New York v. Strauss-Kahn
The People of the State of New York v. Strauss-Kahn was a criminal case relating to allegations of sexual assault and attempted rape made by a hotel maid, Nafissatou Diallo, against Dominique Strauss-Kahn at the Sofitel New York Hotel on May 14, 2011. The charges were dismissed at the request of the prosecution which pointed out serious doubts in Diallo's credibility and inconclusive physical evidence. In a TV interview in September, Strauss-Kahn admitted that his liaison with Diallo was a moral fault and described it as “inappropriate” but that it did not involve violence, constraint or aggression. He said that Diallo had lied and that he had no intention of negotiating with her over a civil suit she had filed against him. The suit was later settled for an undisclosed amount.
On May 19, 2011, Strauss-Kahn was indicted by a grand jury and after posting $1 million bail and pleading not guilty he was placed under house arrest. On July 1, prosecutors told the judge that they had reassessed the strength of their case in the light of the housekeeper's diminished credibility, and the case against him was near collapse. On 23 August 2011, the judge formally dismissed all charges following a recommendation for dismissal filed by the District Attorney's office, which asserted that the complainant's untruthfulness made it impossible to credit her.
At the time of the alleged attack, Strauss-Kahn was the head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and considered to be a leading candidate for the 2012 French Presidency. Four days after his arrest, he voluntarily resigned his post at the IMF. There was widespread speculation in France after his arrest that he was the victim of a conspiracy.
- 1 Chronology
- 2 Conspiracy hypothesis
- 3 Support and opposition
- 4 Reactions
- 5 Resignation and impact
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Arrest and indictment
On May 14, 2011, Strauss-Kahn was arrested and charged with the sexual assault and attempted rape of 32-year-old Nafissatou Diallo, a housekeeper at the Sofitel New York Hotel in the Manhattan borough earlier that day. After calling the hotel and asking them to bring his missing cell phone to the airport, he was met by police and taken from his Paris-bound flight at New York City's John F. Kennedy International Airport minutes before takeoff and was later charged on several counts of sexual assault plus unlawful imprisonment. Strauss-Kahn was accused of four felony charges—two of criminal sexual acts (forcing the housekeeper to perform oral sex on him), one of attempted rape and one of sexual abuse—plus three misdemeanor offences, including unlawful imprisonment. The U.S. State Department determined that Strauss Kahn's diplomatic immunity did not apply to the case.
Strauss-Kahn hired New York lawyer Benjamin Brafman to represent him. He was reported as having sought public relations advice from a Washington-based consulting firm. His defense team hired a private detective agency to investigate the housekeeper's past.
Nafissatou Diallo was represented by Kenneth Thompson and Douglas Wigdor of Thompson Wigdor LLP, a two-partner law firm whose areas of expertise include employment law and civil rights cases. Thompson hired a Paris lawyer to look for women in France who may have been victimized by Strauss-Kahn.
Strauss-Kahn appeared in court on May 16 before New York City Criminal Court judge Melissa Jackson. During the proceedings the prosecution stated that the housekeeper, Diallo, an immigrant asylee from the West African state of Guinea, had provided a detailed account of the alleged assault, had picked Strauss-Kahn out of a lineup, and that DNA evidence recovered at the site was being tested. Strauss-Kahn, who had earlier agreed to a forensic examination, pleaded not guilty. Judge Jackson denied his bail request stating that the fact that Strauss-Kahn was apprehended on a departing airplane "rais[ed] some concerns".
On May 19, Strauss-Kahn was indicted by a Manhattan grand jury on seven criminal counts, two of which were first-degree criminal sexual acts, each punishable by a sentence of up to 25 years in prison. On that date New York Supreme Court Justice Michael J.Obus granted Strauss-Kahn’s bail request, which was set at $1 million with the additional restrictions of 24-hour home detention and an electronic monitoring ankle bracelet. After Strauss-Kahn turned over his passport and posted an additional $5 million bail bond, he was placed under house arrest in a residence in Lower Manhattan.
Strauss-Kahn was arraigned on June 6 and pleaded not guilty. Outside the court, lawyers for the parties made statements. Benjamin Brafman, for Strauss-Kahn, said: "In our judgment, once the evidence has been reviewed, it will be clear that there was no element of forcible compulsion in this case whatsoever. Any suggestion to the contrary is simply not credible." Kenneth Thompson, for Diallo, said that all of Strauss-Kahn's power, money and influence would not stop the truth from coming out.
On June 30, 2011, the district attorney sent a letter to Strauss-Kahn's defense team disclosing information about the housekeeper. Prosecutors met with Strauss-Kahn's defense team the same day. That evening The New York Times reported the case as being on the verge of collapse and quoted law-enforcement officials as saying investigators had uncovered major holes in the housekeeper's credibility. Following Strauss-Kahn's release on bail the following day, the same paper reported that Diallo had admitted she lied about the events immediately following her encounter with Strauss-Kahn. She had initially said that after the alleged assault she waited in a hallway until Strauss-Kahn had left. She later said she cleaned an adjacent room, and then returned to Strauss-Kahn's room to clean there before reporting to her supervisor that she had been attacked. Among the discoveries were statements by Diallo to investigators differing from what she had put in her asylum application, her claiming to have only one phone while paying hundreds of dollars a month to five phone companies, and individuals, including known felons, depositing almost $100,000 into her bank account over the previous two years.
