New Zealand Police
|New Zealand Police|
Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa (Māori)
|Motto||"Safer Communities Together"|
|Employees||12,034 (30 June 2016)|
|Annual budget||Total budget for 2019/20|
|National agency||New Zealand|
|Operations jurisdiction||New Zealand|
|Size||268,021 square kilometres (103,483 sq mi)|
|Population||4,917,000 (June 2019 est.)|
|Governing body||New Zealand Government|
|Headquarters||180 Molesworth Street, Wellington 6011|
|Sworn members||9004 (30 June 2016)|
|Unsworn members||3013 (30 June 2016)|
The New Zealand Police (Māori: Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa[n 2]) is the national police force of New Zealand, responsible for enforcing criminal law, enhancing public safety, and maintaining order. With about 12,000 personnel it is the largest law enforcement agency in New Zealand and, with few exceptions, has primary jurisdiction over the majority of New Zealand criminal law. The New Zealand Police also has responsibility for traffic and commercial vehicle enforcement as well as other key responsibilities including protection of dignitaries, firearms licensing and matters of national security.
Policing in New Zealand was introduced in 1840, modelled on similar constabularies that existed in Britain at that time. The constabulary was initially part police and part militia. By the end of the 19th century policing by consent was the goal. The New Zealand Police has generally enjoyed a reputation for mild policing, but there have been cases when the use of force was criticised, such as during the 1981 Springbok tour.
The current Minister of Police is Stuart Nash. While the New Zealand Police is a government department with a minister responsible for it, the commissioner and sworn members swear allegiance directly to the Sovereign and, by convention, have constabulary independence from the government of the day. The New Zealand Police is perceived to have a minimal level of institutional corruption.
- 1 Origins and history
- 2 Organisation
- 3 Insignia and uniform
- 4 Equipment
- 5 Notable policing events
- 6 Police and civilian deaths
- 7 Counter-terrorism and military assistance
- 8 Crime statistics
- 9 Controversies
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Origins and history
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Policing in New Zealand started in 1840 with the arrival of six constables accompanying Lt. Governor Hobson's official landing party to form the colony of New Zealand. Early policing arrangements were along similar lines to the UK and British colonial police forces, in particular the Royal Irish Constabulary and the New South Wales Police Force. Many of its first officers had seen prior service in either Ireland or Australia. The early Force was initially part police and part militia.
At the outset, official establishment of sworn constables holding common law powers to arrest people was achieved by magistrates being given the power to swear them in via the Magistrates Ordinance of 1842. By 1846, the emerging organisation of a police force was recognised with the passage of the Armed Constabulary Ordinance. New Zealand's early police force continued to grow with the colony and was further enhanced with additional structure and rules with the passage of the first Police Act, the New Zealand Armed Constabulary Act of 1867. The Armed Constabulary took part in military actions against Māori opponents Riwha Titokowaru in Taranaki and Te Kooti in the central North Island in the dying stages of the New Zealand Wars.
From the police force's beginnings in 1840 through the next forty years, policing arrangements varied around New Zealand. Whilst the nationally organised Armed Constabulary split its efforts between regular law enforcement functions and militia support to the land wars, some provinces desired local police forces of their own. This led to a separate Provincial Police Force Act being passed by the Parliament. However, provincial policing models lasted only two decades as economic depression in the 1870s saw some provinces stop paying their police as they ran out of money. Eventually, the government decided a single nationally organised police would be the best and most efficient policing arrangement.
The New Zealand Police Force was established as a single national force under the Police Force Act of 1886. The change in name was significant, and provincial policing arrangements were dis-established and their staff largely absorbed into the newly created New Zealand Police Force. At the same time, the government took the important step to hive off the militia functions of the old Armed Constabulary, and form the genesis of today's New Zealand Defence Force, initially called in 1886 the New Zealand Permanent Militia.
