Page protected with pending changes level 1

New Zealand flag debate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
New Zealand flag debate
Morgan Foundation competition winner
Current flag and some notable alternatives

New Zealand has a history of debate about whether the national flag should be changed. For several decades, alternative designs have been proposed with varying degrees of support. There is no consensus among proponents of changing the flag as to which design should replace the flag. Unlike in Australia, the flag debate in New Zealand is independent of any debate about becoming a republic.[1][2]

A two-stage binding referendum on a flag change is planned to take place in 2015 and 2016.[3]


Arguments for change[edit]

Proponents for change argue that:

  • The national flag is too similar to the flag of Australia and the two are often confused.[4] For example, in 1984 the Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke was greeted by New Zealand flags when visiting Ottawa,[5][6] and the current New Zealand prime minister John Key has been seated under the Australian flag in several international meetings.[7]
  • As a derivative of the Blue Ensign, some feel that it does not represent New Zealand's current status as an independent, sovereign nation. Instead it alludes to New Zealand being a colony or sub-part of the United Kingdom, which is anachronistic.[8][9]
  • The national flag exclusively acknowledges those of British heritage whilst ignoring New Zealand's Māori population and other ethnic groups[10] Some have called this inappropriate because the Treaty of Waitangi and Māori heritage are significant parts of New Zealand's history, and because New Zealand is a multi-ethnic society with increasingly diverse demographics.[9] For example, the 1961 census reported that 92% of the population had European ancestry,[11] but by the 2013 census it had changed to 74%; the figure is as low as 59.3% in Auckland.[12]

Arguments against change[edit]

Opponents to change argue that:

  • The financial cost of changing the flag outweighs any possible advantages in changing it.[13][14][15][16]
  • The national flag has "stood the test of time".[17] Some New Zealanders feel attached to the flag as it has been part of the country's history; these events are what give the flag its symbolic and emotional value rather than the instrinsic design itself.[9][18] For example, all poll results from 2014 show that a large majority of the public are opposed to changing the flag or at least do not see it as a pressing issue (see section below).
  • The flag is already representative of New Zealand. The Union Jack in the flag represents New Zealand's strong past and present ties to the United Kingdom[19] and its history as a part of the British Empire, and the Southern Cross represents its location in the South Pacific.[9][20]
  • Generations of New Zealanders have fought and died under the current flag during many battles,[5] and changing the flag would therefore be disrespectful to their efforts and sacrifice. The first time the current flag was officially flown in battle was from the HMS Achilles during the Battle of the River Plate in 1939,[21] however, the New Zealand national Blue Ensign flag was flown at Quinn's Post during the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915.[22] Rhys Jones, former chief of the New Zealand Defence Force, noted that the flag had already been changed during New Zealand's history, and a salient legacy of the Gallipoli campaign is representational of the nation's independent identity.[23]

History of debate[edit]

World War II[edit]

During World War II, Prime Minister Peter Fraser received suggestions to include a Māori emblem on the flag. He deferred the matter until after the war, but never brought it up again.[24]


Debate on keeping or changing the New Zealand Flag started before May 1973, when a remit to change the flag was voted down by the Labour Party at their national conference.[25] In November 1979, the Minister of Internal Affairs, Allan Highet, suggested that the design of the flag should be changed, and sought an artist to design a new flag with a silver fern on the fly. The proposal attracted little support.[26]


In 1988, Minister of Foreign Affairs Russell Marshall made a call for a flag change, which also had little effect.[5]

The New Zealand Listener magazine held a flag design contest in 1989, attracting nearly 600 entries. Out of the seven semi-finalists, which included the national flag and the United Tribes Flag, the national flag won with a minority vote of 45.6%.[5]


In February 1992, the former Minister of Māori Affairs, Matiu Rata, called for a flag change "to re-establish our national identity".

In 1998, Prime Minister Jenny Shipley backed Cultural Affairs Minister Marie Hasler's call for the flag to be changed. Shipley, along with the New Zealand Tourism Board, supported the quasi-national silver fern flag, by using a white silver fern on a black background, along the lines of the Canadian maple leaf flag.[19]

Both of these events were met with opposition from the Returned Services' Association.


In 2004, the NZ Trust was founded by Lloyd Morrison with the aim of bringing about a non-binding referendum on the subject. Under New Zealand law, a referendum may be held on any issue if 10% of electors sign a petition which is presented to Parliament. The Trust launched their petition for such a referendum in 2005. Their campaign used a stylised silver fern flag designed by Cameron Sanders.