Also, Diallo told a compelling and detailed story of being gang raped by soldiers in Guinea, which was completely fabricated. Over a two-week period she told the story to prosecutors twice. Both times with great emotion, precision, and conviction, including: tears; halting speech; the number and nature of her attackers; pointing out scars that were supposedly from the attack; and how her 2-year old daughter was present. When she finally admitted that the story was fabricated, she at first said that she made up the attack to be consistent with her asylum application. But that too turned out to be untrue—as her asylum application makes no mention of any gang rape.
In addition, the prosecution learned that, the day following the alleged assault, the housekeeper had made a phone call in her native Fula language to her boyfriend in an immigration detention center. The New York Times quoted a law enforcement official as saying that a translation of the call revealed she had used words to the effect of "Don’t worry, this guy has a lot of money. I know what I’m doing." Prosecutors said that the conversation, one of at least three they recorded, raised "very troubling" questions about the credibility of the accuser "because she discussed the possible benefits of pursuing charges against a wealthy man." According to the New York Times, the translation of the call "alarmed prosecutors" as being another in a "series of troubling statements." After obtaining the recorded audio from the call, the accuser's attorney countered that it was the inmate who expressed fear about the financial power of DSK and Nafissatou merely dismissed his fears by saying that her lawyer knew what he was doing.
Thompson, the accuser's attorney, challenged the prosecutors' handling and interpretation of the phone call and asked them to withdraw and appoint a special prosecutor. The prosecutors declined to recuse their office, saying Thompson's request was without merit.
The morning after the prosecution's disclosures, in a brief court hearing in which prosecutors said they had reassessed the strength of their case, Strauss-Kahn was released from house arrest on his own recognizance without bail. His passport remained surrendered though he was free to travel within the US. After the hearing, Kenneth Thompson, the housekeeper's attorney, defended his client: "It’s a fact that the victim here has made some mistakes, but that doesn’t mean she’s not a rape victim."
The next scheduled hearing was postponed twice, from July 18 to August 1, 2011, and then again to August 23, with the prosecutors saying that they needed more time for further investigation and defense saying they hoped it would lead to a dismissal of charges.
On August 8, 2011, Diallo filed a civil action against Strauss-Kahn in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, County of Bronx. On May 15, 2012, a few days after the French election for president, Strauss-Kahn filed a countersuit against Diallo for making "baseless accusations that had cost him his job as managing director of the International Monetary Fund and 'other professional opportunities'." Until his arrest, Strauss-Kahn was considered to be a likely candidate to run against the incumbent president, Nicolas Sarkozy.
Diallo's lawsuit was settled, together with Strauss-Kahn's countersuit, for an undisclosed amount on 10 December 2012. A separate suit against the New York Post, who had reported she was a prostitute, was settled at the same time. Diallo's attorney, Kenneth Thompson, described Diallo as a strong and courageous woman who had never lost faith in the American system of justice. Previous news reports emanating from Le Monde that Strauss-Kahn was settling for $6 million were denied by both parties. Le Journal du Dimanche (JDD) later reported the settlement as for $1.5 million, of which Diallo received a little less than $1 million after fees. JDD noted that negotiations between the parties had commenced after an application for diplomatic immunity by Strauss-Kahn had been rejected by the judge. Settling the suit meant that Strauss-Kahn avoided a long and humiliating examination in court.
Dismissal of case
On 22 August 2011, prosecutors filed a recommendation for dismissal of all charges against Strauss-Kahn. They told the court that inconsistencies in the accuser's testimony led to the decision to recommend all charges be dropped. Their decision to drop the case was based on a number of facts outlined in a 25-page document:
- The physical evidence indicated a sexual encounter but did not prove use of force or non-consent;
- The prosecution noted multiple instances of the accuser's untruthfulness, including fabricating the story that she was gang raped in her native Guinea to gain asylum in the U.S. (although her asylum application did not include it);
- Changing her version of the events before, during, and after the alleged assault.
Consequently, prosecutors stated they could no longer believe Diallo beyond a reasonable doubt, and could not expect any jury to do so either. Diallo's attorney, Kenneth Thompson, publicly attacked DA Vance, claiming that Vance's office had been abusive to their client, had leaked false information, and sought to undermine Diallo's credibility; he requested a stay in the case which was later denied.
On 23 August 2011, all charges against Strauss-Kahn were dismissed as requested by the prosecution.
Strauss-Kahn returned to Paris on 3 September 2011. On 9 September 2011, the accuser's attorney filed a civil suit against Strauss-Kahn in New York City, followed weeks later by a motion for dismissal by Strauss-Kahn.
