New wave music

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from New wave)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the music term which originated in the 1970s. For other meanings and artistic movements, see New Wave.
Not to be confused with New-age music.

New wave music is a musical genre of pop/rock created in the late-1970s to mid-1980s with ties to 1970s punk rock.[14] The wide range of bands categorized under this term has been a source of much confusion and controversy. The new wave sound of the late 1970s moved away from the smooth blues and rock & roll sounds to create music with a twitchy, agitated feel, choppy rhythm guitars and fast tempos. Initially—as with the later post-punk—new wave was broadly analogous to punk rock before branching as a distinctly identified genre, incorporating electronic/experimental music, mod, disco and pop. It subsequently engendered subgenres and fusions, including synthpop and gothic rock.

New wave differs from other movements with ties to first-wave punk as it displays characteristics common to pop music, rather than the more "arty" post-punk,[15] though it incorporates much of the original punk rock sound and ethos[6][16] while arguably exhibiting greater complexity in both music and lyrics. Common characteristics of new wave music, aside from its punk influences, include the use of synthesizers and electronic productions, the importance of styling and the arts, as well as a great amount of diversity.[15]

New wave has been called one of the definitive genres of the 1980s,[17] after it grew partially fixated on MTV (The Buggles' "Video Killed the Radio Star" music video was broadcast as the first music video to promote the channel's launch).[15] and the popularity of several new wave artists, attributing the exposure that was given to them by the channel. In the mid-1980s, differences between new wave and other music genres began to blur.[18][15] New wave has enjoyed resurgences since the 1990s, after a rising "nostalgia" for several new wave-influenced artists. The revivals in the 1990s and early 2000s were small, but became popular by 2004; subsequently, the genre has influenced a variety of other music genres.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25] During the 2000s, a number of acts explored new wave and post-punk influences, such as The Strokes, Interpol, Franz Ferdinand, and The Killers. These acts were sometimes labeled "New New Wave".

The term "new wave"[edit]

Blondie, 1976. L–R: Gary Valentine, Clem Burke, Deborah Harry, Chris Stein and Jimmy Destri.

The catch-all nature of new wave music has been a source of much confusion and controversy. The 1985 discography Who's New Wave in Music listed artists in over 130 separate categories.[26] The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock uses the term "virtually meaningless" in its definition of new wave,[26] while AllMusic mentions "stylistic diversity".[27]

New wave first circulated as a rock music genre in the early 1970s, used by critics like Nick Kent and Dave Marsh to classify such New York-based groups as the Velvet Underground and New York Dolls.[28] It gained a much wider currency beginning in 1976 when it appeared in UK punk fanzines such as Sniffin' Glue and also in newsagent music weeklies such as Melody Maker and New Musical Express.[29] In a November 1976 article in Melody Maker, Caroline Coon used Malcolm McLaren's term "new wave" to designate music by bands not exactly punk, but related to, and part of the same musical scene.[30] The term was also used in that sense by music journalist Charles Shaar Murray in his comments about The Boomtown Rats.[31] For a period of time in 1976 and 1977, the terms new wave and punk were somewhat interchangeable.[18][32] By the end of 1977, "new wave" had replaced "punk" as the definition for new underground music in the UK.[29]

"The New York Dolls arrived and galvanized the entire scene. Real glam trash. Beautiful. They proved it was possible to be trashy and good at the same time. Kicked everyone into action at a desperate moment. They saved us all. At that moment, I was drawing lines into New York and the Velvets, European avant garde and electronic music, previous generation's Brit Psychedelia plus a ragged sort of insulting glam. I guess this was the start of the New Wave. By the way, whoever coined that New Wave byline is my hero. Because a New Wave is precisely what it was – and precisely what was needed at that moment."

John Foxx[33]

In the United States, Sire Records chairman Seymour Stein, believing that the term "punk" would mean poor sales for Sire's acts who had frequently played the club CBGB, launched a "Don't Call It Punk" campaign designed to replace the term with "new wave".[34] As radio consultants in the United States had advised their clients that punk rock was a fad, they settled on the term "new wave". Like the filmmakers of the French new wave movement (after whom the genre was named), its new artists were anti-corporate and experimental (e.g. Ramones and Talking Heads). At first, most U.S. writers exclusively used the term "new wave" for British punk acts.[35] Starting in December 1976, The New York Rocker, which was suspicious of the term "punk", became the first American journal to enthusiastically use the term starting with British acts, later appropriating it to acts associated with the CBGB scene.[29]

Talking Heads performing in Toronto in 1978.

