New York State Senate

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New York State Senate
New York State Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Term limits
None
History
New session started
January 3, 2017
Leadership
Kathy C. Hochul (D)
Since January 1, 2015
John J. Flanagan (R)
Since May 11, 2015
Leader of the Independent Democrats
Jeffrey Klein (IDC)
Since January, 2011
Andrea Stewart-Cousins (D)
Since December 19, 2012
Structure
Seats 63
New York State Senate Diagram.svg
Political groups

Majority

Minority

Length of term
2 years
Authority Article III, New York Constitution
Salary $79,500/year + per diem
Elections
Last election
November 8, 2016
Next election
November 3, 2018
Redistricting Legislative Control
Meeting place
NYSenateChamber.jpg
State Senate Chamber
New York State Capitol
Albany, New York
Website
NYSenate.gov

The New York State Senate is considered the upper house in the New York State Legislature. It has 63 members each elected to two-year terms.[1] There are no limits on the number of terms one may serve. The New York Constitution provides for a varying number of members in the Senate,[2] elected from single-member constituencies equal in population. The current format for apportionment has followed the Supreme Court decision in Baker v. Carr, decided in 1964.

Recent State Senate history[edit]

2008 elections and power struggle[edit]

For more information, see New York state elections, 2008.

Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 General Election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades.[3][4] Previously, the Republicans had held the chamber for all but one year from 1939 to 2008, even as New York turned almost solidly Democratic at all levels.

However, a power struggle emerged before the new term began. Four Democratic senators—Rubén Díaz, Sr. (Bronx), Carl Kruger (Brooklyn), Pedro Espada, Jr. (Bronx), and Hiram Monserrate (Queens)—immediately refused to caucus with their party.[5] The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith (Queens) as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions.[6] Monserrate soon reached an agreement with Smith that reportedly included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee.[7] The remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week,[8] but was ultimately resolved[9] with Smith becoming majority leader[10] until early June 2009, when two Democrats joined with Republicans to elect a new leadership for the New York State Senate, reaching a power-sharing deal under which Republicans became, again, technically the majority party.

Republican reclamation and ensuing dispute[edit]

Though there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate, on June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.—who were part of what was described by the Associated Press as a "parliamentary coup"—allegedly voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senator Dean Skelos (R-Rockville Centre) as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Malcolm Smith.[11][12]

The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein (Bronx) unilaterally moved to recess, and Smith had the lights and Internet cut off. However, they were unable to stop the session. All 30 Republicans plus two Democrats, Monserrate and Espada, voted in favor of the resolution. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader.[13] Both Monserrate and Espada were members of the original "Gang of Four" (the other two being Díaz, Sr. and Kruger), a group of Democratic senators that threatened to defect to the Republican caucus to prevent Smith from taking control of the chamber in January 2009. Monserrate had backed out of the Gang at the time, being the first of the four to back Smith.

The apparent Republican seizure of power was tenuous in any event. Smith claimed the vote was illegal because of Klein's motion to adjourn; parliamentary procedure stipulates that a vote to adjourn takes precedence over all other business. However, Smith, Klein, and most of the Democrats walked out before an actual vote to adjourn could be taken. Smith has also claimed that it is illegal to oust the majority leader in the middle of a two-year term, and as such, leaders can only be replaced at the beginning of a term, except in the case of death or resignation. Smith still asserted he was majority leader and would challenge the vote in court. He locked the doors of the state senate chambers in an effort to prevent any further legislative action.[14] The Espada-Skelos coalition majority, which also courted as many as ten more Democrats,[15] announced plans to hold sessions in the "Well" of the legislative office building until chamber doors are reopened.[16] By the time of the scheduled session on June 10 at 3:00 p.m., at the request of Governor David Paterson, the keys to the senate chamber were turned over to the coalition;[17] Smith has claimed that the coalition stole the key.[15] The scheduled session was eventually postponed.[15]