On 18 September 2011, Strauss-Kahn was interviewed on French TV. He conceded that his encounter with Diallo in New York had been an error and a moral failure, but denied it was a criminal act. He accused Diallo of lying about the encounter.
In an interview with Libération on April 28, 2011, Strauss-Kahn stated he was "worried his political opponent, Nicolas Sarkozy, would try to frame him with a fake rape". Paris politician and advocate of gender equality Michèle Sabban said she was convinced there was an international plot to frame him. A few days after his arrest, a poll showed that 57% of the French public believed he was the "victim of a smear campaign".
On May 15, Strauss-Kahn's political opponent Henri de Raincourt, a minister for overseas co-operation in the ruling UMP party, stated, "one cannot exclude thinking about a setup." Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin expressed his personal doubts about the allegations.
On November 27, 2011, veteran investigative journalist Edward Jay Epstein presented a minute-by-minute documentation of events, published in The New York Review of Books, which involved the alleged assault, making a number of new allegations. An analysis of hotel door key and phone records tracing links to Strauss-Kahn's potential political rivals appeared to suggest the possibility that he had been set up. However the hotel where the alleged assault took place firmly rebuffed Epstein's suggestions of a conspiracy theory, denying a number of assertions in the report. The New York Review of Books subsequently corrected one of its allegations, reporting that a "dance of celebration" between two Sofitel employees lasted 13 seconds, not the 3 minutes originally reported, an issue that had been raised by Amy Davidson in her The New Yorker examination of Epstein's piece. Epstein later wrote that Strauss-Kahn now accepts that his enemies did not set up his encounter with Diallo, but believes they did play a role, through intercepted phone calls, in making sure that the hotel maid went to the police, turning a private tryst into a public scandal.
Support and opposition
Strauss-Kahn's wife, Anne Sinclair was in Paris when he was arrested. A week after the arrest, on May 21, 2011, she said: "I don’t believe for a single second the accusations of sexual assault by my husband." Friends of the couple said their 20-year old marriage remained strong despite the new strains and that the allegations were unlikely to separate them.
While considered a womanizer and described by Le Journal du Dimanche as un grand séducteur ("a great seducer"), a number of close friends nevertheless said the allegations were out of character. His previous wife, Brigitte Guillemette, insisted that violence was not part of his temperament and that the allegations were "unthinkable and impossible." The Spanish writer Carmen Llera, a former lover, defended him in an open letter, declaring that " ...violence is not part of his culture." This conclusion is supported by Strauss-Kahn's biographer who claims that he was a "typical French lover, but he's not able to rape a woman."
Journalist and essayist Jean-François Kahn apologised for initially characterizing the allegations as a troussage de domestique (literally, stripping or having casual, forced sex with a servant) and said he would retire from journalism. Marine Le Pen, leader of the Front National, said “I am utterly unsurprised...everyone in the Paris political village knew of Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s pathologic relations with women”, and criticised both the ruling UMP and Socialist parties for ignoring his flaws. Bernard Debré, a UMP member of the National Assembly of France, described Strauss-Kahn's behaviour as a humiliation for France.
French politicians were quick to respond, as were their counterparts in the rest of Europe. The case prompted response from feminists in both the US and France, who criticised French coverage of the allegations and apparent dismissal of the woman's claims. The reaction led to a rally at the Pompidou Centre on May 22, 2011. French sociologist Irène Théry published two articles in Le Monde commenting on the affair and defending French feminism against American attacks.
In response to the allegations Unite Here, the biggest union in the hospitality industry, said that hotels should provide sexual harassment training for workers. When Strauss-Kahn appeared in court on June 6, a group of room attendants, members of the New York Hotel Trades Council (NYHTC), arrived on a bus arranged by the union and demonstrated in front of the courtroom.
Media coverage after arrest
CBS News noted that a media circus had begun because the case involved three elements of viewer interest: sex, politics, and money. The media impact of the case after the arrest was measured by the French media analysis firm Kantar Media. They found that during the first ten days of the scandal, 'DSK' appeared on the front page of more than 150,000 newspapers around the world.
On 17 May 2011, Paris Match published the name of the housekeeper in a piece which included appraisals of her attractiveness. Other French newspapers quickly followed suit in naming her, eventually adding photos and details of her private life. On June 14, The New York Times followed the lead begun by other anglophone media in running an "unusually extensive" story on the housekeeper's background, while continuing to withhold her name. In the United States, the media does not normally identify by name persons making an accusation of rape, although nothing legally prohibits them from doing so.
Former French justice minister Élisabeth Guigou, architect of the 2000 law Guigou on the presumption of innocence, said she found the televised images of Strauss-Kahn prior to the preliminary bail proceedings as absolutely disgusting and described the coverage as a pre-trial indictment. Jack Lang, a former Minister of Culture and Minister of Education, described the published images of Strauss-Kahn as a lynching and wondered why Strauss-Kahn had not been granted bail at his first application since, according to Lang, the case was not that serious. He later apologised.
