|Distribution of the New Zealand fur seal|
Arctocephalus forsteri, the Australasian fur seal, South Australian fur seal, New Zealand fur seal, Antipodean fur seal, or long-nosed fur seal, is a species of fur seal found mainly around the South and Western coasts and offshore islands of Australia, and the North Island and South Island of New Zealand. The name New Zealand fur seal is used by English speakers in New Zealand; kekeno is used in the Māori language. As of 2014, the common name long-nosed fur seal has been proposed for the population of seals inhabiting Australia.
The seal is native to Macquarie Island, South Australia, and Western Australia, and the North Island and South Island of Zealand. Although the Australian and New Zealand populations show some genetic differences, their morphologies are very similar, and thus they remain classed as a single species.
Males have been reported as large as 160 kg; their average weight is about 126 kg. Males can be 2 meters long. Females are between 30–50 kg on average, and can be as long as 1.5 meters. Pups are 3.3–3.9 kg on average, and between 40 and 55 cm long. At 290 days old males are about 14.1 kg, and females are about 12.6 kg. They have external ears and hind flippers that rotate forward, which visibly distinguish them from other seals. They have a pointy nose with long pale whiskers. The fur seals are covered by two layers of fur. The coat is grey-brown on their back, and lighter on their belly. Some have white tips on longer upper hairs, which can give them a silver-like appearance.
So called "Upland Seals" once found on Antipodes Islands and Macquarie Island have been claimed as a distinct subspecies with thicker furs by scientists although it is unclear whether these seals were genetically distinct.
The species can "porpoise" out of the water when traveling quickly at sea. They can dive deeper and longer than any other fur seal. Females can dive for about 9 minutes and to a depth of about 312 meters, and can dive deeper and longer in autumn and winter. Males can dive for about 15 minutes to a depth of about 380 meters. On average, the species typically only dives for 1–2 minutes. When they dive for food they dive deeper during the day but shallower at night, because during the day their prey typically migrates to deeper depths and migrates back up during the night.
Males vocalize through a bark or whimper, either a gluttural threat, a low-intensity threat, a full threat, or a submissive call. Females growl and also have a high-pitched pup attraction wail call.
Females mature between 4 and 6 years old, and males mature between 8 and 10 years old. These seals are polygynous. Males obtain and guard territory in late October before females arrive. Often females only mate once a year, and this usually occurs eight days postpartum for about 13 minutes on average. Females have a delayed implantation of the fertilized egg, so that implantation on the uterine wall does not occur for 3 months. Gestation occurs for 9 months Females are more aggressive near the time of birth, and do not like to be approached right after birth. Females will continue to reproduce until their death which is on average between 14 and 17 years of age.
Pups are born between November and January. Females stay close to the birth site for up to ten days. Pups are fairly mature at birth, and within 60 minutes they start suckling for about 7 minutes. Eventually the suckling can exceed 33 minutes. Suckling can occur for about 300 days. Pups start to eat solid food just before weaning. Pups are eventually weaned around September, and they disperse.
Their diet includes cephalopods, fish, and birds. Stomach contents have been analyzed and shown to include anchovy, barracuda, flounder, hagfish, lamprey, red cod, school shark, and many other species. There are different factors that affect their diet, such as season, sex, breeding, surrounding colony, oceanography, and climatic patterns.
Seals were widely hunted from shortly after the European discovery of New Zealand until the late 19th century. The population in New Zealand dropped to under 10% of the original population. Today commercial fisheries are one of the main sources of death of New Zealand fur seals usually by entanglement and drowning. It has been estimated by the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society that over 10000 seals could have drowned in nets between 1989 and 1998. They are also known to have been shot by commercial and recreational fishermen, because they are assumed to interfere with fishing gear. How often these shootings occur is unknown, but pressure groups have stated that the conflict between the seals and commercial fisheries is expected to increase. On August 21 2014, two decomposing animals were found beheaded near Louth Bay in South Australia. The circumstances of their deaths were considered suspicious and an investigation followed their discovery. In 2015, several conservative members of Parliament encouraged public debate around the potential implementation of seal culling in South Australia in response to increasing interactions with South Australian commercial fisheries. As of July 2015, the killing of long-nosed fur seals remains an illegal act.
In Australian Commonwealth waters, Arctocephalus forsteri is protected under the Environment Protection Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act 1999 under which it is listed as a protected marine species. The species is also protected within the jurisductions of the following Australian states:
|New South Wales||Vulnerable||Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (NSW)|
|South Australia||Marine mammal||National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (SA)|
|Tasmania||Rare||Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (TAS)|
|Victoria||Protected||Wildlife Act 1975 (Vic)|
|Western Australia||Other protected fauna||Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (WA)|
The species received protection by the creation of a 16 million hectare Marine Park located on the eastern side of Macquarie island in 2000. The Tasmanian government has also extended to Macquarie Island Nature Reserve by 3 nautical miles surrounding the island.
- Goldsworthy, S. & Gales, N. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) (2008). "Arctocephalus forsteri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
- Department of Conservation. "New Zealand fur seal/kekeno" Found October 6, 2011
- Chilvers, B.L.; Goldsworthy, S.D. (2015). "Arctocephalus forsteri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Harcourt, R.G., (2001). "Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990–2000: Pinnipeds". Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand, Downloaded October 6, 2011
- Richards, Rhys (1994). ""The upland seal" of the Antipodes and Macquarie Islands: A historian's perspective". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 24: 289–295. doi:10.1080/03014223.1994.9517473.
- Boren, L. (2010) "Diet of New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri): a summary", Downloaded October 6, 2011
- Bradshaw, C.J.A., Lalas, C., & McConkey, S. (1998). "New Zealand sea lion predation on New Zealand fur seals". New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. Downloaded October 6, 2011
- MarineBio.org (2011). "New Zealand Fur Seals, Arctocephalus forsteri at MarineBio.org" Found October 6, 2011
- "Headless fur seals found on beach in SA treated as suspicious". ABC. 2014-08-25. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
- "Arctocephalus forsteri". Species profile and threats database. Australian Government—Department of the Environment. 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
- National Parks & Wildlife Act 1972. Government of South Australia. 2014.
- "Seals and People A reference guide for helping injured seals" (PDF). Department of Sustainability and Environment. p. 16. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Randall R. Reeves; Brent S. Stewart; Phillip J. Clapham; James A. Powell (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0375411410.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arctocephalus forsteri.|
- New Zealand fur seal discussed on RNZ Critter of the Week, 28 July 2017