New Zealand general election, 1943

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New Zealand general election, 1943
New Zealand
← 1938 24 (Māori) & 25 September (general) 1943 1946 →

All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  Peter Fraser.jpg Sidney George Holland (1953).jpg
Leader Peter Fraser Sidney Holland
Party Labour National
Leader since 1940 1940
Leader's seat Wellington Central Christchurch North
Last election 53 seats, 55.8% 25 seats, 40.3%
Seats won 45 34
Seat change Decrease 8 Increase 9
Percentage 47.6% 42.8%
Swing Decrease 8.2% Increase 2.5%

Prime Minister before election

Peter Fraser
Labour

Elected Prime Minister

Peter Fraser
Labour

The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 27th term. With the onset of World War II, elections were initially postponed, but it was eventually decided to hold a general election in September 1943, around two years after it would normally have occurred. The election saw the governing Labour Party re-elected by a comfortable margin, although the party nevertheless lost considerable ground to the expanding National Party.

Background[edit]

The Labour Party had formed its first government after its resounding victory in the 1935 elections and had been re-elected by a substantial margin in the 1938 elections. Michael Joseph Savage, the first Labour Prime Minister, died in 1940; he was replaced by Peter Fraser, who was widely viewed as competent even if he was less popular than Savage. In the same year as Fraser took power, however, the opposition National Party had replaced the ineffectual Adam Hamilton with Sidney Holland, and was beginning to overcome the internal divisions that had plagued Hamilton's time as leader.

As World War II continued, the issues surrounding it naturally came to dominate political debate. Shortages appeared, prompting a certain amount of dissatisfaction with the government. The matter of conscription was also contentious — although both Labour and National supported it, many traditional followers of Labour were angry at their party's stance. Many early Labour leaders, including Fraser, had been jailed for opposing conscription in World War I, and were branded hypocrites for later introducing it; Fraser justified his change of position by saying that World War I was a pointless war but that World War II was necessary. A faction of Labour, dissatisfied with the mainstream party's economic and conscription policies, followed dissident MP John A. Lee to his new Democratic Labour Party.

A general election was due to be held in 1941, but Fraser, who held a tight reign over the coalition war cabinet, persuaded Parliament to postpone it due to the war.[1] During April and May 1943, there were three deaths by sitting members:

This would have caused three by-elections in a year where the government was planning on holding an election, and in fact, the writ for the Northern Maori by-election was issued on 19 May. On 11 June, the government announced that a general election would be held in September, and at the same time they introduced legislation that postponed the three by-elections.[5] The By-elections Postponement Act 1943 was passed, and amongst other things it revoked the writ issued for the Northern Maori by-election. This was the first time that legislation had been used to postpone by-elections (it happened once more in 1969).[6]

The election[edit]

The date for the main 1943 election was 25 September, a Saturday. The election to the four Māori electorates was held the day before. 1,021,034 civilians and an uncertain number of serving military personnel were registered to vote — special legislation provided voting rights to all serving members of the armed forces regardless of age, and they voted over several days prior to 25 September.[7][8] Among the civilian population, there was a turnout of 82.8%. The number of seats in Parliament was 80, a number that had been fixed since 1902.[7]

There were three minor movements participating with 45 candidates: the People's Movement or Independent People's Group (25), the Real Democracy Movement (17) and the Fighting Forces League (3). However these groups got only 12,867 votes (provisional count: PM or IPG 7,389 (0.89%); RDM 4,421 (0.53%); others or FFL 1,057 (0.13%)).[9] Two of the three Fighting Forces League candidates were also supported by the Real Democracy Movement,[10] which had been formed by the Social Credit Association.

