New Zealander Australian
483,398 (by birth, 2011 Census)
187,212 (by ancestry, 2011 Census)
|Regions with significant populations|
|New Zealand-born people by state or territory|
|New South Wales||114,231|
|Australian English · New Zealand English · Māori|
|Christianity · Irreligion|
|Related ethnic groups|
|European Australians · Anglo-Celtic Australians|
New Zealander Australian is an Australian citizen who has origins in New Zealand, as well as New Zealand migrants and expatriates based in Australia. Migration from New Zealand to Australia is a very common phenomenon, given Australia and New Zealand's proximity and cultural links.
According to the 2011 Census, there were 187,212 people of New Zealand descent in Australia and 483,398 New Zealand-born people residing in the country at the moment of the census, having an increase of 24.1 per cent compared to the 2006 Census. The largest New Zealand-born community in Australia is in the state of Queensland, with 192,037 people.
History and demographics
Under various arrangements since the 1920s, there has been a free flow of people between Australia and New Zealand. Since 1973 the informal Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement has allowed for the free movement of citizens of one nation to the other. The only major exception to these travel privileges is for individuals with outstanding warrants or criminal backgrounds who are deemed dangerous or undesirable for the migrant nation and its citizens. In recent decades, many New Zealanders have migrated to Australian cities such as Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth. Since 1994 New Zealand passport holders are issued with special category visas on arrival in Australia. Although this agreement is reciprocal there has been resulting significant net migration from New Zealand to Australia. In 2001 there were eight times more New Zealanders living in Australia than Australians living in New Zealand. Many such New Zealanders include Maori Australians.
New Zealanders in Australia were previously granted permanent residency upon arrival in Australia with, like all permanent residents, immediate access to Australian welfare benefits. However, in 1986 the Hawke Labor Government brought in the rule whereby New Zealand Citizens had to wait six months after arrival in order to qualify for social security benefits. The Keating Labor Government introduced 'Special Category Visas' (SCVs) for New Zealand Citizens in 1994, which included the denial of HECS fee help and Austudy payments for tertiary study unless SCV holders became Australian Citizens. In 1998, the Howard Government increased the stand down period for general welfare payments to two years, which is the standard waiting period for all permanent residents in Australia. It is important to note that, during these changes, New Zealand Citizens remained as Permanent Residents upon arrival in Australia, with the same basic rights and pathway to citizenship as all Permanent Residents.
Regulations were dramatically changed in 2001 by The Family and Community Services Legislation Amendment (New Zealand Citizens) Bill 2001 which categorises New Zealanders who arrived in Australia after February 26, 2001 as non-protected special visa holders. That makes them ineligible for many social security benefits. Those New Zealanders can stay in Australia indefinitely but without any civic rights (they cannot vote in any Government elections) or citizenship route. More than 175,000 people - or 47 per cent of the New Zealanders living in Australia - are thought to be affected by the law, which has been labelled "discriminatory" by campaigners. A series of anti-discrimination lawsuits have recently 2011- overturned decisions to deny New Zealand citizens social security benefits under 2001 Howard government laws that restricted access to permanent residency. Australian citizens who go and live in New Zealand continue to enjoy the social security benefits and are treated as permanent residents in New Zealand. In June 2011 Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard and New Zealand Prime Minister John Key had discussed the issue and Australia is reported to be looking at easing residency requirements for up to 100,000 New Zealanders stuck in limbo after this rule change in 2001. There are complaints in New Zealand that there is a brain drain to Australia.
People born in New Zealand continue to be the second largest source of immigration to Australia, representing 11% of total permanent additions in 2005–06 and accounting for 2.3% of Australia's population at June 2006. Australians make up a similar proportion of New Zealand's population. New Zealand citizens have a high labour-force participation rate (78.2 per cent at July 2012) compared with those born in Australia (68.0 per cent). New Zealanders living in Australia also have a higher median weekly income ($760) than Australians born in Australia ($597) and immigrants in general ($538), which be partially due to working long hours (51.8 hours per week) than Australian born (45.6 hours) or immigrants in general (44.7 hours).
New Zealand is a multicultural country with a multiethnic society. Because of this, New Zealanders have different and diverse ethnic backgrounds. However, the majority of New Zealanders, both in Australia and New Zealand, are of European descent (mainly British). In the 2011 Census most New Zealand-born people living in Australia reported being of English descent (222,956), followed by those of New Zealander (86,724), Scottish (83,156) and Māori (82,577) descent.
Unlike other migrant groups, New Zealanders are better integrated due to language and similar culture and values.
- Australia – New Zealand relations
- Māori Australian
- Australian New Zealander
- Expatriate Party of New Zealand
- Australian Government - Department of Immigration and Border Protection. "New Zealander Australians". Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship". Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Collett, John (4 September 2013). "Kiwis face hurdles in pursuit of lost funds". Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/17nz.htm Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship Fact Sheet – New Zealanders in Australia
- Walrond, Carl (4 March 2009). "Kiwis overseas – Migration to Australia". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- Chapman, Paul (13 May 2006). "New Zealand warned over exodus to Australia". Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- Dickison, Greg; Ansley (14 January 2013). "Australia: Kiwis struggling without a lifeline across the ditch". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Reprieve for Kiwis in limbo in Australia". The Dominion Post. 30 January 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Welfare payments to be restricted for Kiwis in Australia". ABC. 26 February 2001. Retrieved 27 June 2006.
- Mahne, Christian (24 July 2002). "New Zealand voters fear brain drain". Business (BBC). Retrieved 27 June 2006.
- "Miss Kiwi" (24 June 2011). "Kiwis discriminated in Australia". Kiwis discriminated in Australia.
- "Migration: permanent additions to Australia's population". 4102.0 – Australian Social Trends, 2007. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 7 August 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
- "Fact Sheet 17 – New Zealanders in Australia".
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Community Profile Series : Brisbane (Major Statistical Region)". 2006 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 27 December 2009. refer "Basic Community Profile – Brisbane" sheet B10