
None
History
FoundedOctober 14, 1683
DisbandedApril 3, 1775
Preceded byEstablished
Succeeded byNew York Provincial Congress
Leadership
Speaker
Structure
Seats39
Length of term
Varied
AuthorityCharter of Liberties and Privileges


The New York General Assembly was the lower branch of government of the British Province of New York and was the first representative governing body in New York from 1683 to 1775 when the assembly disbanded after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.[1]

Background[edit]

The New York General Assembly was first convened on October 14, 1683 during the governorship of Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick, which passed an act entitled "A Charter of Liberties" that decreed that the supreme legislative power under the Duke of York (later King James II) shall reside in a governor, council, and the people convened in general assembly; conferred upon the members of the assembly rights and privileges making them a body coequal to and independent of the British Parliament; established town, county, and general courts of justice; solemnly proclaimed the right of religious liberty; and passed acts enunciating certain constitutional liberties, e.g. taxes could be levied only by the people met in general assembly; right of suffrage; and no martial law or quartering of the soldiers without the consent of the inhabitants.[2]

The Assembly grew to twenty-seven members,[a] elected viva voce by the people once every seven years and the districts they represented. The representatives terms was originally at the will of the governor and new elections were ordered as it suited his interests. In 1784, a law was passed that limited member's terms to three years, but it was annulled by King George III. The Septennial Act was passed in 1743, and remained in force till the revolution.[4]

The General Assembly elected a Speaker from their own ranks, chose their own clerk, and published their own journal. The Assembly had the sole right of originating all laws granting appropriations of money, and, during Governor William Cosby's administration, which was defined by political struggles and is known as one of the most oppressive royal placeholders, they indeed withheld his compensation in an attempt to bring him closer to their desires.[4] Reportedly, "these quarrels had considerably subsided before the revolution; but they doubtless had an influence beneficial to liberty, by introducing political discussions, and imparting a knowledge of the tendencies of irresponsible power."[4]

The General Assembly continued until May 1775. Among its last acts was the adoption of petitions to the King and British Parliament, in which, while they "professed a warm attachment to the royal person and government, they solemnly protested against the aggressions that had for years been gaining upon the rights of the people, and expressed, quite as strongly as was then avowed by the patriots of the day, the sentiments advocated in the revolution."[4]

General Assembly[edit]

Districts[edit]

Representatives[edit]

The following were elected as members of the General Assembly.[e][4][9]