In response to the petition, the New Zealand Flag Institute was founded to oppose the referendum campaign and promote the current flag, as well as to offer a more scholarly view of the flag. The Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association (RNZRSA), the New Zealand organisation for war veterans, did not openly back the current flag at its annual conference, passing a remit that "It is the view of RNZRSA that any change to the New Zealand Flag should be solely the prerogative of the people of New Zealand as determined by a substantial majority of electors in a referendum. It is also the association's view that this matter should be taken out of the political arena."[27]

The petition attracted 100,000 signatures out of the required approximately 270,000 and was withdrawn in July 2005, well before the general election in September. The NZ Trust cited public apathy to change as the main reason for withdrawing the petition.[28]


In 2012, the NZ Transport Agency flew the Tino Rangatiratanga flag alongside the New Zealand flag on the Auckland Harbour Bridge on Waitangi Day.

On 5 August 2010, Labour list MP Charles Chauvel introduced a member's bill for a consultative commission followed by a referendum on the New Zealand flag.[29]

In January 2014, Prime Minister John Key floated the idea of a referendum on a new flag at the 2014 general election.[30] The proposal was met with mixed response.[31][32]

Later in March, Key announced that New Zealand would hold a referendum within the next three years asking whether or not to change the flag design should the National party be re-elected for a third term.[33] Following National's re-election the details of the referendum were announced.[3]


A two-stage binding referendum is planned to take place in 2015 and 2016. Each stage will be a postal referendum with a voting period of three weeks.[34] The process is expected to cost $25.7 million.[35]

Pre-referenda process[edit]

Cross-Party Group[edit]

Shortly after announcing the referendum, party leaders were invited to a Cross-Party Group. The purpose of the Cross-Party Group was to review draft legislation allowing for the referenda to take place, and to nominate candidates for a Flag Consideration Panel by mid February 2015. Members included Bill English (Finance Minister and leader of the group), Jonathan Young (representing National), Trevor Mallard (representing Labour), Kennedy Graham (representing Green), Marama Fox (representing Māori), David Seymour (representing ACT) and Peter Dunne (representing United Future). New Zealand First refused to participate.[3][35][36]

Flag Consideration Panel[edit]

The Flag Consideration Panel is a separate group of "respected New Zealanders" with representative age, regional, gender and ethnic demographics. Their purpose was to publicise the process, seek flag submissions and suggestions from the public, and decide on a final shortlist of four suitable options for the first referendum. Public consultation took place between May and June 2015.[37][38] The members of the Flag Consideration Panel are:[39]

Referenda legislation[edit]

The legislation to set up the referenda passed its first Parliament hearing on 12 March 2015 with a vote of 76 to 43.[40] It was then considered by the Justice and Electoral Select Committee. During their public submission intake phase the RSA launched the "Fight for the Flag" campaign, also backed by New Zealand First, to reverse the question order and first ask if New Zealanders want a flag change.[41] Labour MP Trevor Mallard presented a petition signed by 30,000 people to the Committee, asking for a keep/change question to be added to the first referendum, similar to the 2011 voting system referendum.[42] During its second hearing in Parliament, MP Jacinda Ardern proposed an amendment so that the second referendum would only take place if turnout for the first referendum was at least 50%, as a way of ensuring majority rule and reducing costs if the public was apathetic. However, Ardern's proposal was voted down and the bill was passed as-is on 29 July 2015.[43]

Public engagement[edit]

As part of the public engagement process, flag designs and symbolism/value suggestions were solicited until 16 July, which resulted in a total of 10,293 design suggestions.[44] During that time, the Flag Consideration Panel travelled around the country for workshops and hui with markedly low attendance.[45]

From the submitted designs, the Flag Considerational Panel selected an initial longlist of 40 (publicly revealed on 10 August)[46], then a final shortlist of 4 (publicly revealed on 1 September)[46] to contend in the first referendum.

First stage[edit]

If the New Zealand flag changes, which flag would you prefer?[47]

The first referendum is planned to take place from 20 November to 11 December 2015. It will ask voters to rank the four shortlisted flag alternatives in order of preference. The most popular design will contend with the current national flag in the second referendum.[44][35][39][48][49]

Opponents of flag change have encouraged members of the public to abstain from voting, render the voting paper invalid or strategically vote for the worst alternative flag as a protest.[50]

Second stage[edit]

What is your choice for the New Zealand flag?[51]

The second referendum is planned for 3–24 March 2016. It will ask voters to choose between the current New Zealand Flag and the preferred alternative design selected in the first referendum.[44][52]

Results and implications[edit]