Both Monserrate and Espada faced accusations of unethical or criminal conduct. Monserrate was indicted for felony assault in March and would have automatically lost his seat if convicted. New York, like most states, has a provision in its state constitution which bars convicted felons from holding office.[14] (Monseratte would be acquitted of the felonies, but was convicted on misdemeanors.) Espada was the target of a state investigation into whether he funded his campaign with money siphoned from a nonprofit health care agency he controls. The Bronx County District Attorney's office was also investigating charges that Espada actually resided in Mamaroneck, Westchester County rather than the north Bronx district he represented.[18]

As a result of the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson (D-Brooklyn) to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. This led Monserrate to declare that he would once again caucus with the Democrats, which led to a 31–31 split.[19]

On July 9, 2009, a source stated that Espada would be rejoining the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal to have Smith be pro tem president until a "transition period" during which Senator Sampson would ascend to the Senate's Temporary Presidency.[20] The term expired with Smith still as Temporary President. Democrats orchestrated the removal of both Espada and Monserrate from their ranks; the Senate voted to expel Monserrate, while Espada was defeated in a primary election that had the state party back his primary opponent, Gustavo Rivera.

2011–2016[edit]

The Republicans regained control of the Senate at the 2010 census, with a 32–30 majority. Just before the new chamber convened, four Democrats, led by former Democratic whip Klein, broke away from the main Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Klein said that he and his three colleagues could no longer support Sampson's leadership.[21]

Following the 2010 census, New York redistricted the Senate, expanding it from 62 to 63 seats effective in January 2013. When all election night results were tabulated on November 6, 2012, it appeared that Democrats would hold 33 seats for a three-seat majority—just their third Senate majority since World War II. However, Senator Simcha Felder of Brooklyn, elected as a Democrat, chose to conference with the Republicans.[22] It was later announced, on December 4, 2012, that the Republican Party came to a power-sharing deal with the four-member Independent Democratic Conference, which had previously defected from the Democratic leadership. Under the agreement, Senators Skelos and Klein would alternate daily as temporary president of the Senate. Also as part of the change, former Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith joined the Independent Democrats,[23] only to be expelled from the conference in April 2013 due to a scandal in which Smith attempted to bribe the Republican Party chairs in New York City for a Wilson Pakula to run in the upcoming New York City mayoral election.[24] Previous Senate Minority Leader John L. Sampson was expelled from his conference on May 6, 2013, following his arrest.

District 46 was embroiled in a recount when the new Senate was sworn in and the then-leading candidate George Amedore (GOP) became a New York state senator. After the recount was completed, he lost by 18 votes, making him the shortest-serving senator in modern New York history and the loser of the state's second-closest Senate race, to Democratic opponent Cecilia Tkaczyk.[25][26] Amedore would eventually win a rematch with Tkaczyk in 2014 and be elected to a full term.

In 2014, the Independent Democratic Conference announced that they would end their political alliance with the Republicans and create a new one with the Senate Democratic Conference, citing a need "to fight for the core Democratic policies that are left undone."[27] On November 5, 2014, Rubén Díaz, Sr. announced his intention to leave the Democratic Caucus and ally himself with, but not formally join, the Republicans.[28] However, as of December 2016, Sen. Diaz remains a member of the Senate Democratic Conference.[29] As of January 5, 2017, the IDC has continued its relationship with the Senate Republicans.[30]

On May 4, 2015, Attorney for the Southern District of New York Preet Bharara, announced the arresting of Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos, along with his son, and Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver.[31] Within days Skelos announced he was stepping down as leader of the Republican Caucus and as Majority Leader. Senator John Flanagan, of Suffolk County, became the new Majority Leader, and the first Majority Leader from Suffolk County.[32] After his conviction in December 2015, his seat was declared vacant with a special election to be held on the presidential primary of 2016.[33][34] The special election was won by Democrat Todd Kaminsky, resulting in the Democratic Party having a numerical 32-31 advantage over the Republicans in the State Senate. Despite this, Senator Felder and the members of the IDC chose to remain in coalition with the Republican majority.

