New York State Senate
|New York State Senate|
|New York State Legislature|
New session started
|January 3, 2017|
Majority caucus (32)
Minority caucus (31)
Length of term
|Authority||Article III, New York Constitution|
|Salary||$79,500/year + per diem|
|November 8, 2016|
|November 6, 2018|
State Senate Chamber|
New York State Capitol
Albany, New York
The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature. There are 63 seats in the Senate, and its members are elected to two-year terms. There are no limits on the number of terms one may serve. The current format for apportionment has followed the United States Supreme Court decision in Reynolds v. Sims, decided in 1964.
- 1 Partisan composition
- 2 Recent history
- 3 Officers
- 4 Current members
- 5 Committee leadership
- 6 District map
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Since World War II, the Democrats have only controlled the upper house twice. The first time came in 1965, after the 1964 Presidential Election only for them to lose it in special elections that year. The second time again came to power following the 2008 elections on the coattails of the victory of President Barack Obama. In mid-2009, dissatisfaction from billionaire Tom Golisano and some Senate Democrats over the leadership of Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith resulted in two Democratic Senators joining with the entire Republican caucus to install Senator Dean Skelos as Majority Leader and Temporary President. During the months of June and July, the Senate was mired in a leadership crisis that ended with the breakaway Democrats rejoining the caucus in late July. The Democrats maintained their majority throughout the remainder of the 2009–2010 session. Following state elections in 2010, Republicans were able to gain the two seats necessary to again reclaim the majority.
The Senate's apportionment has traditionally favored Upstate due to the state constitution's original method of giving each county, even sparsely populated ones, at least one senator (a practice that mirrored the United States Senate's approach to give each state the same number of senators). This changed with Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964), in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a "one man, one vote" system of state legislative apportionment is constitutionally required. Since then, in redistricting, the Senate has traditionally overrepresented upstate in exchange for the Assembly overrepresenting downstate (each legislative district is allowed up to 5% deviation from the average district population; the state legislature systemically uses this leeway to create less populous Senate districts upstate and more populous ones downstate, and vice versa in the Assembly).
State Senate seats in New York City are typically held by Democrats, while Senate seats outside New York City are typically held by Republicans. As of the start of the 2018 session, enrolled Republicans held only two seats in New York City: District 22 (Sen. Marty Golden, R-Brooklyn) and District 24 (Sen. Andrew Lanza, R-Staten Island). However, enrolled Democrats held only three seats north of Westchester County: Districts 44 (Sen. Neil Breslin), 53 (Sen. David Valesky), and 63 (Sen. Tim Kennedy). Furthermore, enrolled Democrats held only two of the nine Long Island Senate seats: District 8 (Sen. John Brooks) and District 9 (Sen. Todd Kaminsky). Eight of the enrolled Democrats were members of the Independent Democratic Conference, and another (Sen. Simcha Felder, D-Brooklyn) caucused with the Republicans after being elected on the Democratic, Republican, and Conservative Party lines.
Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 general election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades. Previously, the Republicans had held the chamber for all but one year from 1939 to 2008, even as New York turned almost solidly Democratic at all levels.
However, a power struggle emerged before the new term began. Four Democratic senators—Rubén Díaz Sr. (Bronx), Carl Kruger (Brooklyn), Pedro Espada, Jr. (Bronx), and Hiram Monserrate (Queens)—immediately refused to caucus with their party. The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith (Queens) as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions. Monserrate soon reached an agreement with Smith that reportedly included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee. The remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week, but was ultimately resolved with Smith becoming majority leader until early June 2009, when two Democrats joined with Republicans to elect a new leadership for the New York State Senate, reaching a power-sharing deal under which Republicans became, again, technically the majority party.