Hugh Schofield of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) reported that Strauss-Kahn's arrest and incarceration had provoked a national trauma in France far deeper than anyone could have imagined: images of Strauss-Kahn's post-arrest perp walk had "reawakened an anti-Americanism that is latent in many French souls. ... such humiliating pictures would never be taken in France – indeed the French law on the presumption of innocence bans 'degrading photographs of prisoners awaiting trial.'" Bernard-Henri Lévy, the French philosopher and media intellectual, declared that Strauss-Kahn had already been found guilty in the court of public opinion.
Following his release from house arrest on July 1, The New York Times, amongst other media, speculated as to whether he could revive his political career. In France, Michèle Sabban asked that the ongoing French Socialist Party presidential primary be suspended to discuss the possibility of Strauss-Kahn's participation.
Reactions after all charges dropped
In March 2012, students at Cambridge University in the U.K. protested against Strauss-Kahn being allowed to speak on campus. Because of the original charges and the maid's allegations, a campus women's group opposed his visit, with 750 students signing a petition to withdraw his invitation.
In defending their decision to invite him, the president of the student union explained that "we can't engage in any kind of judgement on people," while a university spokesperson added that the university "respects academic freedom and freedom of speech." A student protester who was interviewed defended the protests, saying ". . . we wanted to exercise our own freedom of speech as individuals and let the union know what we think."
Resignation and impact
Strauss-Kahn resigned from his position as head of the IMF on May 18, 2011. In his letter of resignation he denied "with the greatest possible firmness all of the allegations". He said he wanted to protect the IMF and devote all his energies to proving his innocence. On June 14, the IMF announced two candidates had been shortlisted for the post of managing director of the IMF. These were Agustin Carstens, governor of the Mexican central bank, and Christine Lagarde, French finance minister. On June 28, the IMF announced they had selected Lagarde.
His sudden resignation led the IMF to search for a replacement and created new political worries. According to the Washington Post, "Without Strauss-Kahn at the helm, Europe is at risk of losing a key source of financial support in its efforts to contain the debt crisis buffeting the continent", including potential financial bailouts for nations such as Greece and Portugal. U.S. economist Joseph Stiglitz agreed, stressing that because Strauss-Kahn was "an impressive leader of the IMF and re-established the credibility of the institution," the choice of his replacement was important, otherwise "the gains of the institution could easily be lost."
According to The Economist magazine, before Strauss-Kahn became head of the IMF, the fund's relevance to global finance was in question. However, his early endorsement of fiscal stimulus for the Eurozone during its financial crisis had been accepted and acted upon, with new contributions to the fund being tripled in size. "The Greeks trusted him", it notes, and he was "one of the few non-German policymakers to have had influence over Angela Merkel." "Whatever his personal failings, [he] was an outstanding head of the IMF." In addition, he had championed the need to protect poor countries from the effects of fiscal austerity, helping the IMF become "kinder and gentler" to less developed countries. As a result of his arrest, the IMF was in "turmoil," and the choice of his replacement became "more urgent and more complicated."
Though he had not officially declared his candidacy, Strauss-Kahn had been expected to be a leading candidate for the 2012 French Presidency for the Socialist Party. Preliminary polling suggested he was favored to defeat the incumbent, Nicolas Sarkozy, but his arrest left the party unsure how to proceed. On June 28, party leader Martine Aubry announced her candidacy for the presidency, joining François Hollande and Ségolène Royal amongst party contenders. Strauss-Kahn endorsed Aubry's candidacy. François Hollande was elected the Socialist Party presidential candidate on October 16, 2011.
The 2011 Law & Order: Special Victims Unit episode "Scorched Earth" is based upon Strauss-Kahn's arrest. The case also inspired the 2014 French film Welcome to New York, co-written and directed by Abel Ferrara and starring Gérard Depardieu and Jacqueline Bisset. Following the film's release (to mixed reviews varying from high praise to outright disgust) on 17 May 2014, Strauss-Kahn said he would sue for slander. His lawyer also complained the portrayal of his then wife Anne Sinclair was antisemitic.
- Eligon, John (August 23, 2011). "Judge Orders Dismissal of Charges Against Strauss-Kahn". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Stanglin, Douglas (August 23, 2011). "Judge dismisses assault charges against Strauss-Kahn". USA Today. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- "The People of the State of New York against Dominique Strauss-Kahn (Indictment No. 02526/2011): Recommendation for Dismissal". DocumentCloud. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
The prosecution has the burden at trial to prove the guilt of an accused beyond a reasonable doubt. For a host of reasons, including those set forth below, the complainant's untruthfulness makes it impossible to credit her. Because we cannot credit the complainant's testimony beyond a reasonable doubt, we cannot ask a jury to do so. The remaining evidence is insufficient to satisfy the elements of the charged crimes. We are therefore required, as both a legal and ethical matter, to move for dismissal of the indictment.