Music historian Vernon Joynson states that new wave emerged in the UK in late 1976, when many bands began disassociating themselves from punk.[36] Music that followed the anarchic garage band ethos of the Sex Pistols was distinguished as "punk", while music that tended toward experimentation, lyrical complexity or more polished production, came to be categorized as "new wave". In the U.S., the first new wavers were the not-so-punk acts associated with the New York club CBGB (e.g. Talking Heads, Mink DeVille and Blondie).[19]

CBGB owner Hilly Kristal, referring to the first show of the band Television at his club in March 1974, said, "I think of that as the beginning of new wave."[37] Furthermore, many artists who would have originally been classified as punk were also termed new wave. A 1977 Phonogram Records compilation album of the same name (New Wave) features US artists including the Dead Boys, Ramones, Talking Heads and The Runaways.[19][38]

United States and United Kingdom differences[edit]

New wave is much more closely tied to punk and came and went more quickly in the United Kingdom than in the United States. At the time punk began, it was a major phenomenon in the United Kingdom and a minor one in the United States. Thus when new wave acts started getting noticed in America, punk meant little to the mainstream audience[39] and it was common for rock clubs and discos to play British dance mixes and videos between live sets by American guitar acts.[40]

Post-punk music developments in the UK became mainstream and were considered unique cultural events.[39] By the early 1980s, British journalists largely had abandoned using the term "new wave" in favor of subgenre terms such as "synthpop".[41] By 1983, the term of choice for the US music industry had become "new music", while to the majority of US fans it was still a "new wave" reacting to album-based rock.[42]

United States use of the term as substitute for "synthpop"[edit]

"Bit by bit the last traces of Punk were drained from New Wave, as New Wave went from meaning Talking Heads to meaning the Cars to Squeeze to Duran Duran to, finally, Wham! "

—Music critic Bill Flannigan writing in 1989[43]

While a consensus has developed that new wave proper ended in the mid-1980s, knocked out by various guitar-driven rock music reacting against new wave,[44] for most of the remainder of the 1980s the term "new wave" was widely applied to nearly every new pop or pop rock artist that predominantly used synthesizers.

Duran Duran in 1981. Top line: Nick Rhodes (keyboards), Simon Le Bon (vocals); Middle: John Taylor (bass); Bottom line: Roger Taylor (drums), Andy Taylor (guitar)

In the United States during the 21st century, "new wave" was still used to describe artists such as Morrissey, Duran Duran, Cyndi Lauper, and Devo.[45] Late 1970s new wave acts such as The Pretenders and The Cars were more likely to be found on classic rock playlists than on new wave playlists there.[46][47][48] Reflecting its British origins, the 2004 study Popular Music Genres: An Introduction had one paragraph dedicated to 1970s new wave artists in its punk chapter while there was a 20-page chapter on early 1980s synthpop.[41][49]

Styles and subgenres[edit]

The new wave sound of the late 1970s represented a break from the smooth-oriented blues and rock & roll sounds of late 1960s to mid-1970s rock music. According to music journalist Simon Reynolds, the music had a twitchy, agitated feel to it. New wave musicians often played choppy rhythm guitars with fast tempos. Keyboards were common as were stop-and-start song structures and melodies. Reynolds noted that new wave vocalists sounded high-pitched, geeky and suburban.[16] A nervous, nerdy persona was a common characteristic of new wave fans and acts such as Talking Heads, Devo and Elvis Costello. This took the forms of robotic or spastic dancing, jittery high-pitched vocals, and clothing fashions such as suits and big glasses that hid the body.[50]

Elvis Costello, in Massey Hall, Toronto, April 1979

This seemed radical to audiences accustomed to post-counterculture forms such as disco dancing and macho "cock rock" which emphasized a "let it hang loose" philosophy, open sexuality and sexual bravado.[51] The majority of American male new wave acts of the late 1970s were from Caucasian middle-class backgrounds, and theorized that these acts intentionally presented these exaggerated nerdy tendencies associated with their "whiteness" either to criticize it or to reflect who they were.[51]

The British pub rock scene of the mid-1970s was the source of several new wave acts such as Ian Dury, Nick Lowe, Eddie and the Hot Rods and Dr. Feelgood.[52]

Singer-songwriters who were "angry" and "intelligent" and who "approached pop music with the sardonic attitude and tense, aggressive energy of punk" such as Elvis Costello, Joe Jackson, and Graham Parker were also part of the new wave music scene.[53]

A British revival of ska music on the 2 Tone label, led by The Specials were more politically oriented than other new wave genres. Madness, the The Beat/English Beat, and Selecter were associated with this revival.[54]

The idea of rock music as a serious art form started in the late 1960s and was the dominant view of the genre at the time of new wave's arrival. New wave looked back or borrowed in various ways from the years just prior to this occurrence. One way this was done was by taking an ironic look at consumer and pop culture of the 1950s and early 1960s. The B-52's became most noted for a kitsch and camp presentation with their bouffant wigs, beach party and sci-fi movie references. Other groups that referenced the pre-progressive rock era were The Go-Go's, Blondie and Devo.[55] [56]

The Jam in concert in Newcastle during their Trans-global Unity tour in March 1982.