At the beginning of the 2009-2010 legislative session, there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate. On June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.--two Democrats who were part of what was described by the Associated Press as a "parliamentary coup"--voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senator Dean Skelos (R-Rockville Centre) as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith. The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein (Bronx) unilaterally moved to recess, and Smith had the lights and Internet cut off. However, they were unable to stop the session. All 30 Republicans plus two Democrats, Monserrate and Espada, voted in favor of the resolution. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader. Both Monserrate and Espada were members of the original "Gang of Four" (the other two being Díaz, Sr. and Kruger), a group of Democratic senators that threatened to defect to the Republican caucus to prevent Smith from taking control of the chamber in January 2009. Monserrate had backed out of the Gang at the time, being the first of the four to back Smith.
The apparent Republican seizure of power was tenuous in any event. Smith claimed the vote was illegal because of Klein's motion to adjourn; parliamentary procedure stipulates that a vote to adjourn takes precedence over all other business. However, Smith, Klein, and most of the Democrats walked out before an actual vote to adjourn could be taken. Smith has also claimed that it is illegal to oust the majority leader in the middle of a two-year term, and as such, leaders can only be replaced at the beginning of a term, except in the case of death or resignation. Smith still asserted he was majority leader and would challenge the vote in court. He locked the doors of the state senate chambers in an effort to prevent any further legislative action. The Espada-Skelos coalition majority, which also courted as many as ten more Democrats, announced plans to hold sessions in the "Well" of the legislative office building until chamber doors are reopened. By the time of the scheduled session on June 10 at 3:00 p.m., at the request of Governor David Paterson, the keys to the senate chamber were turned over to the coalition; Smith has claimed that the coalition stole the key. The scheduled session was eventually postponed.
Both Monserrate and Espada faced accusations of unethical or criminal conduct. Monserrate was indicted for felony assault in March and would have automatically lost his seat if convicted. New York, like most states, has a provision in its state constitution which bars convicted felons from holding office. (Monseratte would be acquitted of the felonies, but was convicted on misdemeanors.) Espada was the target of a state investigation into whether he funded his campaign with money siphoned from a nonprofit health care agency he controls. The Bronx County District Attorney's office was also investigating charges that Espada actually resided in Mamaroneck, Westchester County rather than the north Bronx district he represented.
As a result of the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson (D-Brooklyn) to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. This led Monserrate to declare that he would once again caucus with the Democrats, which led to a 31–31 split.
On July 9, 2009, a source stated that Espada would be rejoining the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal to have Smith be pro tem president until a "transition period" during which Senator Sampson would ascend to the Senate's Temporary Presidency. The term expired with Smith still as Temporary President. Democrats orchestrated the removal of both Espada and Monserrate from their ranks; the Senate voted to expel Monserrate, while Espada was defeated in a primary election that had the state party back his primary opponent, Gustavo Rivera.
The Republicans made a net gain of two seats in the 2010 elections to claim a 32–30 majority at the commencement of the January 2011 legislative session. One Republican Senate incumbent (Sen. Frank Padavan of Queens) was defeated on Election Day, while Democratic candidate David Carlucci was elected to an open seat in Senate District 38 that had been vacated due to the death of Republican Senator Thomas Morahan. Four Democratic incumbents lost their seats to Republicans in the 2010 elections; Sen. Brian Foley was defeated by Lee Zeldin, Sen. Antoine Thompson was defeated by Mark Grisanti, Sen. Darrel Aubertine was defeated by Patty Ritchie, and Craig Johnson was defeated by Jack Martins.
Just before the new legislative session convened in January 2011, four Democrats, led by former Democratic whip Jeff Klein, broke away from the main Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Klein said that he and his three colleagues could no longer support the leadership of Senate Democratic Leader John Sampson. Additionally, in March of 2011, "Gang of Four" member Senator Carl Kruger surrendered to bribery charges. He later pled guilty to those charges in December of 2011.