- Fraser, Christian (September 18, 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn rues New York hotel maid liaison". BBC. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Vera Chinese; Daniel Beekman (10 December 2012). "Chambermaid Nafissatou Diallo and Dominique Strauss-Kahn settle civil lawsuits stemming from alleged hotel rape". Daily News (New York). Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
'I thank everyone who supported me all over the world,' Diallo says leaving courthouse
- "Release order, May 20, 2011" (PDF). Courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2011-12-20.
- "Strauss-Kahn indicted by grand jury, is granted $1 million cash bond", Christian Science Monitor, May 19, 2011.
- Jim Dwyer, William K. Rashbaum and John Eligon (June 30, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn Prosecution Said to Be Near Collapse". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- John Eligon (July 1, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn Is Released as Case Teeters". The New York Times.
- "All charges against Dominique Strauss-Kahn dismissed", Los Angeles Times, August 23, 2011.
- "Grand Jury Indictment". ABC News. May 16, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- "Strauss-Kahn indicted on sex charges". UPI. May 19, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- Sheridan, Mary Beth (May 17, 2011). "IMF chief will note [sic] get diplomatic immunity, State Dept. says". Washington Post. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- "IMF chief charged with New York sex assault, all of France stunned", Vancouver Sun, May 15, 2011.
- "Dominique Strauss-Kahn Defense Team Seeks Advice From Firm Run By Former CIA Officers", The Huffington Post, US, May 20, 2011.
- Buxeda, Yann (May 27, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn lawyer hires private investigators". France 24. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- "Thompson Wigdor LLP". Retrieved June 10, 2011.
- Jones, Leigh. "Maid in Strauss-Kahn case pares down legal team". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- Smith, Heather (June 24, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn accuser looks for possible 'victims'". San Francisco Chronicle. Bloomberg News. Retrieved June 26, 2011.
- "Dominique Strauss-Kahn DNA 'linked to maid'". BBC. May 24, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Gardiner, Sean (May 17, 2011). "Judge Jails IMF Chief In Sexual-Assault Case". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- "City of New York Against Dominique Strauss-Kahn". The New York Times. May 16, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- Mann, Camille (May 16, 2011). "IMF Director Dominique Strauss-Kahn pleads not guilty to sexually assaulting housekeeper". CBS. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- Eligon, John (May 16, 2011). "I.M.F. Chief Is Held Without Bail". The New York Times.
- Martin, Adam (May 19, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn to Be Freed on $1 Million Bail". the Atlantic wire. Retrieved June 4, 2011.
- Eligon, John (19 May 2011). "Strauss-Kahn Is Indicted and Will Soon Leave Jail". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- Eligon, John (May 19, 2011). "Grand Jury Indicts Former I.M.F. Chief". The New York Times.
- "Dominique Strauss-Kahn: former IMF head bailed", Daily Telegraph, UK, May 19, 2011.
- "Legal analyst: Strauss-Kahn case will "go away"". CBS News. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Dominic Rushe in New York (May 21, 2011). "Former IMF chief released from jail". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- Eligon, John (May 25, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn Finds a New Home". The New York Times.
- "Ex-IMF chief Strauss-Kahn pleads not guilty at arraignment". CNN. June 6, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- Rushe, Dominic (June 6, 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn denies attempted rape and sexual assault". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
Strauss-Kahn's lawyers say forensic evidence does not support a forcible encounter. "In our judgment, once the evidence has been cleared, it will be clear that there was no element of forcible compulsion in this case whatsoever. Any suggestion to the contrary is simply not credible," said Ben Brafman, his lawyer. Kenneth Thompson, the lawyer representing the maid, said: "The victim wants you to know that all of Dominique Strauss-Kahn's power, money and influence throughout the world do not keep the truth about what he did to her in that hotel room from coming out. And that despite the smear campaign that is being committed against her, she is standing up for her dignity as a woman. "She's standing up for her self-respect as a woman. And she is standing up for all women and children around the world who have been sexually assaulted or sexually abused and are too afraid to say something."
- "Strauss-Kahn Pleads Not Guilty", New York Times, June 6, 2011.
- "Letter from the New York District Attorney to the defense in the Dominique Strauss-Kahn case.". DocumentCloud. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Eligon, John (July 1, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn Is Released as Case Teeters". The New York Times.