The results of both referendums will be binding, meaning the flag with the most votes in the second referendum will be the official flag of New Zealand. In the unlikely event of a tied vote, an assumption for the status quo will apply and the current flag will prevail.[53]

If a new flag design is chosen, assuming no intellectual property issues and the referenda results are not ruled void, the Flags, Emblems and Names Protection Act 1981 would be updated to reflect the new design six months to the day after the second referendum results are declared (or earlier by Order in Council). The current flag would remain the official flag until then; for example, the current flag would be flown during the 2016 Summer Olympics, four months after the second referendum is planned to take place, regardless of the results of the second referendum. This result would not change the coat of arms (which includes the current national flag), national Māori flag, nor the flags of Associated States (Cook Islands and Niue), nor the New Zealand Red Ensign (merchant marine), White Ensign (naval), police flag and fire service flag (which are based on the current flag).[9] It would also not change New Zealand's status as a constitutional monarchy in the Commonwealth of Nations.[23]

Use and legality of current flag[edit]

In the event of a flag change, it would be legal to continue to fly the current flag of New Zealand, which is "recognised as a flag of historical significance."[54] Old flags would be replaced once worn out.[9][55] Official documents depicting the current flag, such as driver licences, would be phased out as a matter of course – in the case of driver licences, this would be when licences are renewed and would take up to 10 years.

Ships would be given an extra six months to change their flag to the new design.[56] It is unclear how this is reconciled with the RIS statement that the Red Ensign (used by the merchant marine) would not be changed.[9]

Cost of transition[edit]

The estimated cost of updating government flags and Defence Force uniforms is at least $2.69 million. Other unknown costs include updating government ships, updating trademarks and logos, publicity of the new flag, excess stock of old flags (including products and souvenirs containing it), and updating all flags, packaging, uniforms and marketing material in the private and sporting sectors. The government will not provide compensation for the cost of adopting the new flag.[9]



Opposition parties condemned the flag as low priority compared to current issues in the public consciousness such as the education system, lack of funding to district health boards, cuts to police services, child poverty, gridlock in Auckland among other transportation problems, lack of economic diversity, immigration, the housing crisis, Māori representation and lack of written constitution. Trevor Mallard and Phil Goff cited the results of recent opinion polls that showed widespread public opposition or apathy (results are shown in the section below). These were used to argue that the referenda were unnecessary as the question was already answered by the public as a clear negative.[24]


Opposition parties, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association (RSA) president B.J. Clark and members of the public criticised the referendum plan for costing $26 million which could be spent on other issues.[13][14][15][16][57][58] Once the Flag Consideration Panel started its national tour, the cost of the campaign was again criticised. Various charities and social services emphasised how much $26 million could fund to help poverty alleviation, public health and education. Also, the $4 million publicity campaign was contrasted with the low turnout; at the Christchurch event only ten people arrived.[59]

John Key defended the cost of the referendum by stating that it is the price to ensure a genuine democratic process and would be a one-off cost for the next "50 to 100 years" regardless of the result.[60] David King pointed out that a stronger brand image for the country could lead to a net financial gain, especially through exports and tourism.[9]


The public opposition to a flag change was also contrasted with prime minister John Key's disproportionate drive to run the referenda, and members of parliament accused him of attempting a flag change as his "vanity project" or populist bread and circuses.[24][42] New Zealand First has accused the referendum of acting as a distraction from poverty and housing issues.[36]

Various members of parliament accused the process and documents of being biased. Trevor Mallard and Phil Goff claimed that the final list of members of the Flag Consideration Panel was numerically slanted towards those nominated by the National Party, despite the shortlist of candidates being roughly neutral. Kennedy Graham expressed scepticism at the official rationale that the referenda simply reflected a pre-existing public debate, and argued that recent discussion was actually deliberately sparked by the referenda announcement itself. Denis O'Rourke said that the shortlisting process was undemocratic because the Flag Consideration Panel would select the final flag design options on behalf of New Zealanders, and asking the public to choose between alternative designs before asking if they wanted a change was intentionally manipulative. Stuart Nash presented quotes in the Regulatory Impact Statement document admitting that referendum options were restricted by prior decisions by the National Party dominated Cabinet and prime minister, accusing them of pre-determining the process.[24]


During the first Parliamentary hearing, Labour Party, NZ First, Green Party and Māori Party expressed dissatisfaction with the order of the questions. They said that the public should first be asked whether they want a change, and only continue with a second referendum if they do, or both questions compacted into one referendum, which could potentially save millions of dollars.[24][40] However, David Seymour (ACT's representative in the Cross-Party Group) said that the planned order made sense, as the public would need to see the alternative designs before deciding on a change.'[61] Professor John Burrows, chair of the Flag Consideration Panel, agreed that familiarity with proposals is a prerequisite for a properly informed decision about them.[23]