Following the 2010 census, New York redistricted the Senate, expanding it from 62 to 63 seats effective in January 2013. When all election night results were tabulated on November 6, 2012, Democrats held a total of 33 seats for a three-seat majority--just their third Senate majority since World War II. However, on December 4, 2012, it was announced that Senate Republicans had reached a power-sharing deal with the four-member Independent Democratic Conference (IDC); the IDC had previously defected from the Democratic leadership. Under the agreement, Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos and Senate IDC Leader Jeff Klein would alternate daily in the role of Temporary President of the Senate. Together, the Senate Republicans and the IDC held enough seats to form a governing majority; that majority was augmented when freshman Sen. Simcha Felder of Brooklyn, who was elected on the Republican, Conservative and Democratic Party lines, chose to join the Senate Republican Conference. Also, former Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith joined the Independent Democrats, only to be expelled from the conference in April 2013 due to a scandal in which Smith attempted to bribe the Republican Party chairs in New York City for a Wilson Pakula to run in the upcoming New York City mayoral election. (The previous Senate Minority Leader, Sen. John L. Sampson, was expelled from his conference on May 6, 2013 following his arrest on embezzlement charges. Sampson was later convicted for making false statements to federal agents in relation to the initial embezzlement case.)
Senate District 46 was embroiled in a recount when the new Senate was sworn in and the then-leading candidate, Republican George Amedore, became a New York state senator. After the recount was completed, Amedore lost by 18 votes to Democrat Cecilia Tkaczyk, making him the shortest-serving senator in modern New York history and the loser of the state's second-closest Senate race. Amedore would eventually win a rematch with Tkaczyk in 2014.
In 2014, the Independent Democratic Conference announced that it would end its political alliance with the Republicans and create a new one with the Senate Democratic Conference, citing a need "to fight for the core Democratic policies that are left undone." In the 2014 elections, Senate Republicans retook an outright majority in the Senate, and the IDC reneged on its deal with the Democrats and remained allied with the Senate Republican Conference.
On May 4, 2015, Attorney for the Southern District of New York Preet Bharara, announced the arrest of Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos, along with his son, and Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver. Within days, Skelos announced that he was stepping down as leader of the Republican Caucus and as Majority Leader. Senator John Flanagan, of Suffolk County, became the new Majority Leader, and the first Majority Leader from Suffolk County. After Skelos was convicted in December 2015, his seat was declared vacant, with a special election to be held on the presidential primary of 2016. The special election was won by Democrat Todd Kaminsky, resulting in the Democratic Party having a numerical 32-31 advantage over the Republicans in the State Senate. Despite this, Senator Felder and the members of the IDC chose to remain in coalition with the Republican majority.
Late in 2016, Senator Jesse Hamilton announced his intention to join the IDC if re-elected. Hamilton, in his first election in 2014, was aided by the Independent Democrats, which had resulted in speculation he would eventually join the caucus.
After all 2016 election results were announced, Senate Republicans lost one seat on Long Island and gained an upstate seat in Buffalo. On Long Island, freshman Sen. Michael Venditto was defeated in a close race by Democrat John Brooks. In Buffalo, the open seat vacated by Democratic Sen. Mark Panepinto (who did not seek re-election) was won by Republican Erie County Clerk Chris Jacobs. Sen. Simcha Felder, who tied for most conservative member of the Senate according to the Conservative Party in 2016, announced that he would continue to caucus with the GOP; Felder's move ensured that the Republicans would retain control of the Senate by a margin of 32-31.
Liberal groups in New York State, including the Working Families Party, called on the governor to intervene and pressure Sen. Felder, the IDC, and the Senate Democratic Conference to unite to make New York a united one-party government in opposition to President-elect Donald Trump's incoming administration. Klein criticized those groups along with Minority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins for lack of outreach as well as for calling on the governor to intervene in a separate branch of government. On January 2, 2017, Senate Majority Leader Flanagan and Senate IDC Leader Klein announced the continuation of their coalition. Klein, in a statement to the press, opined that the coalition allowed for the passage of bipartisan legislation and the consideration of pragmatic, progressive ideas. The Republicans retained Senate control with 32 votes, including every Senator elected as a Republican and Sen. Felder.