- Dwyer, Jim (August 23, 2011). "With False Tale About Gang Rape, Strauss-Kahn Case Crumbles". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
- Rawlings, Nate (July 1, 2011). "Weaker but Not Lost: The Case Against Strauss-Kahn". Time Magazine. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
- Joan Illuzzi-Orbon, Assistant District Attorney; John (Artie) McConnell, Assistant District Attorney (June 30, 2011). "Letter From District Attorney to Defense in Strauss-Kahn Case". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
- Jim Dwyer and Michael Wilson (July 1, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn Accuser’s Call Alarmed Prosecutors". The New York Times. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
- Christine Pelisek, Terry Greene Sterling, Christopher Dickey (July 13, 2011). "Maid's 'Fiancé' Speaks". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- William K. Rashbaum and John Eligon (July 6, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn Won’t Plead Guilty to Any Charges, His Lawyers Say". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Peter Walker and agencies (July 29, 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn accuser not a 'scheming opportunist', lawyer insists". The Guardian (London). Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- CNN Wire Staff (July 7, 2011). "Vance unmoved by call for his recusal from Strauss-Kahn case". CNN. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Winter, Jana (July 7, 2011). "Lawyer for Maid in IMF Sexual Assault Case Calls for Special Prosecutor". Fox News. AP. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
- "Dominique Strauss-Kahn freed from house arrest". New York: CBS news. July 1, 2011.
- "Strauss-Kahn Released From House Arrest as Case Enters Legal Limbo". PBS. July 1, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
- "Strauss-Kahn free to travel in U.S.".
- Samuel, Henry (July 12, 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn sent a text message to Tristane Banon asking: 'Do I scare you?'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- "Strauss-Kahn rape case hearing delayed again". Reuters. July 26, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- Diallo files civil suit against DSK, The Guardian, August 9, 2011
- Wall Street Journal Public Resources – Diallo Complaint, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 25, 2011
- "Strauss-Kahn Sues Housekeeper, Saying She Hurt His Career", New York Times, May 15, 2012
- "Strauss-Kahn countersues NY hotel maid for $1 million", Reuters, May 15, 2012
- "Judge: Strauss-Kahn, NYC Hotel Maid Settle Suit" on YouTube
- Chris Dolmetsch; Heather Smith (30 November 2012). "Strauss-Kahn Talks With the Maid. $6 Million? That's Another Story". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- "Un million de dollars pour Nafissatou Diallo". Le Journal du Dimanche (in French). 19 January 2013. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
"I want a better life for my child" ("Je veux une meilleure vie pour mon enfant.") Lundi 10 décembre, dans le secret de la salle des négociations du tribunal du Bronx, Nafissatou Diallo n’a pas trouvé d’autres mots pour commenter le contrat qui lui était soumis
- Buetnner, Russ (1 May 2012). "Judge in Civil Case Rejects Immunity for Strauss-Kahn". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
Justice Douglas E. McKeon of State Supreme Court in the Bronx characterized Mr. Strauss-Kahn’s attempt to claim diplomatic immunity as “his own version of a Hail Mary pass,” noting that he had resigned from his position as the head of the International Monetary Fund before the suit was filed.
- Prosecutor Asks Court to Drop Charges Against Strauss-Kahn, The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2011
- Dwyer, Jim (August 23, 2011). "With False Tale About Gang Rape, Strauss-Kahn Case Crumbles". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- "Strauss-Kahn New York sexual assault case dismissed". BBC News. August 23, 2011.
- "Strauss-Kahn accuser wants special prosecutor".
- "Prosecutors Prepare to Drop DSK Charges".
- DSK: 'Nightmare' is finally over Politico. Retrieved August 26, 2011
- Trapaso, Clare; Katie Nelson (September 3, 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn leaves New York for France with family in tow". New York Daily News.
- Walder, Noeleen (August 23, 2011). "Civil suit against Strauss-Kahn moving forward". Thomson Reuters News & Insight.
- "New York State Supreme Court (Bronx Co. Civil file no. (307065-2011)".
- Kennedy, Helen (September 28, 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn claims he's too important to be sued in civil court case filing". New York Daily News.
- Steven Erlanger; Maïa de la Baume (18 September 2011). "Strauss-Kahn Concedes ‘Error’ in Sexual Encounter With Maid". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
Dominique Strauss-Kahn said Sunday that his sexual encounter with a New York City hotel chambermaid was “an error” and “a moral failure” he would regret his whole life, but not a criminal act.
- Guiral, Antoine (May 17, 2011). "Oui, j’aime les femmes, et alors?". Libération (France). Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- Drennen, Kyle."NBC Sympathizes With Disgraced IMF Chief, Promotes Conspiracy Theory He Was 'Set Up'", Wall Street Journal, May 18, 2011.
- "AER Standing Committee on Equal Opportunities". Assembly of European Regions. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- Foreign, Our (May 16, 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn: Was it a stitch-up?". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved May 16, 2011.
- "French suspect smear campaign lies behind NY arrest", Financial Times, Paris, May 18, 2011.
- "Les premières conséquences politiques de l'affaire DSK" (pfd). Sondage exclusif CSA. p. 3. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
- "The downfall of DSK", The Economist, May 19, 2011.
- "Dominique Strauss-Kahn: minister doesn't rule out 'set up'". Daily Telegraph (UK). May 15, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Osborn, Andrew "Vladimir Putin hints at Dominique Strauss-Kahn conspiracy", The Telegraph (UK), May 29, 2011.