Members of parliament were also concerned about the timing. Some expressed disgust at the timing of the bill just before the centenary of the Gallipoli landing, some said the process was rushed, and Louisa Wall said that no significant event had occurred to warrant a flag change at this time.[24]

Flag selection[edit]

The flag design shortlist was met with negative public response. The selection was lambasted as unappealing, clichéd, dull and too logo-like. Many complained that the four designs were far too similar to each other, as only one does not feature a large silver fern dividing the field, and two are identical except for a colour choice. New Zealand Herald writer Karl Puschmann felt that the Flag Consideration Panel was never qualified to make an adequate design selection since none of the members had any design credentials or experience.[62][63][64][65][66][67]

Criticism of specific designs is shown in the shortlist section.

Opinion polling[edit]

Two-option polls[edit]

Date Conducted by For change Against change Undecided Notes
April 2015 New Zealand Herald 25% 70% 5% 80% agreed that the referenda should first ask if the public wants a change before presenting other designs.

Out of alternative designs, 45% preferred the Silver Fern and 18% preferred the Southern Cross. Sample size was 750.[68]

September 2014 TVNZ 35% 65% 0% [69]
March 2014 New Zealand Herald 40.6% 52.6% 6.8% Sample size was 750. When presented with specific design options, a plurality of 42.9% preferred the silver fern.[70]
February 2014 TVNZ 28% 72% 0% The poll also found that only 2% thought that changing the flag was an important issue in the 2014 General Election.[71]
July 2013 TV3 61% 39% 0% [72]
January/February 2010 New Zealand Herald 52.3% 44.4% 3.3% When presented with specific design options, a majority of 52.5% preferred the silver fern.[73]
2009 New Zealand Herald 25% 62% 13% [74]
August 1999 National Business Review 24% 64% 12% When presented with the silver fern flag, the numbers changed to 33% supporting change and 60% against.[19]

Three-option polls[edit]

Date Conducted by For change Neutral Against change Don't know/Refused Notes
September/October 2014 Research New Zealand 19% 37% 43% 1% Sample size was 1001. Younger respondents were significantly against change compared to older respondents, but no other differences existed between demographic groups.[75]
March 2014 Research New Zealand 18% 43% 37% 2% [75]
February 2014 Research New Zealand 22% 39% 37% 1% [75]
August 2011 Research New Zealand 19% 30% 52% 1% [75]

Four-option polls[edit]

Date Conducted by Yes, change,

to the silver fern

Yes, change,

but to something else

Not bothered

either way

No, we should not change Don't know Notes
February 2014 Fairfax Media/Ipsos Poll 17.9% 23.7% 18.7% 38.6% 1.1% Sample size was 1018. Total 'change vote' was 41.6%.[76]


In 2009, the New Zealand Herald surveyed various political party leaders and the twenty two members of the Order of New Zealand, with the results showing an even split.[5]


Silver fern flag[edit]

Main article: Silver fern flag
The silver fern flag

The silver fern flag is a popular unofficial flag of New Zealand. The silver fern itself is a quasi-national emblem with current and historic usage including:

The proposal of replacing the national flag of New Zealand with the silver fern flag has been supported by Cultural Affairs Minister Marie Hasler, Prime Minister Jenny Shipley and the New Zealand Tourism Board in 1998,[19] and current Prime Minister John Key in 2010.[84] Key later changed his preference to Kyle Lockwood's Silver Fern (Red, White & Blue) design, due to the similarity of the silver fern flag with the Jihadist black flag, used by Islamic extremist groups such as ISIS.[7] Amongst the public, polls have shown that the silver fern is the most preferred alternative design for a new national flag.[68][70][73]

However, the New Zealand Flag Institute criticises the silver fern as the logo of some of New Zealand's sporting teams rather than the country itself.[18] For example, the black and white silver fern design is employed by New Zealand's national netball ("Silver Ferns"), rugby union ("All Blacks"), rugby sevens ("All Blacks Sevens"), rugby league ("Kiwis"), men's hockey, women's hockey, association football ("All Whites"), cricket ("Black Caps"), Futsal ("Futsal White") and wheelchair rugby ("Wheel Blacks") teams.

