New Zealand English phonology

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This article covers the phonological system of New Zealand English. While New Zealanders speak differently depending on their level of cultivation (i.e. the closeness to Received Pronunciation), unless otherwise noted, this article covers the accent as it is spoken by educated speakers. The IPA transcription is one designed by Bauer et al. (2007) specifically to faithfully represent a New Zealand accent, which this article follows in every aspect except in the case of /hw/, which is kept distinct from /w/ as they are not yet completely merged.[1][2][3] It transcribes some of the vowels differently from Received Pronunciation (RP), whereas the approximant /r/ is transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɹ⟩ even in phonemic transcription.[3]

Vowels[edit]

Variation in New Zealand vowels[4]
Lexical set Phoneme Phonetic realization
Cultivated Broad
DRESS /e/ [] []
TRAP /ɛ/ [æ] [ɛ̝]
KIT /ɘ/ [ɪ̈] [ə]
COMMA [ə]
NEAR /iə/ [i̞ə], [e̝ə] [i̞ə]
SQUARE /eə/ [e̞ə]
FACE /æe/ [æe̝] [ɐe]
PRICE /ɑe/ [ɑ̟e] [ɒ̝ˑe], [ɔe]
GOAT /ɐʉ/ [ɵʊ] [ɐʉ]
MOUTH /æo/ [aʊ] [e̞ə]
Monophthongs of New Zealand English, from Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a)
Range of the TREACLE vowel[5][6]

The vowels of New Zealand English are similar to that of other non-rhotic dialects such as Australian English and RP, but with some distinctive variations, which are indicated by the transcriptions for New Zealand vowels in the tables below:[7]