- Gardner, David (May 31, 2011). "Vladimir Putin claims Dominique Strauss-Kahn is the victim of a conspiracy to force him out". London: MailOnline. Retrieved June 26, 2011.
- Harris, Paul (26 November 2011). "New questions raised over Dominique-Strauss Kahn case". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
In passages sure to delight Strauss-Kahn supporters and conspiracy theorists, Epstein's lengthy article studied hotel door key and phone records and traced links to Strauss-Kahn's potential political rivals, appearing to suggest the possibility that he had been set up.
- Epstein, Edward Jay. "What Really Happened to Strauss-Kahn?" The New York Review of Books, December 22, 2011
- Peter Allen; Jon Swaine (27 November 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn conspiracy theory denied by New York Sofitel". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
... Accor Group, the French company which owns the Sofitel, yesterday firmly rebuffed Epstein’s conspiracy theory, with its ex-director of security describing it as “absolute fantasy”.
- Davidson, Amy (28 November 2011). "Strauss-Kahn and the Dancing Men". The New Yorker. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- A Note on the Strauss-Kahn Case, New York Review of Books, December 6, 2011
- Epstein, Edward Jay (27 April 2012). "Strauss-Kahn affair: 'Perhaps I was naive. I didn't believe they'd go that far'". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
In the more than two hours we speak, it becomes clear that Strauss-Kahn is convinced that his downfall was choreographed by his political enemies. They may not have gone so far as to set up the encounter with Diallo, he now accepts, but he believes they did play a role, through intercepted phone calls, in making sure that the hotel maid went to the police and thus turned a private tryst into a public scandal.
- Christopher Dickey (29 April 2012). "A Wrench in the Dominique Strauss-Kahn Conspiracy Theory". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- "Backing Her Man With Impressive Resources", New York Times, May 21, 2011.
- "Ex-IMF chief's sturdy marriage enduring new strain", Associated Press, May 23, 2011.
- Bremner, Charles (October 20, 2008). "Nicolas Sarkozy dismay as Dominique Strauss-Kahn in sex scandal". The Times (London). Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- Love, Brian (May 20, 2011). "The two faces of Dominique Strauss-Kahn". Reuters. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- "Why Anne Sinclair is standing by Dominique Strauss-Kahn", Guardian, U.K., June 3, 2011.
- "Dominique Strauss-Kahn: second wife says New York sex attack 'unthinkable'", The Daily Telegraph (UK), May 17, 2011.
- Lazard, Violette (May 17, 2011). "La deuxième épouse de DSK : "C’est impensable et impossible"". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved June 14, 200. Check date values in:
- "Woman linked to Strauss-Kahn says he wasn't violent", Reuters, May 20, 2011.
- "DSK 'Seducer' Not Rapist: Biographer", CNBC, July 6, 2011 (video interview).
- Doucet, David (May 19, 2011). "L'affaire DSK, un "troussage de domestique"? Kahn s'excuse". L'Express. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- Lichfield, John (May 23, 2011). "Feminists' anger at chauvinism of Strauss-Kahn affair". The Independent (London). Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Moutet, Anne-Elisabeth (May 16, 2011). "Dominique Strauss-Kahn: A Frenchman sunk by a sex scandal?". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Parussini, Gabriele (May 19, 2011). "FN's Le Pen: 'Harasser' Strauss-Kahn's Fall Expected". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- "IMF chief's arrest rocks French presidential race". Forbes. Associated Press. May 15, 2011. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.[dead link]
- "Pour Bernard Debré, DSK est un 'délinquant sexuel'", Le Figaro, May 16, 2011.
- "French reaction to Strauss-Kahn arrest". BuenosAiresHerald.com. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- "In Europe, Strauss-Kahn Views Vary". The Wall Street Journal. May 19, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Davies, Lizzy (May 21, 2011). "How Dominique Strauss-Kahn's arrest awoke a dormant anger in the heart of France's women". The Observer (London). Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- Théry, Irène (May 23, 2011). "La femme de chambre et le financier, par Irène Théry". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved June 4, 2011.
- Théry, Irène (May 29, 2011). "Un féminisme à la française". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved June 4, 2011.
- Pollitt, Katha (May 25, 2011). "Dear France, We're So Over". The Nation. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
- Lichfiled, John (June 4, 2011). "John Lichfield: The French more relaxed about sex? It's a myth". The Independent (London). Retrieved June 4, 2011.
- "Ex-IMF chief Strauss-Kahn pleads not guilty". The BBC. June 6, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
- "Room Attendants rally to support Sofitel worker". New York Hotel Workers' Union. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
- Miller, Michelle (May 16, 2011). "The Strauss-Kahn media circus begins". CBS News. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- "L'affaire DSK : le summum du bruit médiatique" (in French). Radio France Internationale. May 26, 2011. Retrieved June 4, 2011.
- Marlowe, Lara (June 4, 2011). "Media the front line as sides in Strauss-Kahn case set for a dirty war". The Irish Times. Retrieved June 4, 2011.