Just a decade later, policing in New Zealand was given a significant overhaul. In 1898 there was a very constructive Royal Commission of Enquiry into New Zealand Police. The Royal Commission, which included the reforming Commissioner Tunbridge who had come from the Metropolitan Police in London, produced a far-reaching report which laid the basis for positive reform of New Zealand Police for the next several decades. A complete review of police legislation in 1908 built significantly off the Royal Commission's work.
A further Police Force Act in 1947 reflected some changes of a growing New Zealand, and a country coming out of World War II. The most significant change in the structure and arrangement for police came after the departure of Commissioner Compton under a cloud of government and public concern over his management of Police in 1955. The appointment of a caretaker civilian leader of police, especially titled "Controller General" to recognise his non-operational background, opened the windows on the organisation and allowed a period of positive and constructive development to take place.
In 1958, the word "Force" was removed from the name when legislation was significantly revised.
On 1 July 1992, the Traffic Safety Service of the Ministry of Transport was merged with the Police. Up until that time, the Ministry of Transport and local councils had been responsible for traffic law enforcement. In 2001, the Police re-established a specialist road policing branch known as the Highway Patrol. Today the Police are mainly responsible for enforcing traffic law, while local councils can appoint parking wardens, who can enforce traffic rules regarding parking and special vehicle lanes. In 2010, after some calls to split traffic enforcement again from standard police duties, it was decided that it would remain part of their duties, partly due to the public having shown "enormous support" for it remaining this way.
The Police Act 1958 was extensively reviewed starting in 2006, after a two and a half-year consultative process the Policing Act 2008 came into effect on 1 October 2008. The process included the world's first use of a wiki to allow the public to submit or propose amendments. The wiki was open for less than two weeks, but drew international attention.
More recently, the New Zealand Police has been involved in international policing and peacekeeping missions to East Timor and the Solomon Islands, to assist these countries with establishing law and order after civil unrest. They have also been involved in Community Police training in Bougainville, in conjunction with Australian Federal Police. Other overseas deployments for regional assistance and relief have been to Afghanistan as part of the reconstruction effort, the Kingdom of Tonga, Thailand for the tsunami disaster and Indonesia after terrorist bombings. New Zealand Police maintains an international policing support network in eight foreign capitals, and has about 80 staff deployed in differing international missions.
Although headed by a Commissioner, the New Zealand Police is a decentralised organisation divided into twelve districts. Each district has a central station from which subsidiary and suburban stations are managed. Each District has a geographical area of responsibility, three communications centres that each receive calls from *555 traffic, 111 emergency or general queues, and a Police National Headquarters that provides policy and planning advice as well as national oversight and management of the organisation. As of March 2019, there are 327 police stations around the country with nearly 12,000 staff who respond to more than 600,000 emergency 111 calls each year.
The Commissioner is in overall charge of the New Zealand Police. Assisting the Commissioner are two chief officers in the rank of Deputy Commissioner: Deputy Commissioner-Resource Management; and Deputy Commissioner-Operations.
Five chief officers in the rank of Assistant Commissioner and the Director of Intelligence report to the Deputy Commissioner-Operations. The Assistant Commissioner-Investigations/International is responsible for the National Criminal Investigations Group, the Organised and Financial Crime Agency New Zealand (OFCANZ), Financial Crime Group, International Services Group and Pacific Islands Chiefs of Police Secretariat. The Investigations and International Group leads the prevention, investigation, disruption and prosecution of serious and transnational crime. It also leads liaison, overseas deployment and capacity building with international policing partners. The Assistant Commissioner-Operations is responsible for Community Policing, Youth, Communications Centres, Operations Group, Prosecutions and Road Policing. The remaining three Assistant Commissioners command geographical policing areas – Upper North, Lower North and South. Each area is divided into three to five districts.
District Commanders hold the rank of Superintendent, as do sworn National Managers, the road policing manager in the Waitemata District, responsible for the motorway network and traffic alcohol group, and the commandant of the Royal New Zealand Police College. Area Commanders hold the rank of Inspector as do Shift Commanders based in each of the three Communications Centres. District Section Commanders are typically Senior Sergeants. The New Zealand Police is a member of Interpol and has close relationships with the Australian police forces, at both the state and federal level. Several New Zealand Police representatives are posted overseas in key New Zealand diplomatic missions.