District Representatives Years Notes
Albany Coenradt Ten Eyck 1747/8-50 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1748 to 1750.[10]
Dirck Ten Broeck 1728 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1746 to 1748.[11]
Dirck Wessels 1691-98, 1701 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1696 to 1698.[12]
Evert Bancker 1702-5 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1695 to 1696 and 1707 to 1709.[13]
Hans Hansen 1750-52 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1731 to 1732 and 1754 to 1756.[14]
Hendrick Hansen 1699-1702, 1708-9, 1715-24 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1698 to 1699.[15]
Jacob H. Ten Eyck 1759-77 Albany merchant who served as assistant alderman in the second ward from 1739 to 1743 and 1746 to 1748.[16]
Jan Jansen Bleecker 1698-1701 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1700 to 1701.[17]
Johannes Cuyler 1705-13, 1715-26, 1727-28 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1725 to 1726.[13]
Johannes Schuyler 1710-13 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1703–1706.[18]
John Abeel 1695-98, 1701-5 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1694 to 1695 and 1709 to 1710.[19]
John Bleecker 1701-6 Also served as recorder and mayor of Albany from 1701 to 1702. Son of Jan Jansen Bleecker.[20]
Karl Hansen 1715-26
Levinus Van Schaick 1691-93 A merchant who returned to Amsterdam and traded with Robert Livingston.[21]
Myndert Schuyler 1701-10, 1713-15, 1724-37 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1719 to 1720 and 1723 to 1725.[22]
Peter Douw 1747/8-50, 1752-59
Peter Van Brugh 1713-15, 1727-28 Also served as mayor of Albany from 1699 to 1700 and 1721 to 1723.[23]
Peter Van Bruggen 1705-8
Peter Winne 1737-47, 1752-61 Captain Winne ran a skipper along the Hudson River and was a partner in the Sacandaga Patent of 1741.[24]
Philip Schuyler 1728-47, 1750-52
Philip Schuyler 1768-77 A Revolutionary War General and, later, a U.S. Senator and father-in-law of Alexander Hamilton.[25]
Robert Livingston 1709-15 The 1st Lord of Livingston Manor.[6]
Ryer Garretson 1726-27
Ryer Jacobs 1693-95
Ryer Jacobse Schermerhorn 1698-1702 The sole trustee of the Schenectady Patent.[26]
Volkert P. Douw 1761-8? Later served in the New York State Senate from 1785 to 1793. Son of Peter Douw.[27]
Cortlandt Manor Philip Verplanck 1737-64 Verplanck married into the Van Cortlandt family.[28]
Pierre Van Cortlandt 1768-77 Also served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1777 to 1795.[29]
Dutchess Baltus Van Kleeck 1715-16
Dirck Brinckerhoff 1768-77 Later served in the 2nd New York State Legislature.
Henry Beekman 1725-59 A grandson of acting New York City mayor Wilhelmus Beekman.
Henry Filkin 1752-58
Henry Livingston 1754-68 Father of Henry Livingston Jr., Gilbert Livingston, and John Henry Livingston.[30]
Jacobus Tur Boss 1737-43
Johannes Tappen 1743-51
Johannes Turbosch 1716-25
Johannes Van Kleeck 1726-37
Leonard Van Kleeck 1768-77
Leonard Lewis 1713-16
Robert R. Livingston 1759-68
Kings Abraham Lott 1737-60