Two seats were uncontested: Awarua and Matarura. Both seats were held for the National Party by serving officers; James Hargest (Awarua) was interned in Switzerland, and Tom Macdonald (Mataura) had just been invalided home.[11] Labour did not contest those two electorates or Nelson where Harry Atmore stood. National did not contest three electorates: Kaipara and Palmerston North where Independent Nationalists stood, or Buller. 1943 was the last general election when some candidates were elected unopposed.[12]

With seamen's and servicemen's votes taking time to come in, it took until mid-October before all results were finalised. Initially, the outcome in at least ten electorates was in doubt: Oamaru, Eden, Raglan, New Plymouth, Otaki, Wairarapa, Waitemata, Hamilton, Nelson, and Motueka.[13] In its 27 September edition, The New Zealand Herald posted profiles of new members of parliament. This included National's T. R. Beatty, a building contractor from Oamaru who had supposedly beaten Arnold Nordmeyer, a sitting cabinet minister.[14] In initial results, Beatty had a majority of just six votes,[15] but incumbents had strong support by military staff,[16] and Nordmeyer had a final majority of 125 votes.[17]

Election results[edit]

The leaders of National and Labour, plus the 24 new MPs following the 1943 general election

The 1943 election saw the governing Labour Party retain office by a ten-seat margin, winning forty-five seats to the National Party's thirty-four, with one independent. The popular vote was considerably closer — Labour won 47.6%, while National won 42.8%. Holland was stunned by the result, and called for a Commission of Inquiry to look at the servicemens’ vote, but was answered by a report from the Chief Electoral Officer. The Labour vote dropped, particularly in rural areas where the now more prosperous farmers returned to their normal political allegiance. There were strikes by the miners, and resentment at wartime restrictions. Lee’s "Democratic Soldier Labour" party took votes in closely contested seats, and there was a "vast and weird variety of miscellaneous candidates under strange labels". However the forces vote favoured both Labour and Democratic Soldier Labour, see table below. And 22 seats were won on a minority vote. [18]

On the morning of election day, overseas counts from London, Ottawa and the Middle East indicated a majority for Labour, but domestic results coming in during the evening suggested to several government officials and even to Walter Nash thal Labour would lose. By 10.30 pm only 35 of the 80 seats were certain for Labour, with Barclay (Marsden) defeated and even Nordmeyer (Oamaru) uncertain. But with 73,000 servicemens’ votes that came in during the day, Lowry (Otaki), Hodgens (Palmerston North) and Roberts (Wairarapa) scraped in. Over subsequent days with 60,000 special votes plus over 20,000 more servicemens’ votes, both Nordmeyer and Anderton (Eden) also scraped in. Fraser, who had campaigned among the troops, quipped that it was not only North Africa that the Second Division had saved.[19][20] By 7 October, National's lead in four seats had been overturned by the services votes,[21] and by 12 October, it was apparent that the result in six seats (Eden, Nelson, Oamaru, Otaki, Palmerston North and Wairarapa) had been overturned by the services vote.[22]

John A. Lee's new Democratic Labour Party won only 4.3% of the vote, and no seats. Bill Barnard and Colin Scrimgeour were formerly on the Labour left. Barnard had left the Labour Party with John A. Lee but had fallen out with him and left Lee's Democratic Labour Party, standing as an independent. Scrimgeour stood as an independent against Prime Minister Peter Fraser in Wellington Central and polled well, reducing Fraser's majority so that Fraser only sneaked back on a minority vote.

Albert Davy the organiser of the Independent People’s Group (IPG) or People's Movement complained that the election was decided on "strictly party" lines, and said that the effect of the Democratic Labour Party standing was to give six seats to the National Party. [23]

The election was also notable for the defeat of Āpirana Ngata a renowned Māori statesman and member for Eastern Maori after 38 years in parliament, by Rātana–Labour candidate Tiaki Omana. Labour now held all four Māori electorates and would continue to do so until 1993.