Monophthongs
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close e ʉː ʊ, (ɯ)
Mid ɛ ɘ ɵː ɒ
Open ɐ ɐː
  • The original short front vowels /æ, e, ɪ/ have undergone a chain shift, which is partially reflected in their NZE transcription /ɛ, e, ɘ/. Recent acoustic studies featuring both Australian and New Zealand voices show the accents were more similar before World War II and the short front vowels have changed considerably since then as compared to Australian English.[8] Before the shift, these vowels were pronounced very close to the corresponding RP sounds. Here are the stages of the shift:[9]
  1. /æ/ was raised from near-open [æ] to open-mid [ɛ];
  2. /e/ was raised from mid [] to close-mid [e];
  3. /ɪ/ was first centralised to [ɪ̈] and then was lowered to [ə], merging with the /ə/ of COMMA (though both are transcribed with ⟨ɘ⟩ in this article);
  4. /e/ was further raised to near-close [].
  • Cultivated NZE retains the open pronunciations [æ] and [] and has a high central KIT ([ɪ̈]).[4]
  • The difference in frontness and closeness of the KIT vowel ([ɪ̈ ~ ə] in New Zealand, [i] in Australia) has led to a long-running joke between Australians and New Zealanders whereby Australians accuse New Zealanders of saying "fush and chups" for fish and chips and in turn New Zealanders accuse Australians of saying "feesh and cheeps" in light of Australia's own KIT vowel shift.[10][11][12]
  • The TREACLE vowel /ɯ/ corresponds to /əl/ in other dialects. However, before vowels within the same word (as in morally /ˈmɒɹɘli/), it is replaced by the sequence /ɘl/, which is also used in words such as kill /kɘl/ or ill /ɘl/. In the latter case, it corresponds to /ɪl/ in other dialects.
    • As shown on one of the vowel charts, the TREACLE vowel is not necessarily [ɯ], but it may also be [ɤ], [ɘ] or [ɨ], their rounded counterparts [u, o, ɵ, ʉ] or an in-between sound such as [ɯ̽] or [ʊ]. It is more often back than central.[5][6]
  • The NURSE vowel /ɵː/ is higher and/or more front than the corresponding RP vowel /ɜː/. Contrary to it, New Zealand /ɵː/ is typically realised with rounded lips. John Wells remarks that the surname Turner /ˈtɵːnɘ/ as pronounced by a New Zealander may sound very similarly to a German word Töne /ˈtøːnə/ (meaning 'tones').[13] Possible phonetic realizations include near-close front [ʏː], near-close central [ɵ̝ː], close-mid front [øː], close-mid central [ɵː], mid front [ø̞ː] and open-mid front [œː].[14][15][16][17][18] It appears that realizations lower than close-mid are more prestigious than those of close-mid height and higher, so that pronunciations of the word nurse such as [nø̞ːs] and [nœːs] are less broad than [nøːs], [nɵːs] etc.[14][19] Close allophones may overlap with monophthongal realizations of /ʉː/ and there may be a potential or incipient NURSEGOOSE merger.[19]
  • The PALM/START vowel /ɐː/ in words like calm /kɐːm/, spa /spɐː/, park /pɐːk/ and farm /fɐːm/ is central or even front of central in terms of tongue position.[20] New Zealand English has the trapbath split: words like dance /dɐːns/, chance /tʃɐːns/, plant /plɐːnt/ and grant /ɡɹɐːnt/ are pronounced with an /ɐː/ sound, as in Southern England and South Australia.[10][21] However, for many decades prior to World War II there existed an almost 50/50 split between the pronunciation of dance as /dɐːns/ or /dɛns/, plant as /plɐːnt/ or /plɛnt/, etc.[22] Can't is also pronounced /kɐːnt/ in both New Zealand and Australia and not /kɛnt/ (unlike the pronunciation found in United States and Canada). Some older Southland speakers use the TRAP vowel rather than the PALM vowel in dance, chance and castle, so that they are pronounced /dɛns, tʃɛns, ˈkɛsɯ/ rather than /dɐːns, tʃɐːns, ˈkɐːsɯ/.[23]
Part 1 of New Zealand English closing diphthongs, from Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a) and Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
Part 2 of New Zealand English closing diphthongs, from Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
Centring diphthongs of New Zealand English, from Bauer et al. (2007:99)
Closing æe ɑe oe æo ɐʉ ɒɯ
Centring iə eə ʉə
  • The NEARSQUARE merger (of the diphthongs /iə/ and /eə/) is on the increase, especially since the beginning of the 21st Century[24] so that here /hiə/ now rhymes with there /ðeə/ and beer /biə/ and bear /beə/ as well as really /ˈɹiəli/ and rarely /ˈɹeəli/ are homophones. There is some debate as to the quality of the merged vowel, but the consensus appears to be that it is towards a close variant, [iə].[25][26]
  • /ʉə/ is becoming rarer. Most speakers use either /ʉːɘ/ or /oː/ instead.[27]
  • The phonetic quality of NZE diphthongs are as follows:
    • As stated above, the starting points of /iə/ and /eə/ are identical in contemporary NZE. However, conservative speakers distinguish them as [] (or []) and [].[4]
    • The starting point of /ɒɯ/ is retracted open-mid central [ɞ̠], whereas its ending point is close-mid near-back [ɤ̈].[28] It is unclear whether the rounding of the second element is variable, as is the case with the TREACLE vowel /ɯ/.
    • The starting point of /æe/ can be either front [æ] or central [ɐ]. The ending point is close-mid [e], but it can also be close [i] if the starting point is central.[29] According to Elizabeth Gordon and Margaret Maclagan, a front starting point is more conservative.[4]
    • The ending points of /oe, ɑe/ also vary between close-mid [e] and close [i].[29]
    • The ending point of /ɐʉ/ is close central rounded [ʉ][25] (also described as slightly lower [ʉ̞]).[28][30][31] In certain phonetic environments (especially in tonic syllables and in the word no), some speakers unround it to [ɨ], sometimes with additional fronting to [ɪ].[32]
    • Sources do not agree on the exact phonetic realizations of certain NZE diphthongs:
      • The starting point of /ʉə/ has been variously described as near-close central [ʉ̞][28] and near-close near-back [ʊ].[30]
      • The ending points of /iə, ʉə, eə/ have been variously described as mid [ə][30] and open-mid [ɜ].[28]
      • The starting point of /oe/ has been variously described as close-mid back [o][30][31] and mid near-back [ö̞].[28]
      • The starting point of /ɑe/ has been variously described as near-open back [ɑ̝][30] and near-open central [ɐ].[28][31]
      • The starting point of /ɐʉ/ has been variously described as central [ɐ][28][30] and near-back [ɐ̠].[31]
      • The starting point of /æo/ has been variously described as varying between near-open front [æ] and open-mid front [ɛ] (with the former being more conservative)[25] and as varying between near-open front [æ] and near-open central [ɐ].[33]
      • The ending point of /æo/ has been variously described as close central [ʉ],[29] close-mid near-back [ö][28] and open-mid back [ɔ].[31] According to one source, most speakers realise the ending point of /æo/ as mid central [ə], thus making /æo/ a centring diphthong akin to /iə, ʉə, eə/.[34]