Abraham Schenck 1759-68
Coert Stuyvesant 1693-94 Likely a descendant of the last Dutch Director of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant.[31]
Cornelius Lott 1750-52
Cornelius Sebring 1695-98, 1698-1726
Cornelius Van Brunt 1698-1716
D. Vander Vier 1750-59
Gerardus Beekman 1698 Also served as acting governor of the Province of New York in 1710.[32]
Henry Filkin 1693/4-95 One of the Great Nine Partners Patent.[33]
Johannes Lott 1727-47, 1750-61
Johannes Van Ecklen 1693-98
John Poland 1691-93
John Rapalje 1768-77
Joseph Hagenan 1716
Myndert Coerton 1698
Nicholas Stillwell 1691-93
Richard Stillwell 1725-27
Samuel Garretson 1716-37
Simon Boerum 1761-77 He represented New York in the Continental Congress in 1774 and 1775.[34]
Livingston Manor Gilbert Livingston 1728-37
Peter R. Livingston 1761-69 Son of Robert Livingston, 3rd Lord of Livingston Manor.
Philip Livingston 1769-77 A merchant who was a delegate to the Continental Congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence.[35]
Robert Livingston 1716-26 The 1st Lord of Livingston Manor (he previously represented Albany from 1709-15).[6]
Robert Livingston Jr. 1726-28, 1737-59 Also known as "Robert of Clermont", son of Robert Livingston the Elder and father of Robert Livingston.[6]
William Livingston 1759-61 Later served as the 1st Governor of New Jersey.
New York Johannes Hardenbroek 1709-10 A prominent merchant.[36]
Abraham Gouverneur 1701-2 Speaker of the Assembly from May 15, 1699 to May 3, 1702.[9]
Adolph Philipse 1726-45 The second son of Frederick Philipse, the 1st Lord of the Philipsburg Manor.[37]
Anthony Rutgers 1726-37 Related to Henry Rutgers.
Brandt Schuyler 1695-98 Brother of Pieter Schuyler and Arent Schuyler
Capt. Wilson 1709-10
Cornelius Van Horne 1743-59
David Clarkson 1739, 1745-52
David Provost 1699-1702, 1711-13, 1716-25 Also served as 24th mayor of New York City from 1699 to 1700.
Garret Van Horne 1716-37
Henry Cruger 1745-59 Eldest son of 38th mayor of New York City John Cruger and brother of Speaker John Cruger Jr.[38]
Isaac De Rimier 1668-77
Jacobus Van Cortlandt 1691-93, 1698-99, 1702-16 Also served as 30th and 33rd mayor of New York City from 1710–1711 and 1719–1720.[27]
Jacob Walton 1768-77
Jacobus Kipp 1716-26
James Alexander 1737-39 Also served as 4th New Jersey Attorney General from 1723–1728. Father of William Alexander, Lord Stirling.[39]
James De Lancey 1768-77 Son of James De Lancey, Governor of the Province of New York from 1753–1755.
James Graham 1691-93, 1695-1701
James Jauncey 1768-77
Johannes Jansen 1709-11, 1716-26 Also served as 35th mayor of New York City from 1725 to 1726.[40]
Johannes Kipp 1691-93, 1698-99
John Cruger 1759-73 Also served as 41st mayor of New York City from 1757–1766. Son of 38th mayor of New York City John Cruger.[38]
Johannes de Peyster 1699-1702 Also served as 23rd mayor of New York City from 1698 to 1699.[41]
John Kerfbyl 1699
John Moore 1789-45
John Reade 1715-16
John Spratt 1693/4-95 Glasgow, Scotland born merchant who was the father of Mary Alexander and son-in-law of Johannes de Peyster Sr.[42]