On April 4, 2018, the IDC announced that it would dissolve, that its members would rejoin the Senate Democratic Conference, that Stewart-Cousins would continue as Senate Democratic Leader, and that Sen. Klein would become the Deputy Democratic Conference Leader. The announcement followed a meeting called by Governor Andrew Cuomo at which Cuomo requested that the IDC reunite with the Senate Democratic Conference. On April 16, the IDC was dissolved. After the IDC dissolved, the Senate Democratic Conference contained 29 Members, the Senate Republican Conference contained 32 Members (including Sen. Felder), and there were two vacant Senate seats. After two April 24, 2018 special elections were won by Democrats, the Democrats gained a numerical Senate majority; however, with Sen. Felder's continued support, the Republicans maintained a one-vote governing majority in the Senate.
As of May 2018, five Republican members of the State Senate--Sens. John Bonacic, Tom Croci, John A. DeFrancisco, William J. Larkin Jr., and Kathy Marchione--had announced that they would not seek re-election in the fall.
In the September 13, 2018 Democratic primary elections, all eight former members of the IDC then serving in the State Senate faced challengers. Six of the challengers won: John Liu defeated Tony Avella, Robert Jackson defeated Marisol Alcantara, Alessandra Biaggi defeated Jeff Klein, Jessica Ramos defeated Jose Peralta, Zellnor Myrie defeated Jesse Hamilton, and Rachel May defeated Valesky. Carlucci and Savino won their respective primaries.
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|Begin 2013 session||28||4||1||30||63||0|
|Begin 2015 session||24||1||5||1||32||63||0|
|July 1, 2016||25||31||62||1|
|Begin 2017 session||24||7||1||31||63||0|
|January 25, 2017||23||8|
|February 15, 2017||22||62||1|
|May 23, 2017||23||63||0|
|Aug. 9, 2017||22||62||1|
|Nov. 7, 2017||23||63||0|
|January 1, 2018||21||61||2|
|April 4, 2018||29|
|April 24, 2018||31||63||0|
|Latest voting share||49.2%||50.8%|
The Senate is headed by its President, a post held ex officio by the Lieutenant Governor. The Senate President has a casting vote in the event of a tie, but otherwise may not vote. More often, the Senate is presided over by the Temporary President, a post which is normally also held by the Majority Leader. After the 2008 elections, the Senate had a Democratic majority for the first time since 1965. They lost that majority on November 2, 2010, when Republican Jack Martins defeated Democratic Senator Craig Johnson and former Senator, now Republican Congressman Lee Zeldin, defeated Democrat Brian Foley. Following the defections of Jeffrey Klein, David Valesky and Diane Savino from the Democratic caucus, the trio joined freshman David Carlucci in a newly formed Independent Conference; this conference serves as "crossbenchers" separate from the Democratic and Republican conferences.
The Senate has one additional officer outside those who are elected by the people: the Secretary of the Senate is a post that is chosen by a majority vote of the senators, and does not have voting power (he/she is allowed, though officially discouraged, from discussing and negotiating legislative matters). The Secretary of the Senate is responsible for administering the Senate's office space, overseeing the handling of bills and the oversight of the sergeants-at-arms and the stenographer. The position is currently held by Frank Patience, who was elected to a two-year position in January 2011.