Sources differ in the way they transcribe New Zealand English. Here are the differences:

Transcription systems
Plain vowels
Help key Bauer et al. (2007:98–100) Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008:21–34) Wells (1982:608–609) Examples
/ɪ/ /ɘ/ /ɪ/ /ə/ bid, pit, roses
/ə/ /ə/ Rosa's, cuppa
/i/ /i/ /i/ /iː/ happy, serious
// /iː/ bead, peat
/ʊ/ /ʊ/ good, foot, put
// /ʉː/ /u/ /uː/ or /yː/ booed, food
/ɛ/ /e/ bed, pet
/ɔː/ /oː/ /ɔ/ /ɔː/ or /oː/ bawd, paw, caught
/æ/ /ɛ/ /æ/ pat, bad
/ɑː/ /ɐː/ /a/ /aː/ balm, father, pa
/ʌ/ /ɐ/ /ʌ/ bud, putt
/ɒ/ /ɒ/ bod, pot, cot
// /æe/ /ei/ /ʌɪ/ bay, hey, fate
// /ɐʉ/ /oʊ/ /ʌʊ/ beau, poke
/ɔɪ/ /oe/ /ɔi/ /ɔɪ/ boy, hoy
// /ɑe/ /ai/ /ɑɪ/ buy, high, ride, write
// /æo/ /aʊ/ /æʊ/ bough, how, pout
Some of the vowels followed by /l/
/ɪl/ /ɘl/ /ɪl/ /əl/ kill, ill
/əl/ /əl/ morally
/ɯ/ treacle
/l/ /ɒɯ/ /oʊl/ /ʌʊl/ or /ɒʊ/ goal
/ɐʉl/ /ʌʊl/ goalie
Vowels followed by /r/
/ɪr/ /ɘɹ/ /ɪr/ /ər/ mirror
/ər/ /ər/ Ankara, sorcerer
/ɘ/ /ə/ runner
/ɪər/ /iə/ beer, mere
/iəɹ/ /iər/ hearing, steering
/ʊər/ /ʉə/ /ʊə/ cure, tour
/ʉəɹ/ /ʊər/ curer, touring
/oː/ /ɔ/ /ɔː/ or /oː/ poor, sure
/oːɹ/ /ɔr/ /ɔːr/ or /oːr/ poorer, surer
/ɛər/ /eə/ /eə/ or /eː/ bear, mare
/eəɹ/ /eər/ /eər/ or /eːr/ bearing, Mary
/ɛr/ /eɹ/ /er/ berry, merry
/ɜːr/ /ɵː/ /ɜ/ /ɜː/ or /øː/ bird, herd
/ɵːɹ/ /ɜr/ /ɜːr/ or /øːr/ furry, blurry
/ɔːr/ /oː/ /ɔ/ /ɔː/ or /oː/ born, for, more
/oːɹ/ /ɔr/ /ɔːr/ or /oːr/ Laura, flora
/ær/ /ɛɹ/ /ær/ barrow, marry
/ɑːr/ /ɐː/ /a/ /aː/ bar, mar
/ɐːɹ/ /ar/ /aːr/ barring, starring
/ʌr/ /ɐɹ/ /ʌr/ hurry, Murray
/ɒr/ /ɒɹ/ /ɒr/ moral, forage
Labio-velar approximants
/hw/ /w/ /hw/ or /w/ /hw/ which, what
/w/ /w/ witch, water
Postalveolar approximant
/r/ /ɹ/ /r/ right, row