It is acknowledged, by both Police and legislation, that important and valuable roles in the performance of the functions of the Police are played by: public agencies or bodies (for example, local authorities and state sectors), persons who hold certain statutory offices (for example, Maori Wardens), and parts of the private sector, especially the private security industry. It is also acknowledged that it is often appropriate, or even necessary, for Police to perform some of its functions by working in co-operation with citizens, or other agencies or bodies.
New Zealand Police operate three communications centres that are responsible for receiving 111 emergency calls and general calls for service and dispatching the relevant response. The centres are:
- Northern Communications Centre, based in Auckland and responsible for the northern half of the North Island, down to Hicks Bay, Desert Road south of Turangi, and Awakino
- Central Communications Centre, based in Wellington and responsible for the southern half of the North Island, from Mokau, Taumarunui, the Desert Road north of Waiouru, and Te Araroa in the north
- Southern Communications Centre, based in the Christchurch Central Police Station, responsible for the South Island[dead link]
A police employee becomes a constable by swearing the oath under section 22 of the New Zealand Policing Act 2008. Upon doing so the constable receives certain statutory powers and responsibilities, including the power of arrest. While constables make up the majority of the workforce, non-sworn staff and volunteers provide a wide range of support services where a constable's statutory powers are not required. Rank insignia are worn on epaulettes. Officers of Inspector rank and higher are commissioned by the Governor-General, but are still promoted from the ranks of non-commissioned officers. A recently graduated constable is considered a Probationary Constable for up to two years, until he or she has passed ten workplace assessment standards. The completion of the above is known as obtaining permanent appointment.
Detective ranks somewhat parallel the street ranks up to Detective Superintendent. Trainee Detectives spend a minimum of six months as a Constable on Trial after completing an intensive Selection and Induction course. During these initial six months they are required to pass four module based exams before progression to Detective Constable. They are then required to continue studying with another six exam based modules as well as a number of workplace assessments. Once the Detective Constable has completed all of this they are then required to sit a pre-requisite exam based on all of the exam based modules they have previously sat. If they are successful in passing this they attend the Royal New Zealand Police College where they complete their training with the Detective Qualification course before receiving the final designation of Detective. All of these requirements are expected to be completed within two to three years.
The rank of Senior Constable is granted to Constables after 14 years of service and the Commissioner of Police is satisfied with their conduct. Senior Constables are well regarded within the New Zealand Police for their extensive policing experience, and are often used to train and mentor other police officers.
Detective and Detective Constable are considered designations and not specific ranks. That is, Detectives do not outrank uniformed constables. Nevertheless, a police officer with a Detective designation will generally assume control of a serious crime scene rather than a uniform staff member regardless of rank.
Insignia and uniform
|Rank||Insignia description||Military equivalent||Percentage|
|Commissioner||Silver crossed sword and baton below a crown||Lieutenant General||5%|
|Deputy Commissioner||Silver crossed sword and baton below one star ("pip")||Major General|
|Assistant Commissioner||Three silver pips in a triangle below a crown||Brigadier|
|Superintendent||One silver pip below a crown||Lieutenant Colonel|
|Inspector||Three silver pips||Captain|
|Senior Sergeant||White crown between two ferns above police number||Warrant officer Class 2||5%|
|Sergeant||Three white point-up chevrons above police number||Sergeant||15%|
|Senior Constable||One white point-up chevron above police number||Corporal||75%|
|Recruit||Word "RECRUIT" below police number|
New Zealand police uniforms formerly followed the British model closely but, since the 1970s, a number of changes have been implemented. These include the adoption of a medium blue shade in place of dark blue, the abolition of custodian helmets and the substitution of synthetic leather jackets for silver buttoned tunics when on ordinary duty. The normal headdress is a peaked cap with blue and white Sillitoe Tartan band and silver badge. Baseball caps and Akubra wide-brimmed hats are authorised for particular duties or climatic conditions. Stab resistant and high visibility vests are normally worn on duty. The body vests are also marked with Sillitoe Tartan markings.