One independent was re-elected: Harry Atmore from Nelson — this was the last electoral victory by a candidate not from the major parties until the 1966 election. Atmore had the tactical support of Labour who (as in 1935 and 1938) did not stand a candidate against him, and he generally voted with Labour.[24] The slight margin to National in Nelson on civilian votes was reversed by the service votes.[25]

Party standings[edit]

Election results
Party Candidates Votes Percentage Seats won change
Labour 77 447,919 47.56 45 -8
National 77 402,887 42.78 34 +9
Democratic Labour 54 40,443 4.29 0 ±0
People's Movement 25 7,389 0.89 0 ±0
Real Democracy 25 4,421 0.53 0 ±0
Independents
(including Harry Atmore, Bill Barnard & Colin Scrimgeour)
38 38,789 3.95 1 -1
Total 291 941,828 80

Votes summary[edit]

Popular Vote
Labour
  
47.60%
National
  
42.80%
Democratic Labour
  
4.30%
Independent
  
3.90%
Others
  
1.50%
Parliament seats
Labour
  
56.25%
National
  
42.50%
Independent
  
1.25%

Initial MPs[edit]

The table below shows the results of the 1943 general election:

Key

 Labour    National    Democratic Labour        Real Democracy  Independent  

[v · t · e] Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1943[17]
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Auckland Central Bill Parry 4,769 William George Stanley Swabey[26]
Auckland East Frederick Schramm 962 Harry Tom Merritt[27]
Auckland Suburbs Rex Mason 3,028 Thomas Augustus Bishop[26]
Auckland West Peter Carr 5,402 John W. Kealy
Avon Dan Sullivan 4,460 James Neil Clarke[28]
Awarua James Hargest Uncontested
Bay of Islands Charles Wallace Boswell Sidney Walter Smith 1,276 Charles Wallace Boswell
Bay of Plenty Bill Sullivan 1,679 Walter William Jonasen[29]
Buller Paddy Webb 4,635 E W Nicolaus
Central Otago William Bodkin 2,723 James McIndoe Mackay[30]
Christchurch East Mabel Howard 5,537 Reginald Gilbert Brown[28]
Christchurch North Sidney Holland 2,645 George Manning[31]
Christchurch South Robert Macfarlane 4,416 Ron Guthrey[32]
Clutha James Roy 1,587 H K Edie
Dunedin Central Peter Nielson 2,155 L J T Ireland
Dunedin North James Wright Munro 2,798 A L S Castle
Dunedin South Fred Jones 3,061 D Murdoch
Dunedin West Gervan McMillan Philip Connolly 1,338 Alexander Smith Falconer
Eden Bill Anderton 14 Wilfred Fortune
Egmont Charles Wilkinson Ernest Corbett 2,422 Edwin Thoms Cox[33]
Franklin Jack Massey 3,285 Aaron Best[34][35]
Gisborne David William Coleman 572 Harry Barker[36]
Grey Lynn John A. Lee Fred Hackett 6,059 John A. Lee
Hamilton Charles Barrell Frank Findlay 454 Charles Barrell
Hauraki Andrew Sutherland 2,723 Edmund Colin Nigel Robinson[34]
Hawke's Bay Edward Luttrell Cullen 1,636 Eric N. Pryor[37]
Hurunui George Forbes William Gillespie 1,566 James William Morgan[28]
Hutt Walter Nash 5,260 John H. Hogan
