New York wine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New York
Wine region
New York sparkling wine.jpg
Sparkling wine from the Finger Lakes region of New York
Official nameState of New York
TypeU.S. state
Year established1788
CountryUnited States
Sub-regionsCayuga Lake AVA, Finger Lakes AVA, Hudson River Region AVA, Lake Erie AVA, Long Island AVA, Niagara Escarpment AVA, North Fork of Long Island AVA, Seneca Lake AVA, The Hamptons, Long Island AVA, The Adirondack Coast Wine Trail
Climate regionContinental (also maritime and humid subtropical on Long Island)
Precipitation (annual average)30 inches (76 cm) to 50 inches (127 cm)
Total area54,520 square miles (141,206 km2)
Size of planted vineyards11,000 acres (4,452 ha)[1]
No. of vineyards962[2]
Grapes produced150,000 tons[2]
Varietals producedAurore, Baco noir, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Catawba, Cayuga, Chambourcin, Chancellor, Chardonnay, Chelois, Chenin blanc, Colobel, Concord, De Chaunac, Delaware, Diamond, Elvira, Frontenac, Gewürztraminer, Isabella, Ives noir, Leon Millot, Marechal Foch, Melody, Merlot, Niagara, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Riesling, Rougeon, Sauvignon blanc, Seyval blanc, St. Vincent, Steuben, Traminette, Vidal blanc, Vignoles, Vincent[3]
No. of wineries400[4]
Wine produced150,000,000 litres (40,000,000 US gal)[2]

New York wine refers to wine made from grapes grown in the U.S. state of New York. New York ranks third in grape production by volume after California and Washington.[5] 83% of New York's grape area is Vitis labrusca varieties (mostly Concord). The rest is split almost equally between Vitis vinifera and French hybrids.[6]


A bottle of Kosher New York Port wine (bottled in New Jersey)

The state of New York's wine production began in the 17th century with Dutch and Huguenot plantings in the Hudson Valley region. Commercial production did not begin until the 19th century. New York is home to the first bonded winery in the United States of America, Pleasant Valley Wine Company, located in Hammondsport. It is also home to America's oldest continuously operating winery, Brotherhood Winery in the Hudson Valley, which has been making wine for almost 175 years.[4]

In 1951 Konstantin Frank emigrated from Ukraine to New York, to work at Cornell University's Geneva Experiment Station. Frank went on to become one of the major architects of modern Finger Lakes winemaking industry.[7]

In 1976, when the Farm Winery Act was passed in New York, the state had only 19 wineries, all located in the Finger Lakes and Long Island regions. By 1985, there were 63 wineries in the two regions.[4]

In 2011, the New York wineries were given another boost when Governor Andrew Cuomo signed the Fine Winery Law (S.4143-a/A.7828-a) into law, allowing each farm winery to operate up to 5 tasting rooms as a single entity, rather than requiring a separate license for each. The act also streamlined the paperwork involved in direct shipping wine to customers, and allowed wineries to use custom-crush facilities or rent equipment and space from existing wineries, rather than requiring wineries to own all their equipment.[8]

Wine grapes[edit]

Vitis vinifera, Riesling grapes are used to make some of the highest quality wines in New York, others are made from French hybrids, American hybrids and Vitis labrusca.

The Vitis vinifera varieties account for less than 10% of the wine produced in New York. Important American hybrid grapes grown in New York include Catawba, Delaware, Niagara, Elvira, Ives and Isabella. French hybrid grapes grown in New York include Aurore, Baco noir, De Chaunac, Seyval blanc, Cayuga, Vidal and Vignoles. Vignoles is particularly used in late harvest wines and ice wines. Of the Vitis vinifera varieties, Riesling is noted for the most consistent and best quality wines, while wine made from Chardonnay grown in the Finger Lakes AVA is noted to take on characteristics of leaner styled Burgundy white wine.[6]

Growing regions[edit]

The state's principal winemaking regions are the Finger Lakes and Long Island.[9] The Finger Lakes wine region developed in the 19th century; the first commercial vineyard and winery on Long Island was established in 1973.[9]

New York has a total of eleven designated American Viticultural Areas: Champlain Valley AVA, Long Island AVA, North Fork of Long Island AVA, The Hamptons, Long Island AVA; Hudson River Region AVA; Finger Lakes AVA, Seneca Lake AVA, Cayuga Lake AVA; Niagara Escarpment AVA, Upper Hudson AVA and Lake Erie AVA.[10]

The wine regions' soils originated from the last glacial advance which left gravel and shale type soils with heavy clay deposits in the Finger Lakes region and sandy soil in the Long Island region. The climate differs amongst the regions based on the Atlantic Gulf Stream and the numerous bodies of water and mountainous regions around the state. The annual precipitation ranges from 30 inches (76 cm) to 50 inches (127 cm). The growing season in the Lake Erie and Finger Lakes regions ranges from 180 to 200 days a year, while on Long Island, the season extends to 220 days and the humidity is higher, and the fall precipitation is somewhat higher as well.[6]

Statewide, there were 470 wineries in New York in 2019.[1]

The Adirondack Coast Wine Trail, established in 2014, includes seven small vineyards/wineries (under 15 acres), including one combined apple winery and cider house, along the Adirondack Coast in northeastern New York, between Mooers and Morrisonville.[11]

Cultivation, production, and economic impact[edit]

A report in 2020, commissioned by the New York Wine & Grape Foundation, estimated that in the preceding year, 35,000 acres in New York states are used for wine cultivation, of which 11,000 acres are for wine grapes, and most of the rest are for juice grapes.[1] The report estimated that in 2019, the state produced approximately 57,000 tons of wine grapes valued at $37.28 million (compared to approximately 128,000 tons of juice grapes valued at $28.80 million).[1] The report estimated that the state's wine and grape industry generated a total in $2.4 billion in federal, state, and local taxes, including business, excise, and sales taxes.[1]

A 2017 report commissioned by the New York Wine & Grape Foundation estimated that the New York wine industry supported 62,000 direct jobs paying $2.4 billion in wages. About 37% of New York produced wine was sold through wholesalers; the rest was sold by wineries in their tasting rooms, or distributed by wineries to restaurants and shops in the state.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Cazentre, Don (January 29, 2020). "How big is New York's wine business? Inside the numbers". New York
  2. ^ a b c Trezie, Jim. "A New York State of Wine" (PDF). Retrieved June 26, 2011.
  3. ^ "New York: Appellation Profile". Appellation America. 2007. Archived from the original on December 16, 2014. Retrieved November 16, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c "About-Did you know?". New York Kitchen. 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
  5. ^ "New York Wine Country". New York Wine Foundation. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c Cass, Bruce; Robinson, Jancis, eds. (November 9, 2000). The Oxford Companion to the Wine of North America. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 125-179. ISBN 978-0-1986-0114-2. OL 3968247M.
  7. ^ Bittner, Stephen V. (2021). Whites and Reds: A History of Wine in the Lands of Tsar and Commissar. Oxford University Press. pp. 31, 152.
  8. ^ Iseman, John David (August 1, 2011). "Wineries say cheers to new law". Legislative Archived from the original on August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Asimov, Eric (April 22, 2021). "10 New York State Wines to Drink Now". The New York Times.
  10. ^ Dowd, Bill (August 28, 2016). "And, now there are 10 (AVAs, that is)]". Albany Times-Union.
  11. ^ Palmer Egan, Hannah (June 23, 2015). "Following the Adirondack Coast Wine Trail". Seven Days. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]