AOS and STG members, when deployed, wear the usual charcoal-coloured clothing used by armed-response and counter-terror units around the world. In 2008, a survey found strong staff support for the re-introduction of the white custodian helmets worn until 1995, to reinforce the police's professional image.
New Zealand Police officers do not routinely carry firearms; officers only carry OC spray (pepper spray), batons and tasers. The Diplomatic Protection Squad, Dog section units and Airport officers are the only officers who routinely carry firearms. The majority of New Zealand Police officers are trained in the use of the Glock 17 pistol and Bushmaster XM15 M4A3 Patrolman AR-15 type military style semi-automatic rifle and wear a holster attachment for the pistol to enable carriage of the firearm if necessary. Firearms are stored in a lock box in patrol cars and they can be equipped at the discretion of the officer. In addition, since 2012, frontline vehicles have had a locked box in the passenger foot-well containing a loaded and holstered Glock 17, and in the rear of the vehicle, there is at least one Bushmaster rifle secured in a case together with ballistic vests. The vehicles are fitted with glass break car alarms. Each officer in the vehicle carries a set of vehicle keys and a set of safe keys. Officers are required to advise their supervisor or communications if a firearm is to be retrieved from their vehicle and carried.
The Police Association has stated carrying of handguns is inevitable. In January 2013, a Waikato officer was attacked by at least five men after he deployed his OC spray and Taser. His radio was taken from him and his pistol was misplaced during the attack. The Police Association's request for routine carrying of firearms for all officers after this incident was dismissed by the Police Commissioner. The current firearm training and issuing policy has been criticised. Not all police officers receive regular firearm training nor do their vehicles contain a secured firearm. In October 2015, unarmed officers at a routine police checkpoint at Te Atatu South who pursued a vehicle that sped off from the checkpoint were shot at from the offender's vehicle. In December 2015, the Police Association referring to the incident requested that all frontline officers receive firearm training and that their vehicle contain a secured firearm; this was rejected.
In July 2015, the Police Commissioner announced that Tasers would be routinely carried by police officers. Tasers were first trialled in 2006 and in 2010 were rolled out throughout New Zealand with all frontline vehicles containing a secured Taser in a locked box, providing ready access for officers, if needed, to a Taser model X26 or X2. In 2012, figures showed that a 'disproportionate number of people' targeted by police Tasers were mental health patients.
Police officers receive regular training called Police Integrated Tactical Training (PITT) in a three-tiered tactical response structure, as Level 1, 2 or 3 responders. All officers are trained as Level 3 responders in defensive tactics, handcuffs, OC spray, baton and taser. Of the approximate 8,100 frontline officers, 5,700 receive training with the pistol and rifle as Level 1 and 2,100 receive training with the pistol only as Level 2. The New Zealand Police annually release a report of their use of force including OC spray, Tasers and firearms.
All officers wear a stab vest named Stab Resistant Body Armour (SRBA) based on a design similar to that used by United Kingdom Police with a ballistics vest able to be worn over the stab vest.
In 2012, the police began using drones also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. By 2013, drones had been used only twice; in one case a drone was used in a criminal investigation and led to charges being laid in court. Privacy Commissioner Marie Shroff said "organisations using drones needed good privacy policies – or possibly a warrant".
The Deodar III's sister, Lady Elizabeth IV, based in Wellington
Two maritime units are also operated – the launch Deodar III in Auckland and the launch Lady Elizabeth IV in Wellington, supported by various smaller vessels.