Invercargill William Denham 987 William Bell[38]
Kaiapoi Morgan Williams 761 William Harold Overton[39]
Kaipara Gordon Coates Clifton Webb 2,800 John Stewart[26]
Lyttelton Terry McCombs 1,374 Edward Bickmore Ellison Taylor[32][40]
Manawatu John Cobbe Matthew Oram 2,305 William Henry Oliver[nb 1]
Marlborough Edwin Meachen 450 Tom Shand
Marsden James Gillespie Barclay Alfred Murdoch 1,006 James Gillespie Barclay
Masterton John Robertson Garnet Hercules Mackley 494 John Robertson
Mataura Tom Macdonald Uncontested
Mid-Canterbury Mary Grigg Richard Gerard 634 David Barnes[32]
Motueka Jerry Skinner 301 J R Haldane
Napier Bill Barnard Tommy Armstrong 1,273 Morris Spence[42]
Nelson Harry Atmore 191 Frederick William Huggins[43][44][45]
New Plymouth Frederick Frost Ernest Aderman 1,276 Frederick Frost
Oamaru Arnold Nordmeyer 125 T R Beatty[46]
Onehunga Arthur Osborne 3,324 John Park
Otahuhu Charles Petrie 464 Gordon Glover Hamilton[26]
Otaki Leonard Lowry 191 Bertie Cooksley
Pahiatua Alfred Ransom Keith Holyoake 1,825 G A Hansen
Palmerston North Joe Hodgens 212 Augustus Edward Mansford
Patea Harold Dickie William Sheat 912 Alex Langslow[35]
Raglan Lee Martin Robert Coulter 108 Robert James Glasgow[47]
Rangitikei Edward Gordon 1,612 R Freeman[35]
Remuera Bill Endean Ronald Algie 4,183 Martyn Finlay
Riccarton Herbert Kyle Jack Watts 1,322 Harold Ernest Denton[28]
Roskill Arthur Richards 962 Roy McElroy[48]
Rotorua Alexander Moncur Geoffrey Sim 715 Alexander Moncur[34]
Stratford William Polson 2,059 Brian Richmond[49]
Tauranga Frederick Doidge 3,625 Dudley Alexander Hill[29]
Temuka Jack Acland 1,690 George Harris[50]
Thames Jim Thorn 935 William Alexander Clark[47]
Timaru Clyde Carr 1,701 Jack Satterthwaite[51]
Waikato William Goosman 4,615 Charles Croall[52]
Waimarino Frank Langstone 1,404 R O Montgomerie
Waipawa Cyril Harker 2,091 Archie Low[53]
Wairarapa Ben Roberts 151 James Joseph Maher
Waitaki David Campbell Kidd 821 J S Adams
Waitemata Mary Dreaver Henry Thorne Morton 321 Mary Dreaver
Waitomo Walter Broadfoot 1,881 Ben Waters
Wallace Adam Hamilton 1,607 John James Lynch[54]
Wanganui Joseph Cotterill 2,437 E J Kirk
Wellington Central Peter Fraser 1,206 Will Appleton
Wellington East Bob Semple 2,588 Leonard Theodor Jacobsen[55]
Wellington North Charles Henry Chapman 1,897 Thomas Hislop
Wellington South Robert McKeen 4,156 Ernest Toop
Wellington Suburbs Harry Ernest Combs 2,581 Bill Veitch
Wellington West Catherine Stewart Charles Bowden 1,183 Catherine Stewart
Westland James O'Brien 2,600 E Frank Chivers[56][57]
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Āpirana Ngata Tiaki Omana 240 Āpirana Ngata
Northern Maori Paraire Karaka Paikea Tapihana Paraire Paikea 2,438 Eru Moka Pou[27]
Southern Maori Eruera Tirikatene 558 John Piuraki Tikao-Barrett
Western Maori Toko Ratana 3,309 Pei Te Hurinui Jones