Conditioned mergers[edit]

  • Before /l/, the vowels /iː/ and /iə/ (as in reel /ɹiːl/ vs real /ɹiəl/, the only minimal pair), as well as /ɒ/ and /ɐʉ/ (doll /dɒl/ vs dole /dɐʉl/, transcribed by Bauer et al. as /dɒl/ and /dɒɯ/), and sometimes /ʊ/ and /ʉː/ (pull /pʊl/ vs pool /pʉːl/), /e/ and /ɛ/ (Ellen /ˈelɘn/ vs Alan /ˈɛlɘn/) and /ʊ/ and /ɘ/ (full /fʊl/ vs fill /fɘl/) may be merged.[21][35]

Consonants[edit]

  • New Zealand English is mostly non-rhotic (with linking and intrusive R), except for speakers with the so-called Southland burr, a semi-rhotic, Scottish-influenced dialect heard principally in Southland and parts of Otago.[36][37] Older Southland speakers use /ɹ/ variably after vowels, but today younger speakers use /ɹ/ only with the NURSE vowel and occasionally with the LETTER vowel. Younger Southland speakers pronounce /ɹ/ in third term /ˌθɵːɹd ˈtɵːɹm/ (General NZE pronunciation: /ˌθɵːd ˈtɵːm/) but not in farm cart /fɐːm kɐːt/ (same as in General NZE).[stress needed][38] The rhotic Southern New Zealand accent was depicted in The World's Fastest Indian, a movie about the life of New Zealander Burt Munro and his achievements at Bonneville Speedway. On the DVD release of the movie one of the Special Features is Roger Donaldson's original 1971 documentary Offerings to the God of Speed featuring the real Burt Monro.[39] His (and others) southern New Zealand accent is definitive. Among r-less speakers, however, non-prevocalic /ɹ/ is sometimes pronounced in a few words, including Ireland /ˈɑeɹlɘnd/, merely /ˈmiəɹli/, err /ɵːɹ/, and the name of the letter R /ɐːɹ/ (General NZE pronunciations: /ˈɑelɘnd, ˈmiəli, ɵː, ɐː/).[40]
  • /l/ is velarised ("dark") in all positions, and is often vocalised in syllable codas.[41][10] Even when not vocalised, it is darker in codas than in onsets, possibly with pharyngealisation.[42] Vocalisation varies in different regions and between different socioeconomic groups; the younger, lower social class speakers vocalise /l/ most of the time.[12]
  • Many younger speakers have the winewhine merger, which means that the traditional distinction between the /w/ and /hw/ phonemes no longer exists for them. All speakers are more likely to retain it in lexical words than in grammatical ones, therefore even older speakers have a variable merger here.[1][2][43]
  • As with Australian English and American English the intervocalic /t/ may be flapped, so that the sentence "use a little bit of butter" may be pronounced [jʉːz ɘ lɘɾɯ bɘɾ ɘv bɐɾɘ] (phonemically /jʉːz ɘ lɘtɯ bɘt ɘv bɐtɘ/).[1]

Other features[edit]

  • Some New Zealanders pronounce past participles such as grown /ˈɡɹɐʉ.ɘn/, thrown /ˈθɹɐʉ.ɘn/ and mown /ˈmɐʉ.ɘn/ with two syllables, the latter containing a schwa /ɘ/ not found in other accents. By contrast, groan /ɡɹɐʉn/, throne /θɹɐʉn/ and moan /mɐʉn/ are all unaffected, meaning these word pairs can be distinguished by ear.[12]
  • The trans- prefix is usually pronounced /tɹɛns/. This produces mixed pronunciation of the as in words like transplant /ˈtɹɛnsplɐːnt/. However, /tɹɐːns/ is also heard.[citation needed]
  • The name of the letter H is almost always /æetʃ/, as in North American, and is almost never aspirated (/hæetʃ/).[citation needed]
  • The name of the letter Z is usually the British, Canadian and Australian zed /zed/. However the alphabet song for children is sometimes sung ending with /ziː/ in accordance with the rhyme. Where Z is universally pronounced zee in places, names, terms, or titles, such as ZZ Top, LZ (landing zone), Jay Z (celebrity), or Z Nation (TV show) New Zealanders follow universal pronunciation.[citation needed]
  • The word foyer is usually pronounced /ˈfoe.ɘ/, as in Australian English, rather than /ˈfoe.æe/ as in British English.[citation needed]
  • The word with is almost always pronounced /wɘð/, though /wɘθ/ may be found in some minority groups.[citation needed]
  • The word and combining form graph is pronounced both /ɡɹɐːf/ and /ɡɹɛf/.[citation needed]
  • The word data is commonly pronounced /ˈdɐːtɘ/, with /ˈdæetɘ/ being the second commonest, and /ˈdɛtɘ/ being very rare.[citation needed]
  • Words such as contribute and distribute are predominantly pronounced with the stress on the second syllable (/kɘnˈtɹɘbjʉːt/, /dɘˈstrɹɘbjʉːt/). Variants with the stress on the first syllable (/ˈkɒntɹɘbjʉːt/, /ˈdɘstrɹɘbjʉːt/) also occur.[citation needed]