The Holden Commodore is the current generic road vehicle of choice for the police. In the past they have used Ford Falcons and the Nissan Maxima. The highway patrol mainly uses the Holden Commodore S variant along with the Holden VF Commodore. The police also use unmarked models of the Holden Cruze and Holden Commodore. Liveries are chequered Battenburg markings orange-blue (older models – VT, VX and VZ Commodores) or yellow-blue (Newer Models, Captiva, Commodore VE and VF, trucks and vans), as well as cars in standard factory colours, commonly referred to as unmarked or undercover. Since 2008 the orange-blue livery is being phased out, and all marked patrol vehicles were expected to have the yellow-blue livery as well as LED light bars by 2014. Both Commodore sedan and wagon bodies are used – normally in V6 form. The Holden Commodore (VE, VT, VX and VZ) is currently being phased starting 2013 and slowly being replaced with Holden VF Commodores, with ZB Commodores joining the fleet in 2018. . The Holden Cruze is currently only used for Youth Aid, both marked and unmarked.
Dog handlers have fully enclosed utility or station wagon vehicles, which may be liveried or unmarked, with cages in the rear and remotely operated canopy doors to allow the handler to release their dog if away from the vehicle.
The police also use a variant of Vans and Trucks as Team Policing Units, Command Centers, Mobile Police Stations, Riots Squads and Armed Offenders Squad (AOS) The AOS also have their own vehicles which is commonly seen as a Nissan X-Trail and the newly introduced Toyota Highlander (all unmarked and equipped with bullbars).
The police use SUV type vehicles mainly for use in rural New Zealand but can also be used in urban areas (mainly in airports). The vehicles used are the Holden Captiva, the Colorado and its predecessor the Rodeo.
The police and Ministry of Transport (see history above) have used a wide range of different cars and motorbikes over the years.
- Humber Super Snipe 1938 – 1960
- Vauxhall Velox 1950 – 1962
- Ford Zephyr 1954 – 1967
- Vauxhall 3.5 Velox 1969
- Leyland P76 1976 – 1978
- Ford Falcon 1962 – 2000
- Ford Sierra 1984 – 1988
- Holden Kingswood 1968 – 1982
- Holden Belmont 1969 – 1987
- Holden Commodore 1980 - Present
- Holden Cruze 2014 – Present
- Mitsubishi V3000 1986 – 1989
- Holden Commodore SV6 2008–Present
- Holden Captiva 2009 - Present
- Holden Colorado 2008 - Present
- Various Holden cars 1958 – 1968
- BSA 650 Police Special 1969–1971
- Triumph Trophy 650 1970s
- Norton Commando 750 1970s
- Honda ST1300 2014–current
- Various Japanese and European motorcycles including Yamaha, Suzuki, Kawasaki, BMW 1979–2000
- BMW R1150, BMW R1200 2000–current
Police Officers communicate with each other via Apple iPhones. For shorter, fast communication, front-line Police Officers also use radios.
In 2009 New Zealand Police began moving from using analogue two-way radios, to trialing digital encrypted radios in the Wellington region. The trial was successful and New Zealand Police have now rolled out digital encrypted radios to all regions.
Notable policing events
On 8 October 1941, four police officers were killed by South Island farmer Stanley Graham, 40, who fired on them as they attempted to seize arms from his residence in the locality of Kowhitirangi. Graham had earlier threatened a neighbour with a rifle, and Constable Edward Best from Kaniere went to investigate. Graham allegedly opened a window and displayed two rifles, prompting Constable Best to seek assistance in the neighbouring town of Hokitika.
Later that day, Constable Best returned with Sergeant William Cooper, 43, and Constables Frederick Jordan, 26, and Percy Tulloch, 35. After a short conversation inside his house, Graham shot and wounded Sergeant Cooper and Constable Best after Sergeant Cooper apparently reached to disarm Graham. He then fired at Constables Jordan and Tulloch as they ran into the house, killing them both instantly with the one bullet. When the badly wounded Cooper attempted to leave to obtain help, Graham shot him dead on the path in front of the house. Best was shot once more after allegedly attempting to plead with him, and died three days later. Graham also fatally wounded a field instructor for the Canterbury education board named George Ridley, who had entered Graham's property to assist any wounded along with an armed local, whom Graham threatened and disarmed. The next day, Graham returned to his house, only to find it occupied by three armed Home Guard personnel, two of whom he fatally wounded after a firefight.