Late in 2016, Senator Jesse Hamilton announced his intention to join the IDC if re-elected when the Senate reconvenes in January 2017.[35] Hamilton, in his first election in 2014, was aided by the Independent Democrats, which had resulted in speculation he would eventually join the caucus.[36] In late January 2017, Senator Jose Peralta announced he was joining the IDC. [37]

2016 elections and beyond[edit]

On November 8, 2016 after all election results were announced the Republicans initially held on to all of their seats, and actually picked up an upstate seat. Two races on Long Island were initially close enough for absentee and court challenges, leading to initial uncertainty on control of the state senate. Within days however, Felder announced he wold caucus with the GOP, ensuring that the Republicans would retain the Senate.[38] A few weeks later it was announced that Senator Michael Venditto had lost re-election giving the Democrats a numerical majority, like in 2012.[39] Liberal groups in New York State, like the Working Families Party called on the Governor to intervene and force the IDC and mainline Democratic Conference to unite to make New York a united one-party government in opposition to President-elect Donald Trump's incoming administration. Klein criticized those groups along with Minority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins for lack of outreach as well as for calling on the Governor to intervene in a separate branch of government. On January 2, 2017 Majority Leader Flanagan and Senator Klein announced the continuation of their coalition, now with almost a 2/3rds majority in the Senate. Klein, in his statement to the press, stated that the coalition allows for bi-partisan legislation getting passed and pragmatic progressive ideas to be brought to the table.[40]

Partisan composition[edit]

The Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Since World War II, the Democrats have only controlled the upper house twice. The first time came in 1965, after the 1964 Presidential Election only for them to lose it in special elections that year. The second time again came to power following the 2008 elections on the coattails of the victory of President Barack Obama. In mid-2009, dissatisfaction by some Democrats in the State Senate along with billionaire Tom Golisano, over the leadership of Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith resulted in 2 Democratic Senators joining with the entire Republican caucus to install Senator Dean Skelos as Majority Leader and Temporary President. Over the month of June and July the Senate was mired in a leadership crisis that ended with the breakaway Democrats rejoining the caucus in late July. The Democrats maintained their majority throughout the remainder of the 2009–2010 session. Following state elections in 2010, Republicans were able to gain the two seats necessary to again reclaim the majority.

The Senate's apportionment has traditionally favored Upstate due to the state constitution's original method of giving each county, even sparsely populated ones, at least one senator (a practice that mirrored the United States Senate's approach to give each state the same number of senators).[41] This changed with Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964), in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a "one man, one vote" system of state legislative apportionment is constitutionally required. Since then, in redistricting, the Senate has traditionally overrepresented upstate in exchange for the Assembly overrepresenting downstate (each legislative district is allowed up to 5% deviation from the average district population; the state legislature systemically uses this leeway to create less populous Senate districts upstate and more populous ones downstate, and vice versa in the Assembly).

When the Democrats won the majority in 2008, they only held five seats upstate and two on Long Island. As of the start of the 2017 session, enrolled Democrats hold all but two seats in New York City, but only three north of Westchester County and only two of the nine Long Island seats. Within the enrolled Democrats, six of the New York City-based Democrats are members of the Independent Democratic Caucus and one caucuses with the Republicans. Two of the three Upstate Democrats are in the Democratic Conference while the remaining one caucuses with the Independent Democrats.