Pronunciation of Māori place names[edit]

The pronunciations of many Māori place names were anglicised for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but since the 1980s increased consciousness of the Māori language has led to a shift towards using a Māori pronunciation. The anglicisations have persisted most among residents of the towns in question, so it has become something of a shibboleth, with correct Māori pronunciation marking someone as non-local.[citation needed]

Examples[citation needed]
Placename English pronunciation Te Reo Māori Māori pronunciation
Cape Reinga /ˌkæep ɹiˈɛŋɘ/ ray-i-nga [ˈɾɛːiŋa]
Hawera /ˈhɐːweɹɘ, -wɘɹ-, -ɐː/ ha-we-ra [ˈhaːwɛɾa]
Otahuhu /ˌɐʉtɘˈhʉːhʉː/ o-ta-hu-hu [ɔːˈtaːhʉhʉ]
Otorohanga /ˌɐʉtɹɘˈhɐŋɘ, -ˈhɒŋɘ/ o-to-ra-ha-nga [ˈɔːtɔɾɔhaŋa]
Paraparaumu /ˌpɛɹɘpɛˈɹæomʉː/ pa-ra-pa-rau-mu [paɾapaˈɾaumʉ]
Taumarunui /ˌtæomɘɹɘˈnʉːi/ tau-ma-ra-nu-i [ˈtaumaɾanʉi]
Te Awamutu /ˌtiː ɘˈmʉːtʉː/ te a-wa-mu-tu [tɛ awaˈmʉtʉ]
Te Kauwhata /ˌtiː kɘˈhwɒtɘ/ te kau-fa-ta [tɛ ˈkaufata]
Waikouaiti /ˈwɛkɘwɑet, -wɒt/ wai-kou-ai-ti [ˈwaikɔuˌaːiti]

Some anglicised names are colloquially shortened, for example, Coke /kɐʉk/ for Kohukohu, the Rapa /ˈɹɛpɘ/ for the Wairarapa, Kura /ˈkʉəɹɘ/ for Papakura, Papatoe /ˈpɛpɘtɐʉi/ for Papatoetoe, Otahu /ˌɐʉtɘˈhʉː/ for Otahuhu, Paraparam /ˈpɛɹɘpɛɹɛm/ or Pram /pɹɛm/ for Paraparaumu, the Naki /ˈnɛki/ for Taranaki, Cow-cop /ˈkæokɒp/ for Kaukapakapa and Pie-cock /ˈpɑekɒk/ for Paekakariki.[citation needed]