After widespread searches in the district, two policemen and a local civilian saw Graham carrying his rifle and ammunition belts on 20 October. He was shot by Constable James D'Arcy Quirke with a .303 rifle, from a distance of 25 meters, while crawling through a patch of scrub. He died early the next morning in Westland Hospital, Hokitika.
The police investigation into the murders of Harvey and Jeanette Crewe in 1970 was a turning point in the public's perception of the police. A royal commission subsequently found that the police had planted evidence and framed Arthur Allan Thomas for the murder. Writer Kieth Hunter believes this introduced "a cynicism (in attitudes towards the police) that infects us today."
During the 1981 Springbok tour, the police formed three riot squads known as Red Squad, Blue Squad and White Squad to control anti-apartheid protesters who laid siege to rugby union fields where the touring team was playing. Police were described as being heavy-handed with their batons as they tried to 'subdue' protesters opposed to the Springbok tour. The tour had a significant effect on public perceptions of the police who since this time "have never been viewed with the same general benign approval".
In July 1985, the New Zealand Police arrested two French Action Service operatives after the Rainbow Warrior was bombed and sunk in Auckland harbour. The rapid arrest was attributed to the high level of public support for the investigation.
In October 2007 at least 17 people were arrested in a series of raids under the Suppression of Terrorism Act and the Arms Act 1983. The raids targeted a range of political activists allegedly involved in illegal firearms activity. The case dragged on for nearly four years and cost taxpayers millions of dollars. Much of the surveillance evidence was found to have been gained illegally and charges against all but four defendants were dropped. The remaining four were charged with firearms offences, found guilty and sentenced to terms of imprisonment and home detention.
On 20 January 2012, the police flew in by helicopter and arrested Kim Dotcom and three others in Coatesville, Auckland, in an armed raid on Dotcom's house following United States cybercrime indictments against him for on-line piracy via his internet file sharing company, Megaupload. Assets worth $17 million were seized including eighteen luxury cars, giant screen TVs and works of art. According to Dotcom, about 80 police officers were involved in the operation; the New Zealand police claimed it was between 20 and 30. The incident became controversial when a district court judge ruled that the warrants issued for the property seizures were invalid and it turned out the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) had broken the law when asked by police to spy on Dotcom.
Police and civilian deaths
Police killed on duty
A member of the New Zealand Police, Sergeant Stewart Graeme Guthrie, was the last New Zealand civilian recipient of the George Cross, which is awarded for conspicuous gallantry. He fired a warning shot near a gunman at Aramoana on 13 November 1990, but was killed by a return shot from the gunman, who also killed twelve others. As of May 2009[update], 29 police officers have been killed by criminal acts, and about 17 by accident, while in the performance of their official duties. The last policeman to die was Senior Constable Len Snee, who was shot and killed by Jan Molenaar in the 2009 Napier shootings.
Civilian deaths involving police
In June 2012 the Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA) released a comprehensive report on deaths in police custody. There were 27 deaths in the last ten years – ten of which were suicides. Seven deaths occurred when police were overly vigorous in the use of restraint. Another seven were "caused by the detainee's medical condition" which got dramatically worse in police custody, and three deaths were drug related when police failed to ascertain the detainees were on drugs. Of the 27 deaths, the IPCA said only four "involved serious neglect of duty or breaches of policy by police". On top of deaths in custody, police have shot and killed seven people in the last ten years. One was an innocent bystander, and another two were not carrying firearms but were carrying other weapons. The police were exonerated in all seven cases.