John Van Home 1709-10
John Walter 1737-39
John Watts 1752-59 A Scottish immigrant. Father of U.S. Representative John Watts and son-in-law of Stephen Delancey.[43]
Lawrence Reade 1695-98, 1708-9, 1711-15
Leonard Lewis 1699-1701
Leonard Lispenard 1759-68
Oliver De Lancey 1756-61 Merchant and Loyalist.[44]
Paul Richards 1743-56
Peter De Lanoy 1693/4-95 Also served as 18th mayor of New York City from 1689–1691.[45]
Philip French 1698-99, 1702-8 Also served as the 27th mayor of New York City from 1702 to 1703.[46]
Philip Livingston 1759-69
Robert Blackwell 1693/4-95
Samuel Bayard 1713-16 Also served as a Judge.
Samuel Staats 1693/4-95 Son of Abraham Staats.
Simon Johnson 1737-39
Stephen De Lanoy 1702-16, 1725-27
Thomas Coddrington 1702-9
Thomas Wenham 1698-99
Tunis De Key 1695-98
William Bayard 1761-68 Father of William Bayard Jr.
William Merrett 1691-98
William Roome 1739-43
Orange Abraham Gouverneur 1699-1702 Speaker of the Assembly from May 15, 1699 to May 3, 1702.[9]
Abraham Haring 1745-47 Father of lawyer and Continental Congressman John Haring.[47]
Cornelius Cuyler 1716-26
Cornelius Haring 1715-16, 1726-37
Floris Crum 1702-8
Gabriel Ludlow 1739-45
Hendrick Ten Eyck 1710-15 One of the Great Nine Partners Patent.[33]
Henry Wisner 1759-69
John De Noyellis 1769-77
Lancaster Symes 1726-37
Michael Hawdin 1708-9
Peter Haring 1701-2, 1709-10, 1716-26
Samuel Gale 1750-59, 1769-77
Selah Strong 1768-69
Theodorus Snediker 1747/8-59
Thomas Gale 1739-50
Vincent Matthews 1787-89
Cornelius Cuyper 1787-89
Queens Benjamin Hicks 1725-37 Relation of Federalist Assemblyman Benjamin Hicks.
Daniel Whitehead 1691-1701, 1702-4
Daniel Кissam 1768?-77
David Jones 1737-59
David Thomas 1761
Isaac Hicks 1716-39
John Bound 1691
John Jackson 1693-1701, 1702-16
John Robinson 1691
John Talman 1701, 1709-10
John Townsend 1709-10
John Treadwell 1691
Jonathan Smith Sr. 1701-2
Jonathan Whitehead 1704-9
Nathaniel Pearsall 1691
Thomas Cornell 1739-59
Thomas Hicks 1701-2
Thomas Hicks 1759-61
Thomas Willet 1701, 1710-25
Zebulon Seaman 1759-61, 1763-77 [48]
Rensselaer Manor Abraham Ten Broeck 1761-77
Andries Coejemans 1791
Andries Coejemans 1715-26
Andries Douw 1708-5 Douw lived in Rensselaerswyck, where his family held extensive lands.[49]
Hendrick van Rensselaer 1705-15
Jeremias Van Rensselaer 1726-43
J.B. Van Rensselaer 1743-61
Kiliaen Van Rensselaer 1691-1701, 1702-3
Richmond Abraham Lakerman 1702-16
Adam Mott 1737-39
Benjamin Seaman 1759-77
Christopher Billop 1769-77 Later a United Empire Loyalists who served in the 1st New Brunswick Legislative Assembly.[50]
Elias Duksberry 1691, 1695-98
Garret Veghte 1699-1702
Henry Holland 1761-69
John Dally 1691
John La Count 1726-59
John Shadwell 1691-3/4
John Stillwell 1702-16
John Tennisen 1698
John Tennisen 1763/4-95
John Woglem 1698-99
Lambert Dorland 1691
Paul Micheaux 1750-52
Richard Merril 1725-37
Richard Stillwell 1739-50
Thomas Morgan 1698-1702
Thomas Stillwell 1691-98
William Walton 1752-61 A merchant who was one of the founders of the New York Society Library.[51]
Suffolk David Pierson 1737-45