There is some confusion between these shortenings, especially in the southern South Island, and the natural variations of the southern dialect of Māori. Not only does this dialect sometimes feature apocope, but consonants also vary slightly from standard Māori. To compound matters, names were often initially transcribed by Scottish settlers, rather than the predominantly English settlers of other parts of the country; as such further alterations are not uncommon. Thus, while Lake Wakatipu is sometimes referred to as Wakatip,[English IPA needed] Oamaru as Om-a-roo About this sound/ɒmɘˈɹʉː/  and Waiwera South as Wy-vra /ˈwɑevɹɘ/, these differences may be as much caused by dialect differences – either in Māori or in the English used during transcription – as by the process of anglicisation.[citation needed] An extreme example is The Kilmog /ˈkɘlmɒɡ/, the name of which is cognate with the standard Māori Kirimoko.[44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Trudgill & Hannah (2008), p. 30.
  2. ^ a b Gordon & Maclagan (2004), pp. 606, 609.
  3. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 97–98.
  4. ^ a b c d Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  5. ^ a b "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3.
  6. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
  7. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–100.
  8. ^ Evans, Zoë; Watson, Catherine I. (2004). "An acoustic comparison of Australian and New Zealand English vowel change". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.119.6227.
  9. ^ Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), pp. 41–42.
  10. ^ a b c Crystal (2003), p. 354.
  11. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 587.
  12. ^ a b c Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 611.
  13. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 607–608.
  14. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 607.
  15. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 188.
  16. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 591.
  17. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  18. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a).
  19. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 591.
  20. ^ "3. – Speech and accent – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  21. ^ a b Trudgill & Hannah (2008), p. 29.
  22. ^ The New Zealand accent: a clue to New Zealand identity? Pages 47-48 arts.canterbury.ac.nz
  23. ^ "5. – Speech and accent – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  24. ^ "4. Stickmen, New Zealand's pool movie – Speech and accent – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  25. ^ a b c Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 592.
  26. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 610.
  27. ^ Gordon et al. (2004), p. 29.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Bauer et al. (2007), p. 99.
  29. ^ a b c Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 582.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), p. 26.
  31. ^ a b c d e Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
  32. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 592.
  33. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  34. ^ Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008), p. 25.
  35. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 589.
  36. ^ "Other forms of variation in New Zealand English". Te Kete Ipurangi. Ministry of Education. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  37. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 605.
  38. ^ "5. – Speech and accent – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  39. ^ "The World's Fastest Indian: Anthony Hopkins, Diane Ladd, Iain Rea, Tessa Mitchell, Aaron Murphy, Tim Shadbolt, Annie Whittle, Greg Johnson, Antony Starr, Kate Sullivan, Craig Hall, Jim Bowman, Roger Donaldson, Barrie M. Osborne, Charles Hannah, Don Schain, Gary Hannam, John J. Kelly, Masaharu Inaba: Movies & TV". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  40. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 594.
  41. ^ Trudgill & Hannah (2008), p. 31.
  42. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 595.
  43. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), p. 97.
  44. ^ Goodall, M., & Griffiths, G. (1980) Maori Dunedin. Dunedin: Otago Heritage Books. p. 45: This hill [The Kilmog]...has a much debated name, but its origins are clear to Kaitahu and the word illustrates several major features of the southern dialect. First we must restore the truncated final vowel (in this case to both parts of the name, 'kilimogo'). Then substitute r for l, k for g, to obtain the northern pronunciation, 'kirimoko'.... Though final vowels existed in Kaitahu dialect, the elision was so nearly complete that pākehā recorders often omitted them entirely.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Crystal, David (2003), The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Maclagan, Margaret (2004), "Regional and social differences in New Zealand: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 603–613, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Campbell, Lyle; Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Sudbury, Peter; Trudgill, Andrea, eds. (2004), New Zealand English: Its Origins and Evolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008), New Zealand English, Dialects of English, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2529-1
  • Mannell, Robert; Cox, Felicity; Harrington, Jonathan (2009a), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University
  • Mannell, Robert; Cox, Felicity; Harrington, Jonathan (2009b), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
  • Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean (2008), International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English (5th ed.), London: Arnold
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .

Further reading[edit]

  • Bauer, Laurie (1994), "8: English in New Zealand", in Burchfield, Robert, The Cambridge History of the English Language, 5: English in Britain and Overseas: Origins and Development, Cambridge University Press, pp. 382–429, ISBN 0-521-26478-2
  • Bauer, Laurie (2015), "Australian and New Zealand English", in Reed, Marnie; Levis, John M., The Handbook of English Pronunciation, Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 269–285, ISBN 978-1-118-31447-0
  • Warren, Paul; Bauer, Laurie (2004), "Maori English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 614–624, ISBN 3-11-017532-0