Flag Consideration Panel selection[edit]


On 1 September 2015, the Flag Consideration Panel announced the final four designs to be included in the first referendum.[46]

Image Designer(s) Name Notes
NZ flag design White & Black Fern by Alofi Kanter.jpg Alofi Kanter Black & White Fern Variation of the silver fern flag which has the unique silver fern and black and white colour scheme.[49] This design uses counterchanging and the fern design from the New Zealand government's Masterbrand logo.[85]
Kyle Lockwood's New Zealand Flag.svg Kyle Lockwood Silver Fern (Red, White and Blue) The fern represents the people of New Zealand and the Southern Cross represents the location of New Zealand. The blue represents the ocean, the red represents the Māori and wartime sacrifices, and white represents the "land of the long white cloud" epithet.[86]

This proposal won a Wellington newspaper flag competition in July 2004 and appeared on TV3 in 2005 after winning a poll which included the present national flag.[87] In 2014 a similar design won a DesignCrowd competition.[88] This general design is currently John Key's preferred proposal but has been criticised on aesthetic grounds by Hamish Keith, Paul Henry and John Oliver.[7][89] NZ Herald writer Karl Puschmann called it a design for those "sitting on the fence" who didn't want much change.[67] Members of the public have compared it unfavourably to Weet-Bix packaging, "Kiwi Party Ware" plastic plate packaging, the National Basketball Association logo, or a merger of the Labour and National party logos.[90]

Kyle Lockwood's New Zealand Flag (alt 1).svg Kyle Lockwood Silver Fern (Black, White and Blue) Variation of the above with black instead of red.
NZ flag design Koru (Black) by Andrew Fyfe.jpg Andrew Fyfe Koru (Black) Features a Maori koru pattern depicting an unfurling fern frond, traditionally representing new life, growth, strength and peace. In this flag it is meant to also resemble a wave, cloud and ram's horn.[49]
When this design was revealed on the shortlist, the public immediately nicknamed it "Hypnoflag" via social media.[62]

Remainder of long list[edit]

On 10 August 2015, the Flag Consideration Panel released its long list of 39 designs. A fortieth design was initially included but was removed due to copyright issues.[46]

Image Designer(s) Name Notes
Studio Alexander's New Zealand flag proposal.svg Studio Alexander (Grant Alexander, Alice Murray, Thomas Lawlor, Jared McDowell) Wā kāinga/Home Won the top $20,000 prize in the Gareth Morgan Foundation's competition.
Each coloured triangle represents a culture. They coexist around the white space.[91]
NZ flag design Land Of The Long White Cloud (Ocean Blue) by Mike Archer.jpg Mike Archer Land Of The Long White Cloud (Ocean Blue)
NZ flag design Land Of The Long White Cloud (Traditional Blue) by Mike Archer.jpg Mike Archer Land Of The Long White Cloud (Traditional Blue)
NZ flag design Huihui Together by Sven Baker.jpg Sven Baker Huihui/Together
NZ flag design Silver Fern (Black & Silver) by Sven Baker.jpg Sven Baker Silver Fern (Black & Silver)
NZ flag design Southern Cross Horizon by Sven Baker.jpg Sven Baker Southern Cross Horizon
NZ flag design Southern Koru by Sven Baker.JPG Sven Baker Southern Koru
NZ flag design Unity Koru (Red & Blue) by Sven Baker.jpg Sven Baker Unity Koru
NZ flag design Inclusive by Dominic Carroll.jpg Dominic Carroll Inclusive
NZ flag design Moving Forward by Dominic Carroll.jpg Dominic Carroll Moving Forward
NZ flag design The Seven Stars of Matariki by Matthew Clare.jpg Matthew Clare The Seven Stars of Matariki
NZ flag design Silver Fern (Green) by Roger Clarke.jpg Roger Clarke Silver Fern (Green)
NZ flag design Curly Koru by Daniel Crayford and Leon Cayford.jpg Daniel Crayford and Leon Cayford Curly Koru
NZ flag design Koru Fin by Daniel Crayford and Leon Cayford.jpg Daniel Crayford and Leon Cayford Koru Fin
NZ flag design NZ One by Travis Cunningham.jpg Travis Cunningham NZ One
NZ flag design Black Jack by Mike Davison.jpg Mike Davison Black Jack
NZ flag design Unity Koru by Paul Densem.jpg Paul Densem Unity Koru
NZ flag design New Southern Cross by Wayne William Doyle.jpg Wayne William Doyle New Southern Cross
NZ flag design Red Peak by Aaron Dustin.jpg Aaron Dustin Red Peak Similar to Studio Alexander's Wā kāinga/Home with red and black sections reversed.
NZ flag design Manawa (Black & Green) by Otis Frizzell.jpg Otis Frizzell Manawa (Black & Green)
NZ flag design Manawa (Blue & Green) by Otis Frizzell.jpg Otis Frizzell Manawa (Blue & Green)
NZ flag design Embrace (Red & Blue) by Denise Fung.jpg Denise Fung Embrace (Red & Blue)
NZ flag design Koru (Blue) by Andrew Fyfe.jpg Andrew Fyfe Koru (Blue) Shortlisted design Koru (Black) with blue instead of black
NZ flag design Unity Fern (Red & Blue) by Paul Jackways (redesign).svg Paul Jackways Unity Fern (Red & Blue)
NZ flag design Black & White Fern by Alofi Kanter.jpg Alofi Kanter White and Black Fern Inverse of shortlisted design Black and White Fern
NZ flag design New Zealand Matariki by John Kelleher.jpg John Kelleher New Zealand Matariki
NZ flag design Silver Fern (Black & White) by Kyle Lockwood.jpg Kyle Lockwood Silver Fern (Black & White)
Kyle Lockwood's New Zealand Flag (alt 2).svg Kyle Lockwood Silver Fern (Black, White and Red) Variation of Silver Fern (Red, White and Blue) with black instead of blue.
NZ flag design Silver Fern (Black with Red Stars) by Kyle Lockwood.jpg Kyle Lockwood Silver Fern (Black with Red Stars) Variation of Silver Fern (Red, White and Blue) with black background.
NZ flag design Pikopiko by Grant Pascoe.jpg Grant Pascoe Pikopiko
NZ flag design Finding Unity in Community by Dave Sauvage.jpg Dave Sauvage Finding Unity in Community
NZ flag design Fern (Green, Black & White) by Clay Sinclair and Sandra Ellmers.jpg Clay Sinclair and Sandra Ellmers Fern (Green, Black & White)
NZ flag design Koru and Stars by Alan Tran.jpg Alan Tran Koru and Stars
NZ flag design Raranga by Pax Zwanikken.jpg Pax Zwanikken Raranga
NZ flag design Tukutuku by Pax Zwanikken.jpg Pax Zwanikken Tukutuku