Numerous people have also died in collisions during or shortly after police car chases. In the five years after December 2003, 24 people died and 91 received serious injuries in police pursuits. Over this period, the IPCA made numerous recommendations to change police protocols, but the death rate continued to climb. In 2010, 18 drivers fleeing police were killed. Fourteen of the deaths were triggered by pursuits over minor offences rather than serious crimes. That year police conducted the fourth review of pursuit policy in six years and ignored key recommendations of the Independent Police Conduct Authority making only minor changes to the policy. Over the next 12 months, 15 drivers died in the course of police pursuits. 14% of pursuits result in a crash either by the police or the offender but police guidelines do not provide a predetermined speed at which officers should pull out of a pursuit. The IPCA has now recommended that pursuit policy would should require officers to "state a reason for beginning a pursuit," and recommended compulsory alcohol and drug testing of police officers involved in fatal incidents.
Counter-terrorism and military assistance
The NZ Police are accountable for the operational response to threats to national security, including terrorism. If an incident escalates to a level where their internal resources are unable to adequately deal with the issue (for example, a major arms encounter or a significant terrorist threat), the Police Incident Controller may call on extra assistance from the New Zealand Defence Force and in particular NZ's Special Forces, the military focused New Zealand Special Air Service and terrorism focused Commando Squadron (D Squadron). Control of the incident remains with police throughout. As of 2009, the two military counter terrorist units have never been deployed in a domestic law-enforcement operation. Military resources such as Light Armoured Vehicles have been used and requested before, such as during the 2009 Napier shootings, and Royal New Zealand Air Force helicopters from No. 3 Squadron are often used to assist in search and rescue and cannabis eradication operations.
In 1964, the Armed Offenders Squad (AOS) was created to provide a specialist armed response unit, similar to the Metropolitan Police Service's SC&O19 in the United Kingdom. In addition to the AOS, the New Zealand Police maintain a full-time counter-terrorist unit, the Special Tactics Group (STG). Similar to the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team, the STG train in dynamic entry and other tactics vital in high-risk situations. The STG train with the SAS and are the last line of law enforcement response available before a police Incident Controller calls in support from the Defence Force.
Crime statistics are documented in the Police annual report. The Police also publish bi-yearly statistical summaries of crime for both New Zealand as a whole and each police district. In early 2005, crime statistics for both recorded crime and recorded apprehensions for the last 10 years were published by Statistics New Zealand. These statistics provide offence statistics related to individual sections of legislation and appear to be the most detailed national crime statistics available today.
During the early years of the present century several controversies put the Police under close scrutiny. Some have been investigated by the Independent Police Conduct Authority; others have received significant publicity.
The Integrated National Crime Information System (INCIS) was a computer software package developed by IBM in the early 1990s to provide improved information, investigation and analysis capabilities to the Police. Deputy Police Commissioner, Barry Matthews, was responsible for its implementation and acknowledged that police requested 'hundreds and hundreds of changes' to the system as the programme was being developed. It never worked as required and ended up costing $130 million before it was finally abandoned in 2000.
The wasted resources and on-going problems surrounding the failure of the project were a huge distraction for the police. When it was about to be scrapped, Police Association president Greg O'Connor said "The reality of it is that the sooner ... the huge distraction that is Incis is gone, the better." Funding wasted on INCIS subsequently led to budget cuts in other areas so that infrastructure such as cars and communications centres were poorly resourced.
In 2004 and 2005, the police were criticised over several incidents in which callers to the Police Communications Centres, particularly those using the 111 emergency telephone number, received inadequate responses. In October 2004, the Commissioner of Police ordered an Independent Review into the Communications Centres under sustained political scrutiny after the Iraena Asher incident received a lot of publicity and a whistle-blowing employee resigned. On 11 May 2005, the Review Panel released its report which criticised the service for systemic failures and inadequate management. The report expressed ongoing concerns for public safety.
Police acted on the recommendations of the review with a number of initiatives, including increasing communications centre staff numbers and then initiating a demonstration project for a single non-emergency number centre, to reduce the load on the 111 service. The single non-emergency number 105 was launched on 10 May 2019.