Eleazer Miller 1750-69
Epenetus Platt 1723-37
Henry Pierson 1691-95 Speaker of the Assembly from March 2, 1694 to April 20, 1695.[9]
John Tuthill 1693-3/4, 1695-98
Matthew Howell 1691-1705
Nathaniel Woodhull 1769-77 Also a brigadier general of the New York militia during the American Revolution.[52]
Samuel Hutchinson 1721-23
Samuel Mulford 1705-20
William Nicoll 1701-23 A son of 6th New York City mayor Matthias Nicoll.
William Nicoll 1739-77
Schenectady Abraham Glen 1743
Arent Bradt 1737-48, 1745-47
Isaac Vrooman 1759-61
Jacob Glen 1726-37, 1747/8-50 Namesake of Glen, New York.
Jacob Van Slyck 1750-52
Jacobus Mynderse 1752-59, 1768-79
Nicholas Groot 1761
Nicholas Schuyler 1727-28
Ryer Schermerhorn 1761 Grandson and principal heir of Ryer Jacobse Schermerhorn.[53]
Ulster Abraham G. Chambers 1716-39
Abraham Hasbrouck 1698-1701 One of twelve patent holders to the 40,000 acre New Paltz Patent.[54]
Abraham Hasbrouck 1739-45, 1747/8-50, 1759-68 Son of Abraham Hasbrouck.[54]
Adrien Garretson 1701-2
Albert Pawlding 1726-37, 1745
Charles DeWitt 1668-77 Also served as a delegate to the New York Provincial and Continental Congresses.[55]
Gaasbeck Chambers 1745-48
George Clinton 1768-77 He later served as the 1st Governor of the State of New York and the 4th Vice President of the United States.[56]
Henry Beekman 1691-93, 1695-98, 1702-16 Represented Westchester & Dutchess from 1691-93.
A son of acting New York City mayor Wilhelmus Beekman.
Jacob Rutsen 1693/4-95, 1699-1702, 1713-26 Represented Ulster & Dutchess from 1693/4-95.
Jacobus Bruyn 1759-68 Father of New York Assemblymen Jacobus S. Bruyn, Severyn Tenhout Bruyn, Johannes Bruyn, and Cornelius Bruyn.[57]
Johannes Hardenbergh 1737-43 Owner of the Hardenbergh patent of land in the Catskill Mountains.[58]
Johannes Jansen 1747/8-59
Moses De Pue Jr. 1752-59
Thomas Garton 1691, 1693/4-95, 1698-99, 1702-18 Represented Westchester & Dutchess in 1691 and 1693/4-95.
William Demire 1691-93, 1695-98
Westchester Adolph Philipse 1722-26 The second son of Frederick Philipse, the 1st Lord of the Philipsburg Manor, uncle to Frederick Philipse II.[37]
Caleb Heathcote 1701-2 Also served as 31st mayor of New York City from 1711–1713.[59]
Daniel Purdy 1739-43
Edmund Ward 1710-12
Frederick Philipse II 1726-50 The 2nd Lord of Philipsburg Manor, part of the Philipse Patent (today's Putnam County).[60]
Frederick Philipse III 1751-77 The 3rd (and last) Lord of Philipsburg Manor.[60]
Gilbert Willet 1728-32
Henry Fowler 1701
Humphrey Underhill 1693/4-97
John De Lancey 1764?-77
John Drake 1698-1701, 1709-10, 1713-15
John Haite 1712-13
John Hunt 1699-1701
John Pell 1691-95
John Thomas 1743-77
Jonathan Odall 1715-16
Joseph Budd 1716-22
Joseph Purdy 1695-99, 1701-2, 1709-10
Joseph Theall 1691-95, 1697
Josiah Hunt 1702-10, 1715-16
Lewis Morris 1710-28
Lewis Morris Sr. 1733-38
Lewis Morris Jr. 1732-50
Lewis Morris 1769 Also served as a delegate to the New York Provincial and Continental Congresses.
Peter De Lancey 1750-68 Son of Stephen Delancey.[61]
William Willet 1701, 1702-9, 1710-15, 1716-33