|President of the Senate/Lieutenant Governor||Kathy C. Hochul||Dem|
|Temporary President||John J. Flanagan||Rep||2|
|Republican Conference leader||John J. Flanagan||Rep||2|
|Democratic Conference leader||Andrea Stewart-Cousins||Dem||35|
- Temporary President: Sen. John Flanagan
- Senate Majority Leader: Sen. John Flanagan
- Deputy Senate Majority Leader: Sen. John DeFrancisco
Republican Conference Leadership
- John J. Flanagan, Temporary President and Majority Leader
- John A. DeFrancisco, Deputy Majority Leader for Legislative Operations
- Catharine M. Young, Chair, Senate Finance Committee
- Kenneth P. LaValle, Chairman, Senate Majority Conference
- James L. Seward, Chair Majority Program Development Committee
- Kemp Hannon, Assistant Majority Leader on Conference Operations
- William J. Larkin Jr., Assistant Majority Leader for House Operations
- Carl L. Marcellino, Majority Whip
- John J. Bonacic, Deputy Majority Leader for State/Federal Relations
- Martin J. Golden, Vice Chair, Majority Conference
- Josesph E. Robach, Secretary of the Senate Majority Conference
- Elizabeth Little, Chair, Majority Steering Committee
- Joseph Griffo, Deputy Majority Whip
- Andrew J. Lanza, Assistant Majority Whip
- Michael H. Ranzenhofer, Deputy Majority Leader for Economic Development
- Patrick M. Gallivan, Liaison to the Executive Branch
- Patricia Ritchie, Deputy Majority Leader for Senate/Assembly Relations*
Democatic Conference leadership
- Andrea Stewart-Cousins, Democratic Conference Leader
- Jeffrey D. Klein, Deputy Democratic Conference Leader
- Liz Krueger, Ranking Democratic Member of Senate Finance Committee
- Michael Gianaris, Chair of Democratic Conference
- Martin Malave Dilan, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Policy and Administration
- Timothy M. Kennedy, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Conference Operations
- Neil D. Breslin, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Floor Operations
- Kevin S. Parker, Democratic Conference Whip
- Toby Ann Stavisky, Vice Chair of Democratic Conference
- Velmanette Montgomery, Secretary of the Senate Democratic Conference
- Joseph P. Addabbo Jr, Assistant Democratic Conference Whip
- Roxanne J. Persaud, Deputy Democratic Conference Whip
- Brad Hoylman, Deputy Democratic Conference Floor Leader
- Gustavo Rivera, Chair of Democratic Conference Program Development
- Leroy Comrie, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Intergovernmental Affairs
|District||Senator||Party||First elected||Counties Represented|
|1||Kenneth P. LaValle||Republican||1976||Suffolk|
|2||John J. Flanagan||Republican||2002||Suffolk|
|5||Carl L. Marcellino||Republican||1995*||Nassau, Suffolk|
|8||John Brooks||Democratic||2016||Nassau, Suffolk|
|10||James Sanders, Jr.||Democratic||2012||Queens|
|12||Michael N. Gianaris||Democratic||2010||Queens|
|15||Joseph Addabbo, Jr.||Democratic||2008||Queens|
|16||Toby Ann Stavisky||Democratic||1999*||Queens|
|17||Simcha Felder||Democratic||2012||Kings (Brooklyn)|
|18||Martin Malave Dilan||Democratic||2002||Kings|
|21||Kevin S. Parker||Democratic||2002||Kings|
|22||Martin J. Golden||Republican||2002||Kings|
|23||Diane Savino||Democratic||2004||Kings, Richmond (Staten Island)|
|24||Andrew J. Lanza||Republican||2006||Richmond|
|26||Brian Kavanagh||Democratic||2017*||Kings, New York (Manhattan)|
|27||Brad Hoylman||Democratic||2012||New York|
|28||Liz Krueger||Democratic||2002*||New York|
|29||Jose M. Serrano||Democratic||2004||New York, Bronx|
|30||Brian Benjamin||Democratic||2017*||New York|
|31||Marisol Alcantara||Democratic||2016||New York|
|34||Jeffrey D. Klein||Democratic||2004||Bronx, Westchester|
|36||Jamaal Bailey||Democratic||2016||Bronx, Westchester|
|38||David Carlucci||Democratic||2010||Rockland, Westchester|
|39||William J. Larkin, Jr.||Republican||1990||Orange, Rockland, Ulster|
|40||Terrence P. Murphy||Republican||2014||Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester|
|41||Susan J. Serino||Republican||2014||Dutchess, Putnam|
|42||John J. Bonacic||Republican||1998||Delaware, Orange, Sullivan, Ulster|