Historical sexual misconduct by police
In 2004, a number of historical sexual misconduct allegations dating from the 1980s were made against both serving and former police officers. In March 2006 assistant police commissioner Clinton Rickards and former police officers Brad Shipton and Bob Schollum were charged with raping and sexually abusing Louise Nicholas in Rotorua during the 1980s. The defendants claimed all sex was consensual and were found not guilty on 31 March 2006. In February 2007 the same three men faced historical charges of kidnapping and indecent assault for the pack rape of a 16-year-old girl with a whisky bottle that took place in the early 1980s, and again they were acquitted. Throughout both trials, the jury were unaware that Brad Shipton and Bob Schollum had been convicted of a previous pack rape in 2005 and were already serving prison sentences for this crime.
Rickards was forced to resign from the police but was paid $300,000 as part of his termination package. Complaints about inappropriate sexual behaviour by police officers led to a three-year inquiry conducted by Dame Margaret Bazley. Her highly critical report was released in 2007.
Poor prosecution of sexual abuse cases
In 2008 there was a public scandal regarding the failure of police to investigate a backlog of sexual abuse cases in the Wairarapa. A police investigation, dubbed Operation Hope, reviewed 550 files in Wairarapa and 7000 child-abuse files nationwide going back more than 25 years. The investigation found that the police had failed hundreds of children reported as sexually abused by family members "through delays, poor investigations and improper filing".
Detective Senior Sergeant Mark McHattie, and 17 other police officers were investigated. Mr McHattie, then head of the Masterton CIB, claimed that 142 files had been reduced to just 29 in three months. However, the Independent Police Conduct Authority later found 33 had been "filed incorrectly" or "inappropriately resolved". Mr Hattie received an unspecified disciplinary "outcome" and has since been promoted as head of the Auckland CIB's serious crime unit.
Detention of youth in police cells
In January 2012, two teenage girls, aged 14 and 16, were detained by Upper Hutt police after police received a complaint about an attack on two other teenage girls. Police strip-searched the two girls who were held in police cells for 36 hours. They were not given toilet paper; they were denied contact with their families or a lawyer and the 16-year-old was forced to express breast milk into the sink in her cell after being separated from her baby. In July, Judge Mary O'Dwyer condemned the arrest and police handling of the case, citing several breaches of protocol. Police called the actions of some staff an aberration and said an investigation was under way.
The Independent Police Conduct Authority launched a wider investigation into the treatment of young people in police cells and in October 2012 issued a report which found that the number of young people being held has more than doubled since 2009. It said that "youths in crisis are being locked up in police cells and denied their human rights." Practices that "are, or risk being, inconsistent with accepted human rights" include: being held in solitary confinement; having cell lights on 24 hours a day; family members being prevented access; and not being allowed to see the doctor when they have medical or mental health problems. The IPCA made 24 recommendations into how police can improve the detention and treatment of young people in custody.
In 2019, it was reported that there had been claims of bullying within New Zealand Police.
- Armed Offenders Squad
- Cook Islands Police Service
- Corruption in New Zealand
- Crime in New Zealand
- Crimes Act 1961
- Diplomatic Protection Service
- Gangs in New Zealand
- Independent Police Conduct Authority
- Institute of Environmental Science and Research – provider of forensic services to NZ police
- New Zealand Police Negotiation Team
- Organised Crime Agency
- Royal New Zealand Police College
- Special Tactics Group
- The first British constables arrived in 1840, and police were further empowered by a series of ordinances. A "New Zealand Armed Constabulary" was established in 1867. It was renamed the "New Zealand Police Force" in 1886, and shortened to the current name in 1958.
- The Māori name literally translates to "The Policemen of New Zealand".
- "Total Appropriations for Each Vote". Budget 2019. The Treasury. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2019". Statistics New Zealand. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "pirihimana: police officer". kupu.maori.nz. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- "2016 Corruption Perceptions Index" (PDF). Transparency International New Zealand. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- Quah, Jon S. T. (2013). Different Paths to Curbing Corruption: Lessons from Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, New Zealand and Singapore. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 116. ISBN 9781781907313. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
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