Image Designer Date Notes
Flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand.svg James Busby 1834 The United Tribes Flag was the national flag of New Zealand when it first declared independence in 1835, until the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840.
Flag of New Zealand Titman.svg Clark Titman 1967 Tricolour (red white and blue)[19]
Flag of New Zealand Bale.svg D.A. Bale Early 1980s Blue with a double koru on a broad white vertical band.[19] The double koru is was established as the logo of Air New Zealand in 1973.
Koru flag.svg Friedensreich Hundertwasser 1983 The koru flag represents an uncurling fern frond in the form of a stylised koru, a traditional Māori carving pattern. This flag is occasionally seen around the country.[92]
The-Black-and-Silver.svg John Ansell, Kenneth Wang, Grant McLachlan 1986, 2015 The Black & Silver flag is based on a stylized version of the original silver ferns used in the emblems of the military and sports representative teams of the 1880s. John Ansell’s silver fern flag designs won him a Colenso Scholarship to New York in 1986 and in 1990 came second out of 600 alternative flag designs in The Listener contest to mark New Zealand’s sesquicentennial.[93]
NZflag proposal-dignan.svg James Dignan 2002 This proposal was displayed in the New Zealand Herald on 9 May 2002, at the time of the centenary of the current flag. It combines elements from the national flag, the Tino rangatiratanga flag and the silver fern flag. This combination looks to links with both the United Kingdom and Polynesia.[94][95]
Helen Clark's New Zealand Flag.svg Helen Clark 2007 Helen Clark made her proposal while Prime Minister of New Zealand. She said that deleting the Union Jack from the New Zealand flag was a possibility if people wanted to redesign the flag, leaving it as a "rather attractive Southern Cross."[96]
Koru Fern NZ Flag.jpg James Bowman 2015 The Koru Fern combines two iconic New Zealand symbols: the silver fern and the koru. It is one design currently helping stimulate debate and has been suggested to the New Zealand Government as an alternative design for the New Zealand Flag.[97][98][99]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "New Zealand Republic". Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  2. ^ "New Zealand Flag Change Not Anti-Royalist". Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  3. ^ a b c New Zealand Government (29 October 2014). "First steps taken towards flag referendum". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c Brian Sweeney (February 2004). "Eight Reasons To Change The New Zealand Flag". NZ Trust. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Calls for a new New Zealand flag". NZ History Online. 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  6. ^ "Monarchists Prove Case for Australian Flag Change". Ausflag. 
  7. ^ a b c "How about a bungee-jumping sheep? John Oliver mocks NZ flag". New Zealand Herald. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "New Zealand Heritage and Identity – Flags". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i King, David, Regulatory Impact Statement: Considering Changing the New Zealand Flag, New Zealand Ministry of Justice 
  10. ^ "Have Your Say". NZ Trust. February 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  11. ^ Collins, Simon (5 October 2010). "Ethnic mix changing rapidly". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  12. ^ Statistics New Zealand (15 April 2014). 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity. Wellington, New Zealand: Statistics New Zealand. ISBN 978-0-478-40890-4. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Garner, Duncan (9 May 2015). "Duncan Garner: Flag this irrelevant debate and spend $26m on hungry kids". Fairfax Media. The Dominion Post. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  14. ^ a b Thorne, Dylan (10 March 2015). "Editorial: $25.7m flag is wrong legacy". NZME Publishing Limited. Bay of Plenty Times. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  15. ^ a b "New Zealand considers options to replace its flag". Al Jazeera Media Network. Al Jazeera. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Hunt, Elle (10 August 2015). "New Zealand's prime minister John Key wants a new flag. Does anybody else?". Guardian News and Media Limited. The Guardian. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  17. ^ Paul Chapman (28 January 2005). "Campaigners want British link removed from New Zealand flag". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  18. ^ a b [dead link]"Why the Flag Should Not Change". New Zealand Flag Institute. 2005. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f John Moody. "Past Attempts to Change New Zealand's Flag" (PDF). The XIX International Congress of Vexillology. 
  20. ^ David Round (2 April 2005). "Colours of our rich inheritance". The Press. 