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic Ind. Dem.
Conference
Republican Vacant
Begin 2013 session 28 1 4 30 62 0
Begin 2015 session[42] 24 1 1 4 32 63 0
End 2016 session 25 5 31 62 1
Begin 2017 session 24 1 7 31 63 0
January 25, 2017[43] 23 8
February 15, 2017[44] 22 62 1
Latest voting share 34.9% 64.5%

Officers[edit]

The Senate is headed by its President, a post held ex officio by the Lieutenant Governor. The Senate President has a casting vote in the event of a tie, but otherwise may not vote. More often, the Senate is presided over by the Temporary President, a post which is normally also held by the Majority Leader. After the 2008 elections, the Senate had a Democratic majority for the first time since 1965. They lost that majority on November 2, 2010, when Republican Jack Martins defeated Democratic Senator Craig Johnson and former Senator, now Republican Congressman Lee Zeldin, defeated Democrat Brian Foley. Following the defections of Jeffrey Klein, David Valesky and Diane Savino from the Democratic caucus, the trio joined freshman David Carlucci in a newly formed Independent Conference; this conference serves as "crossbenchers" separate from the Democratic and Republican conferences.[45]

The Senate has one additional officer outside those who are elected by the people: the Secretary of the Senate is a post that is chosen by a majority vote of the senators, and does not have voting power (he/she is allowed, though officially discouraged, from discussing and negotiating legislative matters). The Secretary of the Senate is responsible for administering the Senate's ofice space, overseeing the handling of bills and the oversight of the sergeants-at-arms and the stenographer. The position is currently held by Frank Patience, who was elected to a two-year position in January 2011.[46]

Position Name Party District
President of the Senate/Lieutenant Governor Kathy C. Hochul Dem
Temporary President John J. Flanagan Rep 2
Republican Conference leader John J. Flanagan Rep 2
Democratic Conference leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins Dem 35
Independent Democratic Conference leader Jeffrey Klein[47] IDC 34

Majority leadership[edit]

  • Temporary President: Sen. John Flanagan
  • Senate Majority Leader: Sen. John Flanagan
  • Deputy Senate Majority Leader: Sen. John DeFranciscio

Republican Conference Leadership[edit]

  • John J. Flanagan, Temporary President and Majority Leader
  • John A. DeFrancisco, Deputy Majority Leader for Legislative Operations
  • Catharine M. Young, Chair, Senate Finance Committee
  • Kenneth P. LaValle, Chairman, Senate Majority Conference
  • James L. Seward, Chair Majority Program Development Committee
  • Kemp Hannon, Assistant Majority Leader on Conference Operations
  • William J. Larkin Jr., Assistant Majority Leader for House Operations
  • Carl L. Marcellino, Majority Whip
  • John J. Bonacic, Deputy Majority Leader for State/Federal Relations
  • Martin J. Golden, Vice Chair, Majority Conference
  • Josesph E. Robach, Secretary of the Senate Majority Conference
  • Elizabeth Little, Chair, Majority Steering Committee
  • Joseph Griffo, Deputy Majority Whip
  • Andrew J. Lanza, Assistant Majority Whip
  • Michael H. Ranzenhofer, Deputy Majority Leader for Economic Development
  • Patrick M. Gallivan, Liason to the Executive Branch
  • Patricia Ritchie, Deputy Majority Leader for Senate/Assembly Relations*

[48]

Independent Democratic Conference[edit]

  • Jeffrey D. Klein, Independent Democratic Conference Leader & Majority Coalition Leader
  • David J. Valesky, Deputy Independent Democratic Conference Leader for Legislative Operations
  • David Carlucci, Independent Democratic Conference Whip
  • Diane J. Savino, Independent Democratic Conference Liaison to the Executive Branch
  • Tony Avella, Assistant Conference Leader for Policy and Administration

Full Minority leadership[edit]