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Father of the historian W. H. Oliver[41]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ King 2003, pp. 395f.
  2. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 225.
  3. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 228.
  4. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 189.
  5. ^ "Early Election". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24607). 11 June 1943. p. 2. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  6. ^ "By-elections Postponement Act 1943 (7 GEO VI 1943 No 7)". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  7. ^ a b "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  8. ^ Wood 1996, p. 108.
  9. ^ "Party Support: Results analysed". Papers Past. 27 September 1943. 
  10. ^ "Election Today". The New Zealand Herald. 25 September 1943. 
  11. ^ "To-Morrow's Election". Bay of Plenty Beacon. 7 (9). 24 September 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  12. ^ Wilson 1985, pp. 285–286.
  13. ^ "Ten in Doubt". Auckland Star. LXXIV (230). 28 September 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  14. ^ "The New Parliament". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24699). 27 September 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  15. ^ "Not Definite". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24699). 27 September 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  16. ^ "The Election". The Press. LXXIX (24082). 19 October 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  17. ^ a b "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. pp. 1–12. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  18. ^ Lipson 2011, p. 218-19.
  19. ^ Atkinson 2003, p. 154.
  20. ^ Bassett 2000, p. ?.
  21. ^ "Turned the Scales: Servicemen's Votes". Papers Past. 7 October 1943. 
  22. ^ "Election Result: State of Parties". Papers Past. 12 October 1943. 
  23. ^ "On Party Lines: Mr Davys' analysis". Papers Past. 27 September 1943. 
  24. ^ Milne 1966, p. 76.
  25. ^ "Big Influence: Service votes". Papers Past. 7 October 1943. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24713). 13 October 1943. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  27. ^ a b "Electoral". Auckland Star. LXXIV (290). 7 December 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Public Notices". The Press. LXXIX (24076). 12 October 1943. p. 1. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  29. ^ a b "Public Notices". Bay of Plenty Beacon. 7 (15). 15 October 1943. p. 5. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  30. ^ "Declaration of Result of Poll for the Electoral District of Central Otago". Alexandra Herald and Central Otago Gazette. 13 October 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  31. ^ Sharfe, Jean. "Manning, George". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  32. ^ a b c "Public Notices". The Press. LXXIX (24077). 13 October 1943. p. 1. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  33. ^ "Labour Candidate for Egmont". The Press. LXXIX (24021). 9 August 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  34. ^ a b c "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24714). 14 October 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  35. ^ a b c "Labour Candidates". The Evening Post. CXXXVI (24). 28 July 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  36. ^ Milton-Tee, Ann. "Harry Heaton Barker". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  37. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 382.
  38. ^ "General Election". Auckland Star. LXXIV (148). 24 June 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  39. ^ "Public Notices". The Press. LXXIX (24076). 12 October 1943. p. 1. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  40. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 387.
  41. ^ "William Henry Oliver". Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  42. ^ "General Election". Auckland Star. LXXIV (161). 9 July 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  43. ^ "Nelson Seat". The Evening Post. CXXXVI (13). 15 July 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  44. ^ "Obituary". The Evening Post. CXL (126). 24 November 1945. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  45. ^ "Frederick William Huggins". New Zealand War Graves Project. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  46. ^ "The New Parliament". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24699). 27 September 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  47. ^ a b "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24764). 11 December 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  48. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 375.
  49. ^ "General Election". The Press. LXXIX (23989). 2 July 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  50. ^ "General Election". The Press. LXXIX (23981). 23 June 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  51. ^ "Timaru Electorate". The Press. LXXIX (23941). 7 May 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  52. ^ "Candidates Chosen". Auckland Star. LXXIV (177). 28 July 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  53. ^ "General Election". The Evening Post. CXXXVI (48). 25 August 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  54. ^ "Declaration of Result of Poll for the Electoral District of Wallace". Lake Wakatip Mail (4637). 7 October 1943. p. 5. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  55. ^ "Public Notices". The Evening Post. CXXXVI (136). 6 December 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  56. ^ "General Election". Auckland Star. LXXIV (203). 27 August 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  57. ^ "Chivers, E Frank, DSM, MID". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 

References[edit]

  • Atkinson, Neill (2003). Adventures in Democracy: A History of the Vote in New Zealand. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. 
  • Bassett, Michael (2000). Tomorrow Comes the Song: A life of Peter Fraser. Auckland: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-029793-6. 
  • Gustafson, Barry (1986). The First 50 Years : A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. 
  • King, Michael (2003). Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0 14 301867 1. 
  • Lipson, Leslie (2011) [1948]. The Politics of Equality: New Zealand’s Adventures in Democracy. Wellington: Victoria University Press. ISBN 978-0-86473-646-8. 
  • Milne, Robert Stephen (1966). Political Parties in New Zealand. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 
  • Wood, G. A. (1996) [First ed. published 1987]. Ministers and Members in the New Zealand Parliament (2 ed.). Dunedin: University of Otago Press. ISBN 1-877133-00-0.