New Zealand Railways Road Services
The New Zealand Railways Road Services (NZRRS) was a branch of the New Zealand Railways Department and later the New Zealand Railways Corporation. It operated long-distance, tourist and suburban bus services and freight trucking and parcel services.
The first bus operation by NZR began on 1 October 1907, between Culverden on the Waiau Branch and Waiau Ferry in Canterbury. By the 1920s NZR was noticing a considerable downturn in rail passenger traffic on many lines due to increasing ownership of private cars, and from 1923 it began to co-ordinate rail passenger services with private bus services. In November 1926, NZR purchased a private bus firm operating between Hastings and Napier in the Hawke's Bay region. NZR then acquired various other bus services in Dunedin and the Hutt Valley, and by 1928 was operating 56 buses. In 1931 Parliament passed the Transport Licensing Act, which regulated local bus services to ensure that services would not compete with NZR. This further increased acquisitions by NZR of small bus companies.
There was a certain amount of rivalry within NZR between NZRRS and the rail Traffic Branch and in many ways they competed with rather than complemented each other. For example, many cities had bus terminals some distance from railway stations and many NZRRS routes ran parallel to and at similar times to trains. By 1954 the bus routes covered 6,000 miles (9,700 km), but generally at higher fares than the railways. For example, the 230 miles (370 km) Christchurch-Dunedin return journey cost £2 13s 6d by rail, but £3 10s by bus and took 7hr 10min on the fastest train, but 9hr by bus.
Early years of the Road Services saw many different brands of buses acquired with the various constituent companies. From Ford Model T-based cars to Straker steam trucks, to various Albion, Cadillac, Dodge and Leyland buses. The builders of the bodies were many and various.
During the 1950s NZRRS began to widely use the Bedford SB chassis fitted with NZMB bodies. So much so, that the Bedford SB was ordered right up until 1980. NZRRS eventually bought 1,240 of these chassis, which were used in suburban, local rural, and long distance service. This was the largest fleet of Bedford SB buses in the world.
During the late 1970s NZRRS, like many other operators, was having issues with the general reliability of their fleet. Orders were made to Volvo and Hino in an effort to find a better vehicle. Hino and Volvo buses and coaches were purchased right up until the end of the NZRRS.
In 1985 the land operations of NZRC was restructured into market-based bi-modal (road and rail) business groups, rather than branches based on mode of transport, and as part of the new Passenger Business Group, NZRRS was split into three brands:
- InterCity - long-haul passenger services
- Cityline - urban passenger services
- Speedlink - parcels services
The freight trucking business was combined with rail freight into the Freight Business Group, branded Railfreight Systems.
- InterCity in 1991 to InterCity Management Limited, a group of seven of the largest private coach companies - Whangarei Bus Company, Bayline Group, Ritchies Transport Holdings, Tranzit Group, Pacific Tourways, Gutherys Coachlines and Nelson SBL
- Cityline in Wellington and Auckland to Wellington City Transport and subsequently to Stagecoach; in Dunedin to Newton's Coachways; New Plymouth to Waitara taken over by Withatruck Coachlines
- Speedlink Parcels to New Zealand Post
- Railway Road Services KiwiRail
- Churchman, Geoffrey B. & Hurst, Tony (1991). The Railways of New Zealand: A Journey Through History (reprint ed.). HarperCollins Publishers (New Zealand).
- Snell, J.B. (June 1954). Cooke, B.W.C., ed. "The New Zealand Government Railways - 1". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 100 no. 638. Westminster: Tothill Press. p. 385.
- "From $1 | Bus Tickets | Cheap Bus Tickets | Bus Passes - InterCity From $1 | Bus Tickets | Cheap Bus Tickets | Bus Passes". Intercitycoach.co.nz. Retrieved 2011-10-03.