  • Andrea Stewart-Cousins, Democratic Conference Leader
  • Michael Gianaris, Deputy Democratic Conference Leader
  • Liz Krueger, Ranking Democratic Member of Senate Finance Committee
  • José M. Serrano, Chair of Democratic Conference
  • Martin Malave Dilan, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Policy and Administration
  • Timothy M. Kennedy, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Conference Operations
  • Neil D. Breslin, Assistant Democratic Conference Leader for Floor Operations
  • Kevin S. Parker, Vice Chair of Democratic Conference
  • Toby Ann Stavisky, Vice Chair of Democratic Conference
  • Velmanette Montgomery, Secretary of the Senate Democratic Conference
  • Bill Perkins, Deputy Democratic Conference Whip
  • Daniel Squadron, Assistant Democratic Conference Whip
  • Brad Hoylman, Deputy Democratic Conference Floor Leader
  • Gustavo Rivera, Chair of Democratic Conference Program Development

[49]

Members of the New York State Senate[edit]

District Senator Party Conference First elected Counties Represented
1 LaValle, Kenneth P.Kenneth P. LaValle Republican 1976 Suffolk
2 Flanagan, John J.John J. Flanagan Republican 2002 Suffolk
3 Croci, ThomasThomas Croci Republican 2014 Suffolk
4 Boyle, Philip M.Philip M. Boyle Republican 2012 Suffolk
5 Marcellino, Carl L.Carl L. Marcellino Republican 1995† Nassau, Suffolk
6 Hannon, KempKemp Hannon Republican 1989† Nassau
7 Phillips, ElaineElaine Phillips Republican 2016 Nassau
8 Brooks, JohnJohn Brooks Democratic 2016 Nassau, Suffolk
9 Kaminsky, ToddTodd Kaminsky Democratic 2016† Nassau
10 Sanders, Jr., JamesJames Sanders, Jr. Democratic 2012 Queens
11 Avella, TonyTony Avella Democratic IDC 2010 Queens
12 Gianaris, Michael N.Michael N. Gianaris Democratic 2010 Queens
13 Peralta, JoseJose Peralta Democratic IDC 2010† Queens
14 Comrie, LeroyLeroy Comrie Democratic 2014 Queens
15 Addabbo, Jr., JosephJoseph Addabbo, Jr. Democratic 2008 Queens
16 Stavisky, Toby AnnToby Ann Stavisky Democratic 1999† Queens
17 Felder, SimchaSimcha Felder Democratic Republican 2012 Kings (Brooklyn)
18 Dilan, Martin MalaveMartin Malave Dilan Democratic 2002 Kings
19 Persaud, RoxanneRoxanne Persaud Democratic 2015† Kings
20 Hamilton, JesseJesse Hamilton Democratic IDC 2014 Kings
21 Parker, Kevin S.Kevin S. Parker Democratic 2002 Kings
22 Golden, Martin J.Martin J. Golden Republican 2002 Kings
23 Savino, DianeDiane Savino Democratic IDC 2004 Kings, Richmond (Staten Island)
24 Lanza, Andrew J.Andrew J. Lanza Republican 2006 Richmond
25 Montgomery, VelmanetteVelmanette Montgomery Democratic 1984 Kings
26 Squadron, DanielDaniel Squadron Democratic 2008 Kings, New York (Manhattan)
27 Hoylman, BradBrad Hoylman Democratic 2012 New York
28 Krueger, LizLiz Krueger Democratic 2002† New York
29 Serrano, Jose M.Jose M. Serrano Democratic 2004 New York, Bronx
