New Zealand longfin eel
|New Zealand longfin eel|
|New Zealand longfin eel|
at the base of a waterfall near Piha beach, Waitakere Ranges, Auckland.
J. E. Gray, 1842
The New Zealand longfin eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii) is the largest and the only endemic freshwater eel species in New Zealand. (The others are the native Shortfin eel, Anguilla australis, also found in Australia, and the naturally introduced Australian Longfin eel Anguilla reinhardtii). Longfin eels are long-lived, migrating to the Pacific Ocean near Tonga to breed at the end of their lives. They are good climbers as juvenile and so are found in streams and lakes a long way inland. An important traditional food source for Māori, longfin eels are threatened and declining but still commercially fished.
The easiest way to identify the longfin eel is by the length of its fins: the dorsal (top) fin is about two-thirds the length of the body and starts significantly further towards the head than the anal (bottom) fin. In the shortfin eel the fins are of similar length. When a longfin eel bends its loose skin wrinkles distinctively inside each bend, where a shortfin eel's skin is smooth. A longfin's mouth extends past its eyes, further than a shortfin's.
Female longfin eels are larger and longer-lived than males. Males average 66.6 cm but reach up to 73.5 cm in length, with an average age of 23 years (12–35 years). Females are considerably larger, ranging from 73–156 cm with an average length of 115 cm. Females attain an age of 20 to 60 years before migrating to sea to breed. Longfin eels in the North Island migrate at a younger age and thus have faster generation times.
Determining longfin sex is difficult as their sexual organs are not determined until they are over 45 cm in length. The only method to determine longfin eels sex is through internal examination and only becomes easy to distinguish when the eels mature and migrate.
Like other members of the Anguillidae, longfin eels have a rather unusual life cycle: they grow and mature into fertile adults in fresh water, then migrate to the sea to breed. This catadromous breeding system also ensures randomised mating, creating a panmictic population.
The New Zealand longfin eel is a very long-lived fish, with records of females reaching 106 years old and weighing up to 24 kg. They have the slowest growth rate of any eel species studied, just 1–2 centimetres a year.
Longfin eels life cycle like other species of Angullidae eels is rather complex consisting of four distinct life stages which remained a mystery for many decades and still is not fully understood.
New Zealand longfins breed only once at the end of their lives, making a journey of thousands of kilometres from New Zealand to their spawning grounds near Tonga. Their eggs (of which each female eel produces between 1 and 20 million) are fertilized in an unknown manner, but probably in deep tropical water. The mature eels then die, their eggs floating to the surface to hatch into very flat leaf-like larvae (called leptocephalus) that then drift along large oceanic currents back to New Zealand. This drifting is thought to take up to 15 months. There have been no recorded captures of either the eggs or larvae of Longfin eels. Upon arriving in New Zealand, the larvae undergo a transformation (metamorphosis) into glass eels, like small transparent adult eels. These occupy estuaries for their first year, during which they develop colouration and become elvers, which resemble small adult longfin eels. The elvers migrate upstream, where they develop into adults.
The recruitment of glass eels into New Zealand's freshwater river networks is a very variable process, thought to be affected by the El Niño and La Niña Southern Oscillations. This is a major reason for the failure of longfin eel aquaculture in the 1970s.
Longfin eels have an omnivorous diet and are opportunistic feeders. Their diet as small eels largely consists of insect larvae. When eels become larger, they also feed heavily on fish, including galaxiids and trout. There are reports of these eels eating waterfowl as well.
Habitat and distribution
|The Longfin Eel Migration – River Monsters|
Longfin eels are often found great distances inland (up to 361 km) along fresh waterways and in high country lakes which are connected to the sea. Aiding in their inland distribution is their climbing ability in elver (juvenile) stage, under 12 cm in length. These migration events frequently coincide with increased temperate, water flow and low light conditions. At this size the elvers can travel up to 130 km inland over a summer, and have been observed climbing near-vertical surfaces up to 43 m tall. This feat is accomplished through a combination of surface tension (with the water) and friction.
Where in a waterway longfin eels live depends on their life stage. As juveniles, they prefer shallow water (under 0.5 m deep) with coarse substratum and faster than average stream flow (such as that found in riffles). Adult longfin eels tend to be found next to or under large pieces of debris and undercut river banks.
Significance for Māori
The commercial fishing of longfin eels began to gain momentum in the 1960s, and by the 1970s there was a 2000 tonne yearly catch. The fishery went into decline in the early 1980s, and in the 2000–2001 fishing season only 1079 tonnes were taken. Commercial longfin eel fishing was included in the Quota Management System (QMS) in 2000 for the South Island and 2004 for the North Island. This set limits to the minimum and maximum size (220 grams and 4 kg) and the Total Allowable Catch (TAC). As of 2007, the TAC has not been reached in any fishing season since the implementation of the QMS. In recognition of the traditional significance of longfin eels, Māori have a 20 percent allocation of fishery stocks. The capture and export of glass eels in New Zealand has been prohibited.