  21. ^ "The "Diggers' " flag, the New Zealand Ensign, flying at the masthead of Achilles during the naval battle" LXXI (46). Auckland Star. 23 February 1940. p. Page 9. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  22. ^ "NZ History – Quinn's Post Flag". Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
  23. ^ a b c "Flag Consideration Panel answers the six top questions". Scoop Media. 6 June 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f "New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill — First Reading". New Zealand Parliament. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  25. ^ John Moody. "Past Attempts to Change New Zealand’s Flag" (PDF). New Zealand Flag Association. 
  26. ^ "New Zealand – Proposals for a new flag". Flags of the World. 29 September 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  27. ^ "Annual Conference 2005: Remits". Royal New Zealand Returned Services' Association. 16 July 2005. 
  28. ^ "Editorial: Fervour for the flag carries the day". New Zealand Herald. 4 August 2005. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  29. ^ "Bill advocates consultative debate on new flag". 5 August 2010. 
  30. ^ Davison, Isaac (30 January 2014). "Key suggests vote on New Zealand flag". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  31. ^ "Flag change in the wind". Radio New Zealand News. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  32. ^ Beech, James (4 February 2014). "Opinions vary on changing NZ flag". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  33. ^ Chapman, Paul (11 March 2014). "New Zealand to hold referendum on changing to 'post-colonial' flag". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  34. ^ "New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill, Part 2, Subpart 1, Clause 12". New Zealand government. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  35. ^ a b c Bill English (29 October 2014). "Cabinet Paper 451" (PDF). New Zealand Government. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  36. ^ a b Gulliver, Aimee (17 November 2014). "Flag referendum a 'distraction'". Fairfax Media. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  37. ^ "Process at a glance" (PDF). New Zealand Government. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  38. ^ Jones, Nicholas (9 March 2015). "Govt budget allows almost $500,000 for a high-profile panel out of $25m cost to decide national symbol.". New Zealand. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  39. ^ a b Trevett, Claire (26 February 2015). "Julie Christie and Beatrice Faumina to help decide NZ's new flag". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  40. ^ a b Trevett, Claire (12 March 2015). "Flag change referendums come one step closer". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  41. ^ Jones, Nicholas (13 April 2015). "NZ First backs 'fight for the flag' campaign". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  42. ^ a b "Flag debate votes a biased process – Mallard". The New Zealand Herald. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  43. ^ "New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill — In Committee". New Zealand House of Representatives. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  44. ^ Trevett, Claire (18 July 2015). "Flag show at half mast". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  45. ^ a b c d Young, Audrey (11 August 2015). "Southern Cross flag designs in lead". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 11 August 2015. 
  46. ^ "New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill – Schedule 1". New Zealand Government. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  47. ^ "Process to consider changing New Zealand flag" (PDF). New Zealand Government. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  48. ^ a b c Various (1 September 2015). "Four alternatives" (PDF). Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  49. ^ Trevett, Claire (2 September 2015). "Revealed: Plots to gerrymander flag referendum". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2 September 2015. 
  50. ^ "New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill – Schedule 2". New Zealand Government. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  51. ^ "New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill, Part 2, Subpart 4, Clause 20". New Zealand government. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  52. ^ New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill, sec. 39
  53. ^ "New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill – amendments". Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  54. ^ "Frequently asked questions" (PDF). New Zealand Government. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  55. ^ "New Zealand Flag Referendums Bill, Part 3, Clause 70". New Zealand government. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  56. ^ "New Zealanders to vote on changing Union Jack-style flag". Luxemburger Wort. 29 October 2014. 