30 Vacant New York
31 Alcantara, MarisolMarisol Alcantara Democratic IDC 2016 New York
32 Díaz, Sr., RubénRubén Díaz, Sr. Democratic 2002 Bronx
33 Rivera, GustavoGustavo Rivera Democratic 2010 Bronx
34 Klein, Jeffrey D.Jeffrey D. Klein Democratic IDC 2004 Bronx, Westchester
35 Stewart-Cousins, AndreaAndrea Stewart-Cousins Democratic 2006 Westchester
36 Bailey, JamaalJamaal Bailey Democratic 2016 Bronx, Westchester
37 Latimer, George S.George S. Latimer Democratic 2012 Westchester
38 Carlucci, DavidDavid Carlucci Democratic IDC 2010 Rockland, Westchester
39 Larkin, Jr., William J.William J. Larkin, Jr. Republican 1990 Orange, Rockland, Ulster
40 Murphy, Terrence P.Terrence P. Murphy Republican 2014 Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester
41 Serino, Susan J.Susan J. Serino Republican 2014 Dutchess, Putnam
42 Bonacic, John J.John J. Bonacic Republican 1998 Delaware, Orange, Sullivan, Ulster
43 Marchione, Kathleen A.Kathleen A. Marchione Republican 2012 Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Washington
44 Breslin, NeilNeil Breslin Democratic 1996 Albany, Rensselaer
45 Little, BettyBetty Little Republican 2002 Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Saint Lawrence, Warren, Washington
46 Amedore, Jr., George A.George A. Amedore, Jr. Republican 2014 Albany, Greene, Montgomery, Schenectady, Ulster
47 Griffo, JosephJoseph Griffo Republican 2006 Lewis, Oneida, St. Lawrence
48 Ritchie, PattyPatty Ritchie Republican 2010 Jefferson, Oswego, St. Lawrence
49 Tedisco, JimJim Tedisco Republican 2016 Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Saratoga, Schenectady
50 DeFrancisco, JohnJohn DeFrancisco Republican 1992 Cayuga, Onondaga
51 Seward, JamesJames Seward Republican 1986 Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Herkimer, Otsego, Schoharie, Tompkins, Ulster
52 Akshar, FredFred Akshar Republican 2015† Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Tioga
53 Valesky, DavidDavid Valesky Democratic IDC 2004 Madison, Oneida, Onondaga
54 Helming, PamPam Helming Republican 2016 Cayuga, Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, Tompkins, Wayne
55 Funke, RichardRichard Funke Republican 2014 Monroe, Ontario
56 Robach, JosephJoseph Robach Republican 2002 Monroe
57 Young, CatharineCatharine Young Republican 2005† Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Livingston
58 O'Mara, TomTom O'Mara Republican 2010 Chemung, Schuyler, Steuben, Tompkins, Yates
59 Gallivan, PatrickPatrick Gallivan Republican 2010 Erie, Livingston, Monroe, Wyoming
60 Jacobs, ChrisChris Jacobs Republican 2016 Erie
61 Ranzenhofer, Michael H.Michael H. Ranzenhofer Republican 2008 Erie, Genesee, Monroe
62 Ortt, Robert G.Robert G. Ortt Republican 2014 Monroe, Niagara, Orleans
63 Kennedy, Timothy M.Timothy M. Kennedy Democratic 2010 Erie