There have been a number of attempts at aquaculture of longfin eels. The first were in the 1970s, and did not remain operational for long, with the last farm closing in 1982. The most common reasons for these failures were economic (the high cost of production vs low price for the eels), variable recruitment of glass eels, and the high mortality (death) rates in the farms. Since the early 2000s, there has been renewed interest in the aquaculture of longfins due to the increasing knowledge of their biology and the diminishing stocks of European eels (Anguilla anguilla), but no farms have been built.
Scientists and conservation groups have growing concern for the survival of the species, as they can be legally fished and have a slow reproduction rate, breeding only once at the end of their lifetime. In 2003 a scientist predicted their numbers to drop by between 5 and 30% in the following decade.
In June 2012 it was reported that some pet food companies use the nationally threatened eels in their products, sparking outrage by conservationists.
- Goodman, J.M.; Dunn, N.R.; Ravenscroft, P.J.; Allibone, R.M.; Boubee, J.A.T.; David, B.O.; Griffiths, M.; Ling, N.; Hitchmough, R.A; Rolfe, J.R. (2014). "Conservation status of New Zealand freshwater fish, 2013" (PDF). New Zealand Threat Classification Series 7.
- McQueen, Stella (2013). A Photographic Guide to Freshwater Fishes of New Zealand. Auckland: New Holland. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-86966-386-5.
- McDowall, R. M. (1990). New Zealand freshwater fishes: a natural history and guide (Rev. ed.). Auckland: Heinemann-Reed.
- Todd, P. R. (1980). "Size and age of migrating New Zealand freshwater eels (Anguilla spp.)." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 14(3), 283–293.
- Jellyman, D. J. (2007). Status of New Zealand fresh-water eel stocks and management initiatives. ICES J. Mar. Sci., fsm073. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsm073
- Davey, A., & Jellyman, D. (2005). "Sex Determination in Freshwater Eels and Management Options for Manipulation of Sex." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 15(1), 37–52. doi:10.1007/s11160-005-7431-x
- Doole, G. J. (2005). "Optimal management of the New Zealand longfin eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii)." Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 49(4), 395–411. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8489.2005.00310.x
- Jellyman, D. J. (1995a). "Longevity of longfinned eels Anguilla dieffenbachii in a New Zealand high country lake." Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 4(3), 106–112. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0633.1995.tb00123.x
- Jellyman, D. J. (2009). Forty years on – the impact of commercial fishing on stocks of New Zealand freshwater eels (Anguilla spp.). Paper presented at Eels at the edge: science, status, and conservation concerns. Proceedings of the 2003 International Eel symposium, Bethesda MD.
- Ryan, P. (2012). "Eels - Life cycle and breeding grounds", Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand Retrieved 18 March 2016
- Jellyman, D., & Tsukamoto, K. (2010). Vertical migrations may control maturation in migrating female Anguilla dieffenbachii. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 404, 241-247. doi:10.3354/meps08468
- Jellyman, D. (2006). Tagging along when longfins go spawning. Water & Atmosphere, 14(1), 24 - 25.
- Chisnall, B. L., Jellyman, D. J., Bonnett, M. L., & Sykes, J. R. (2002). Spatial and temporal variability in length of glass eels (Anguilla spp.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 36(1), 89 - 104.
- Jellyman, D. J. (1977). "Summer upstream migration of juvenile freshwater eels in New Zealand." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 11(1), 61–71.
- Watene, E. (2003). Potential for Commercial Eel Aquaculture in Northland. Auckland: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research.
- Jellyman, D. J. (1995b). Diet of longfinned eels, Anguilla dieffenbachii, in Lake Rotoiti, Nelson Lakes, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 30(3), 365 - 369.
- Jellyman, D. J., & Coates, G. D. (1976). The Farming of freshwater eels in New Zealand. Paper presented at the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council 17th Session, Symposium on the Development and Utilisation of Inland Fishery Resources.
- August, S., & Hicks, B. (2008). Water temperature and upstream migration of glass eels in New Zealand: implications of climate change. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 81(2), 195-205. doi:10.1007/s10641-007-9191-z
- Glova, G. J., Jellyman, D. J., & Bonnett, M. L. (1998). Factors associated with the distribution and habitat of eels (Anguilla spp.) in three New Zealand lowland streams. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 32(2), 255 - 269.
- Potangaroa, J. (2010). Tuna Kuwharuwhau - The Longfin Eel.
- Beentjes, M. P., Boubée, J. A. T., Jellyman, D. J., & Graynoth, E. (2005). Non-fishing mortality of freshwater eels (Anguilla spp.). In M. o. Fisheries (Ed.), New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2005/34 (pp. 38).
- . Setting of Sustainability and Other Management Controls for Stocks to be Introduced into the QMS on 1 October 2004 - North Island Shortfin and Longfin Eels (SFS, LFE). (2004).
- Rodríguez, A., Gisbert, E., Rodríguez, G., & Castelló-Orvay, F. (2005). Histopathological observations in European glass eels (Anguilla anguilla) reared under different diets and salinities. Aquaculture, 244(1-4), 203-214. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.09.039
- "Native long-finned eels in great danger, says scientist". nzherald.co.nz. AP. 4 December 2003. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "'River monsters' fished out of West Coast lake". nzherald.co.nz. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Threatened eels becoming pet food". 3 News. Retrieved 27 June 2012.