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ By 1775, thirty-nine Assemblymen represented sixteen districts made up of Counties and Manors.[3]
  2. ^ Van Cortlandt Manor was originally a 86,000-acre (35,000 ha) tract granted as a Patent to Stephanus Van Cortlandt in 1697 by King William III, stretching from the Hudson River on the west to the first boundary line between the Province of New York and the Colony of Connecticut, on the east, twenty English miles in length by ten in width, in shape nearly a rectangular parallelogram, forming, "The Manor of Cortlandt."[5]
  3. ^ Livingston Manor was a 160,000 acre (650 square kilometres (250 sq mi)) tract of land granted to Robert Livingston the Elder and confirmed by royal charter of George I of Great Britain in 1715, creating the manor and lordship of Livingston.[6] The original patent was obtained in July 1686.[7]
  4. ^ The Manor of Rensselaerwyck was, first, a Dutch patroonship and, later, an English manor. The estate was originally deeded by the Dutch West India Company to merchant Kiliaen van Rensselaer in 1630. Rensselaerswyck extended for miles on each side of the Hudson River near present-day Albany. It included most of what are now the present New York counties of Albany and Rensselaer, as well as parts of Columbia and Greene counties.[8]
  5. ^ No journals or records of names of members of general assembly, between 1683 and 1691, are preserved. The duration of office of members, previous to 1743, was unlimited and dependent upon the will of the governor; and this power of convening, proroguing and dissolving the assembly was frequently exercised to procure a compliance with the wishes of the executive.[4]
Sources
  1. ^ "English Colony and Province". www.nycourts.gov. Historical Society of the New York Courts | New York Legal History. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  2. ^ Driscoll, John T. "Thomas Dongan." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 6 Jun. 2014
  3. ^ "New York General Assembly". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hough, A.M., M.D., Franklin B. (1858). The New York Civil List: Containing The Names And Origin Of The Civil Divisions, And The Names And Dates Of Election Or Appointment Of The Principal State And County Officers From The Revolution To The Present Time. Albany: Weed, Parsons and Co. Retrieved 19 September 2018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Bolton, Robert (1881). The History of the Several Towns, Manors and Patents of the County of Westchester Vol 1. New York: Charles F. Roper. pp. 94–95. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d Livingston, Edwin Brockholst (1901). The Livingstons of Livingston manor; being the history of that branch of the Scottish house of Callendar which settled in the English province of New York during the reign of Charles the Second; and also including an account of Robert Livingston of Albany, "The nephew," a settler in the same province and his principal descendants. New York: The Knickerbocker Press. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  7. ^ Livingston, James D.; Penney, Sherry H. (March 1987). "The Breakup of Livingston Manor" (PDF). The Hudson Valley Regional Review. Vol. 4, Number 1: 56–73. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  8. ^ "Freedoms, as Given by the Council of the Nineteen of the Chartered West India Company to All those who Want to Establish a Colony in New Netherland". World Digital Library. 1630. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
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  10. ^ Hough, Franklin Benjamin (1854). A History of Jefferson County in the State of New York: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. Joel Munsell. p. 452. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
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  27. ^ a b Reynolds, Cuyler (1911). Hudson-Mohawk Genealogical and Family Memoirs: A Record of Achievements of the People of the Hudson and Mohawk Valleys in New York State, Included Within the Present Counties of Albany, Rensselaer, Washington, Saratoga, Montgomery, Fulton, Schenectady, Columbia and Greene. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  28. ^ Chester, Alden; Williams, Edwin Melvin (2005). Courts and Lawyers of New York: A History, 1609-1925. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 268. ISBN 9781584774242. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  29. ^ Judd, Jacob (1977). Van Cortlandt Family Papers Vol II. Tarrytown: Sleepy Hollow Restorations. pp. xxxviii, liv. ISBN 0-912882-29-8.
  30. ^ Livingston, Edwin Brockholst (1910). The Livingstons of Livingston Manor: Being the History of that Branch of the Scottish House of Callendar which Settled in the English Province of New York During the Reign of Charles the Second; and Also Including an Account of Robert Livingston of Albany, "The Nephew," a Settler in the Same Province and His Principal Descendants. Knickerbocker Press. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  31. ^ Thompson, Benjamin Franklin (1839). History of Long Island: Containing an Account of the Discovery and Settlement; with Other Important and Interesting Matters to the Present Time. E. French. p. 172. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  32. ^ "New-York Historical Society | Dr. Gerardus Beekman (1653-1723)". www.nyhistory.org. New York Historical Society. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  33. ^ a b Clifford Buck and William McDermott, "Eighteenth Century Documents of the Nine Partners Patent Dutchess County, New York", Collections of the Dutchess County Historical Society, Vol. X, Gateway Press, 1979.
  34. ^ "BOERUM, Simon - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  35. ^ "Philip Livingston". dsdi1776.com/. The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  36. ^ Bergen, Teunis G. (1876). The Bergen Family; Or: The Descendants of Hans Hansen Bergen, One of the Early Settlers of New York and Brooklyn, L. I. J. Munsell. p. 153. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  37. ^ a b "Adolph Philipse Estate Records (1749-1767)". archives.nypl.org. New York Public Library. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  38. ^ a b Lamb, Martha Joanna (1896). History of the City of New York: Its Origin, Rise and Progress. A. S. Barnes. p. 771. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  39. ^ Annual Register of the National Society of Colonial Dames in the State of New York. National Society of Colonial Dames in the State of New York. 1913. p. 260. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  40. ^ Council, New York (N Y. ) Common; Osgood, Herbert Levi; Keep, Austin Baxter; Nelson, Charles Alexander (1905). Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776: In Eight Volumes ... Dodd, Mead and Company. p. 375. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  41. ^ Whittelsey, Charles Barney (1902). The Roosevelt Genealogy, 1649-1902. Hartford, Connecticut: Press of J.B. Burr & Company. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  42. ^ Edward T. James, ed. (1974). Notable American Women, 1607–1950 : A Biographical Dictionary (3. print. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674627342.
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  44. ^ Bonomi, Patricia (1971). A Factious People, Politics and Society in Colonial New York. ISBN 0-231-03509-8.
  45. ^ Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999), Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-195-11634-8 pp.99-100
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  47. ^ "HARING, John - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
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