†Elected in a special election

Committee leadership[edit]

As of January 2015 (committee leaders are Republican unless otherwise noted):

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Branches of Government in New York State". New York State Senate, A Guide to New York State's Government. New York State Senate. 1988. Retrieved April 23, 2009. 
  2. ^ McKinley, Jesse (February 24, 2014). "What Is a Majority Vote in the State Senate? The Answer Goes Beyond Simple Math". The New York Times. 
  3. ^ 2008 Election Results, New York State Board of Elections.
  4. ^ 2008–09 (Post-Election) Partisan Composition of State Legislatures National Conference of State Legislatures
  5. ^ New York Times. "Democrats Take State Senate." nytimes.com. November 5, 2008.
  6. ^ Peters, Jeremy W.Democrats Likely to Keep Control of State Senate, The New York Times, November 6, 2008.
  7. ^ Benjamin, Elizabeth. Monserrate Makes A Democratic Deal The Daily Politics. The Daily News November 8, 2008
  8. ^ Lanza, Michael. Smith Balks After ‘Gang of Three’ Talks The Queens Tribune December 11, 2008.
  9. ^ Democrats Reach Pact to Lead the Senate
  10. ^ Democrats Take Control of New York State Senate
  11. ^ "GOP, 2 Dems flip power balance in NY Senate", The Washington Post, June 8, 2009[dead link]
  12. ^ Odato, James. "Two Democrats join Republicans to topple Smith as Senate leader", Albany Times Union, June 8, 2009 Archived June 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ a b Peters, Jeremy, and Danny Hakim.Republicans Seize Control of State Senate. The New York Times, June 9, 2009
  15. ^ a b c Bauman, Valerie. Senate stalls: Coalition says it's still strong. Associated Press. Retrieved June 11, 2009
  16. ^ Benjamin, Elizabeth. Coalition government, Day One. New York Daily News "Daily Politics" blog. June 9, 2009.
  17. ^ Staten Island Live report on end of New York State Senate paralysis
  18. ^ Salonstall, David. Sen. Pedro Espada hounded by questions on ethics and residency. New York Daily News, June 10, 2009
  19. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (June 15, 2009) State Senate standoff means even bigger mess with Sen. Hiram Monserrate's change of heart. New York Daily News Retrieved June 15, 2009
  20. ^ Deadlock-Ending Deal Near? Espada To Return To The Democrats. New York Daily News Retrieved July 9, 2009
  21. ^ Thomas Kaplan; Nicholas Confessore (January 4, 2011). "4 Democrats in State Senate Break With Leaders". The New York Times. 
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ Kaplan, Thomas Coalition Is to Control State Senate as Dissident Democrats Join With the G.O.P., The New York Times, December 4, 2012.
  24. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (April 15, 2013). NYS Senate Independent Democratic Conference To Busted Malcolm Smith: Stay Away. New York Daily News. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  25. ^ United Press International (UPI), " Dem. squeaks into N.Y. Senate by 18 votes," January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 18, 2013
  26. ^ Vielkind, Jimmy "It's Tkaczyk by just 18 votes," Times Union, January 18, 2013, Retrieved January 19, 2013
  27. ^ Bain, Glenn. "Senate's Independent Democratic Conference announces end to alliance with Republicans – UPDATED". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2015. 
  28. ^ Gormley, Michael (November 5, 2014). Democrat Diaz will give Senate GOP’s slim majority another vote. Newsday. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ [4]
  31. ^ Craig, Susanne (May 4, 2015). "New York Senate Leader and Son Are Arrested on Corruption Charges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  32. ^ Kaplan, Thomas; Craig, Susanne (May 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, New York Senate Leader, Vacates Post". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  33. ^ Rashbaum, William K.; Craig, Susanne (December 11, 2015). "Dean Skelos, Ex-New York Senate Leader, and His Son Are Convicted of Corruption". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  34. ^ Rojas, Rick (January 30, 2016). "Special Election Is Set for April to Fill Seats Left Vacant in Albany". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  35. ^ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/brooklyn-senator-joins-breakaway-democrats-article-1.2863277
  36. ^ "Jesse Hamilton promises to join Senate's IDC". Politico PRO. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  37. ^ http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/sen-jose-peralta-blasts-failed-state-democratic-leadership-article-1.2959787
  38. ^ Yee, Vivian (November 21, 2016). "Simcha Felder, Rogue Democratic Senator, Will Remain Loyal to G.O.P.". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  39. ^ "Republic state Sen. Venditto concedes race to Democratic challenger". News 12 Long Island. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  40. ^ "LOVETT: Breakaway Senate Dems will side with GOP". NY Daily News. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  41. ^ http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=new+york+state+constitution&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8
  42. ^ Hamilton, Matthew; Karlin, Rick (January 8, 2015). "Session begins, lacking drama". Times Union. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  43. ^ "Sen. Jose Peralta defects to IDC". Politico PRO. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 
  44. ^ "State Sen. Bill Perkins wins old City Council seat". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 
  45. ^ The New Amigos
  46. ^ Patience Is The New Aponte
  47. ^ Capitol Confidential » Breakaway Senate Dems form caucus (video added)
  48. ^ https://www.nysenate.gov/senate-leadership
  49. ^ https://www.nysenate.gov/senate-leadership

External links[edit]