|43||Kathleen A. Marchione||Republican||2012||Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Washington|
|44||Neil Breslin||Democratic||1996||Albany, Rensselaer|
|45||Betty Little||Republican||2002||Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Saint Lawrence, Warren, Washington|
|46||George A. Amedore, Jr.||Republican||2014||Albany, Greene, Montgomery, Schenectady, Ulster|
|47||Joseph Griffo||Republican||2006||Lewis, Oneida, St. Lawrence|
|48||Patty Ritchie||Republican||2010||Jefferson, Oswego, St. Lawrence|
|49||Jim Tedisco||Republican||2016||Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Saratoga, Schenectady|
|50||John DeFrancisco||Republican||1992||Cayuga, Onondaga|
|51||James Seward||Republican||1986||Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Herkimer, Otsego, Schoharie, Tompkins, Ulster|
|52||Fred Akshar||Republican||2015*||Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Tioga|
|53||David Valesky||Democratic||2004||Madison, Oneida, Onondaga|
|54||Pam Helming||Republican||2016||Cayuga, Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, Tompkins, Wayne|
|55||Richard Funke||Republican||2014||Monroe, Ontario|
|57||Catharine Young||Republican||2005*||Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Livingston|
|58||Tom O'Mara||Republican||2010||Chemung, Schuyler, Steuben, Tompkins, Yates|
|59||Patrick Gallivan||Republican||2010||Erie, Livingston, Monroe, Wyoming|
|61||Michael H. Ranzenhofer||Republican||2008||Erie, Genesee, Monroe|
|62||Robert G. Ortt||Republican||2014||Monroe, Niagara, Orleans|
|63||Timothy M. Kennedy||Democratic||2010||Erie|
* Elected in a special election
As of August 2018, the State Senate committee chairs were as follows (committee chairs are Republican unless otherwise noted):
- Administrative Regulations Review Commission: Chris Jacobs
- Aging: Sue Serino
- Agriculture: Patty Ritchie
- Alcoholism and Drug Abuse: George Amedore
- Banks: Elaine Phillips
- Children and Families: Pam Helming
- Cities: Simcha Felder (Democrat caucusing with Republicans)
- Civil Service and Pensions: Martin J. Golden
- Codes: Andrew Lanza
- Commerce, Economic Development and Small Business: Philip Boyle
- Commission on Rural Resources: Pam Helming
- Consumer Protection: Chris Jacobs
- Corporations, Authorities and Commissions: Michael H. Ranzenhofer
- Crime Victims, Crime and Corrections: Patrick Gallivan
- Cultural Affairs, Tourism, Parks and Recreation: Rich Funke
- Education: Carl Marcellino
- Elections: Fred Akshar
- Energy: Joseph Griffo
- Environmental Conservation: Tom O'Mara
- Ethics and Internal Governance: Elaine Phillips
- Finance: Catharine Young
- Health: Kemp Hannon
- Higher Education: Kenneth P. LaValle
- Housing, Construction and Community Development: Betty Little
- Infrastructure and Capital Investment: Elaine Phillips
- Insurance: James Seward
- Investigations and Governmental Operations: Terrence Murphy
- Judiciary: John Bonacic
- Labor: Fred Akshar
- Select Committee on Libraries: Patty Ritchie
- Local Government: Kathy Marchione
- Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities: Robert G. Ortt
- New York City Education Subcommittee: Simcha Felder (Democrat caucusing with Republicans)
- Racing, Gaming and Wagering: John Bonacic
- Rules: John J. Flanagan
- Select Committee on Science, Technology, Incubation and Entrepreneurship: Martin J. Golden
- Social Services: Jim Tedisco
- Select Committee on State-Native American Relations: Joseph Griffo
- Transportation: Joe Robach
- Veterans, Homeland Security and Military Affairs: Tom Croci
- Majority Leader of the New York State Senate
- List of New York State Senators
- New York State Assembly
- New York State Capitol
- New York state elections, 2008
- 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis
- New York Provincial Congress
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- Sen. Felder has been elected on the Democratic, Republican and Conservative Party lines (as of the 2016 election) and has caucused with the Republicans since his first election, but he is a registered Democrat.