- "French media name maid who accused Strauss-Kahn of rape... and even rate her attractiveness". The Daily Mail (London). 19 May 2011. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
Paris Match mentions differing accounts of the alleged victim's looks, recounting how lawyers for Strauss-Kahn were apparently surprised by how unattractive she is. However, it reports that an Indian taxi driver contacted France Soir to disagree - insisting she was 'very pretty, with large breasts and a beautiful bottom'.
- Desnos, Marie (17 May 2011). "Nafissatou Diallo, celle qui a fait tomber DSK". Paris Match (in French). Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
Physiquement, les témoignages divergent. Les avocats de DSK auraient déclaré avoir été surpris de découvrir le visage «très peu séduisant» de l’accusatrice, à la comparution au cours de laquelle elle a formellement identifié celui qu’elle désigne comme étant son agresseur, rapporte RMC... Dans les colonnes de «France Soir», un chauffeur de taxi indien appelé Sony indique au contraire que le voiturier de l’hôtel lui aurait «dit que cette femme de ménage était une trentenaire très jolie, qu'elle avait de gros seins et de belles fesses.» Un des informateurs d’Europe 1 évoque aussi une femme «plutôt jolie». D'habitude, précise Mark Gangadeen, cette musulmane portait un pantalon de couleur foncée, un foulard sur la tête avec un imprimé tribal, et des chaussures plates.
- (Staff) (May 19, 2011). "French media name maid who accused Strauss-Kahn of rape... and even rate her attractiveness". The Daily Mail (London). Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- Bernard, Philippe (May 24, 2011). "La vie guinéenne de l'accusatrice de Dominique Strauss-Kahn". Le Monde. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Lorriaux, Aude (June 15, 2011). "Affaire DSK : attaquer l'image de la plaignante sera difficile". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- Hackney, Susan (2010). "Interviewing Rape and Sexual Assault Victims". Covering Crime and Justice. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Dunand, Emmanuel (May 17, 2011). "Elisabeth Guigou: faire "très attention en France à l'équilibre des informations"". L'Express (in French). AFP. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- Schofield, Hugh (May 19, 2011). "A national trauma: France, Strauss-Kahn and US justice". BBC News.
- Brogan, Benedict (May 17, 2011). "Why the image of DSK in cuffs shocks France". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Levy, Bernard-Henri. "Stop the Attack Dogs on Strauss-Kahn and Protect the Indicted". Daily Beast. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Cowell, Alan (July 1, 2011). "News of Turnaround in Dominique Strauss-Kahn Case Stuns France". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- John Lichfield in Paris and David Usborne in New York (July 3, 2011). "Strauss-Kahn could yet be French PM". The Independent (London). Retrieved July 3, 2011.
- "France abuzz with talk of comeback for Dominique Strauss-Kahn", Los Angeles Times, July 2, 2011.
- "Affaire DSK : Michèle Sabban demande la suspension de la primaire PS". Le Point (in French). July 1, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- "Protest greets Dominique Strauss-Kahn talk in Cambridge", BBC, March 9, 2012
- "Press Release: IMF Managing Director Dominique Strauss-Kahn Resigns". Imf.org. May 18, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Ewing, Jack (June 14, 2011). "Lagarde and Carstens Are the 2 Contenders for Top I.M.F. Post". The New York Times.
- "Christine Lagarde: the IMF statement in full". Daily Telegraph (UK). June 28, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- "Dominique Strauss-Kahn resigns as head of IMF" Washington Post, May 18, 2011
- "Joseph Stiglitz: the IMF cannot afford to make a mistake with Strauss-Kahn's successor", The Telegraph, May 21, 2011
- "Damned", The Economist, May 19, 2011
- "Strauss-Kahn arrest shakes French politics". MarketWatch. May 16, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- "Strauss-Kahn affair throws Socialists into disarray – FRANCE". FRANCE 24. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- "France's Sarkozy may not make 2012 runoff | Reuters". Uk.reuters.com. May 9, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Lisa Bryant (May 20, 2011). "IMF Chief Scandal Throws French Elections A Curveball | English". Voanews.com. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Samuel, Henry (June 28, 2011). "Martine Aubry to launch campaign to be French Socialist Party presidential candidate". Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved July 7, 2011.
- Socialists choose Hollande to face Sarkozy in 2012 4
- Lichfield, John. "Dominique Strauss-Kahn to sue makers of Gerard Depardieu sex addiction film Welcome to New York". The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014.
|Wikinews has news related to:|
- PBS interview, video, with legal affairs journalist Jami Flloyd PBS, July 13, 2011 (7 minutes)
- Fessenden, Ford; Gröndahl, Mika; Carter, Shan (May 22, 2011). "Interactive diagram of Hotel". The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- "Letter From District Attorney to Defense in Strauss-Kahn Case". The New York Times. July 1, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
- "Motion to dismiss filed by prosecution". August 22, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- The Strauss-Kahn Affair Dossier by Radio France Internationale, English Service