  57. ^ Cook, Frances; McQuillan, Laura (30 October 2014). "MPs torn on flag referendum". Newstalk ZB. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  58. ^ Campbell, John (19 May 2015). "Does New Zealand care about a new flag?". TV3. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  59. ^ Bennett, Adam (30 October 2014). "Taxpayers face $25 million bill even if old flag stays". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  60. ^ Trevett, Claire (12 March 2015). "Labour to oppose flag bill". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  61. ^ a b Cooke, Henry; Fyers, Andy (1 September 2015). "What Twitter said about the final four New Zealand flag options". Fairfax Media. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  62. ^ "'Which bad flag design will the rest of the world ignore from now on' - Aussies". TVNZ. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  63. ^ "'Lol...even laser beam kiwi would be better' - social media reacts to flag semi-finalists". TVNZ. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  64. ^ "New Zealand announces shortlist for new flag design". Yahoo. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  65. ^ "New Zealand announces shortlist for new flag design". ABC. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  66. ^ a b Puschmann, Karl (1 September 2015). "Flag designs a national disgrace". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  67. ^ a b Trevett, Claire (1 May 2015). "Flag Poll Message Clear: Leave it Alone". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  68. ^ "Two-thirds against changing flag, poll shows". TVNZ. 27 September 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  69. ^ a b Davison, Isaac (19 March 2014). "Kiwis Back Union Jack Flag". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  70. ^ "Three quarters of Kiwis against changing flag – poll". TVNZ. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  71. ^ "The Vote: The result". 16 July 2013. [dead link]
  72. ^ a b Cheng, Derek (12 February 2014). "Flag debate: NZers favour new design – survey". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  73. ^ Chapman, Paul (4 February 2010). "New Zealand debates dropping British flag from national ensign". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  74. ^ a b c d "Should New Zealand's National Flag Be Changed?" (PDF). Research New Zealand. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  75. ^ "Change of Flag". 
  76. ^ "Coat of arms". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 2011-05-04. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  77. ^ "New Zealand Coinage Specifications". Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  78. ^ "Silver Ferns". Netball New Zealand. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  79. ^ "All Blacks". All Blacks. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  80. ^ "Digger History: Badges of New Zealand". 1915-11-09. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  81. ^ 1980 Moscow Olympics boycott NZ
  82. ^ "A New Flag". NZ Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  83. ^ "Flag debate: John Key favours silver fern". New Zealand Herald. 8 February 2010. 
  84. ^ "New Zealand Masterbrand Guidelines and Specifications" (PDF). July 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  85. ^ "Silver Fern Flag – Our Design". Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  86. ^ "Campbell Live Flag Poll". TV3. 8 April 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  87. ^ "Kiwi wins flag design competition". 3 News. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  88. ^ Lush, Martin (6 June 2014). "Winning design of new NZ flag contest slammed". Radio Live. Retrieved 28 December 2014. 
  89. ^ "Flag critiqued for similarities to political parties' logos". New Zealand Herald. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015. 
  90. ^ "Morgan Foundation Flag Competition Judging Results". Gareth Morgan Foundation. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  91. ^ "Hundertwasser koru flag". Ministry of Culture and Heritage. 25 May 2011. 
  92. ^ John Ansell (1 August 2015). "Flag debate is 'an opportunity for New Zealand'". Fairfax's 
  93. ^ "Flags of the World – Flag of New Zealand". Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  94. ^ "James Dignan – flag articles". Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  95. ^ "Clark stimulates flag debate with call to rub out Union Jack". New Zealand Herald. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  96. ^ "Flag signals". North & South (New Zealand magazine). April 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  97. ^ "Symbol solution". New Zealand Listener. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  98. ^ "Koru Fern". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 

External links[edit]

For change
Against change