Power pop continued the guitar-based, singles-oriented British invasion sound of the mid-1960s into the 1970s and the present day. Although the name "power pop" had been around before punk (it is believed to be coined by Pete Townshend in 1967) it became widely associated with new wave when Bomp and Trouser Press magazines (respectively in March and April 1978) wrote cover stories touting power pop as a sound that could continue new wave's directness without the negativity associated with punk. Cheap Trick, The Romantics, The Records, Shoes, The Motors,[19] The Only Ones, The Plimsouls, the dB's, The Beat, The Vapors, 20/20 and Squeeze were groups that found success playing this style. The Jam was the prime example of the mod sensibility of British power pop. By the end of 1979 a backlash had developed against power pop in general, particularly in regards to the Los Angeles scene. The skinny ties worn by a lot of LA power pop groups, epitomized by The Knack, became symbolic of the supposed lack of authenticity of the genre.[18][57] Power pop's association with the genre has largely been forgotten.[46]

The term "post-punk" was coined to describe groups such as Public Image Ltd, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, Gang of Four, Wire, The Fall, Magazine, and The Cure, which were initially considered part of new wave but were more ambitious, serious and challenging, as well as darker and less pop-oriented. Some of these groups would later adopt synths.[58][59] Although distinct, punk, new wave, and post-punk all shared common ground: an energetic reaction to what they perceived as the overproduced, uninspired popular music of the 1970s.[60]

The New Romantic scene had developed in the London nightclubs Billy's and The Blitz in the late 1970s and was characterised by club-goers wearing flamboyant, eccentric costumes and make-up derived from the historical Romantic era. Beginning at "Bowie and Roxy Music" themed nights at these clubs, the scene was spearheaded by Steve Strange of Visage, with other soon-to-be pop acts also as regular fixtures such as Boy George of Culture Club, and Spandau Ballet. Around the same time, Duran Duran emerged from a similar scene in Birmingham's clubs.[61] Many of the acts that arose from the New Romantic club scene adopted synthpop in their own music, though all would credit Bowie and Roxy Music as primary influences to some extent, both musically and visually.

Kraftwerk were acclaimed for their groundbreaking use of synthesizers. Their 1975 pop single "Autobahn" reached number 11 in the United Kingdom. In 1978, Gary Numan saw a synthesizer left by another music act and started playing around with it. In 1979 he achieved two number one albums and two number one singles (one of each under his band name Tubeway Army). Numan's admitted amateurism and deliberate lack of emotion was a sea change from the masculine and professional image that professional synth players had in an era when elaborate, lengthy solos were the norm. His open desire to be a pop star broke from punk orthodoxy. The decreasing price and ease of use of the instrument led acts to follow in Kraftwerk and Numan's footsteps. While Numan also utilized conventional rock instruments, several acts that followed used only synthesizers. Synthpop (or "technopop" as it was described by the U.S. press)[62] filled a void left by disco,[23] and grew into a broad genre that included groups such as The Human League, Depeche Mode, Soft Cell, a-ha, New Order, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, Yazoo,[63] Ultravox,[64] Kajagoogoo,[65] and the Thompson Twins.[64][66][67][68]

In the early 1980s, new wave acts embraced a "crossover" of rock music with African and African-American styles. Adam and The Ants and Bow Wow Wow, both acts with ties to former Sex Pistols manager Malcolm McLaren, used Burundi-style drumming.[69] The Talking Heads album Remain in Light was marketed and positivity reviewed as a breakthrough melding of new wave and African styles, although drummer Chris Frantz has said that he found out about this supposed African influence after the fact.[70] The 1981 U.S. number 1 single "Rapture" by Blondie was an homage to rap music. The song name-checked rap artists and Fab 5 Freddie appeared in the video for the song.[71] Second British Invasion acts were influenced by funk and disco.[72]

The genre produced numerous one-hit wonders.[27]

Rock en español[edit]

Main article: Rock en español

New Wave also influenced bands in the Hispanosphere, some of whom have gained widespread success throughout Latin American nations, although lesser known in the English-speaking world. This movement, known as Rock en español borrowed heavily from the styles of American and British New Wave, while also incorporating Latin American rhythms, such as cumbia and salsa. Bands in this genre promoted the fact that this new genre was "Rock en tu idioma", or "Rock in your language," offering a Spanish-language alternative to the Hispanic culture. Influential bands in this genre include:

Reception in the United States[edit]

In the summer of 1977 both Time[73] and Newsweek magazines wrote favorable lead stories on the "punk/new wave" movement.[74] Acts associated with the movement received little or no radio airplay or music industry support. Small scenes developed in major cities. Continuing into the next year, public support remained limited to select elements of the artistic, bohemian and intellectual population,[29] as arena rock and disco dominated the charts.[64]

Starting in late 1978 and continuing into 1979, acts associated with punk and acts that mixed punk with other genres began to make chart appearances and receive airplay on rock stations and rock discos.[75] Blondie, Talking Heads, The Police and The Cars would chart during this period.[18][64] "My Sharona", a single from The Knack, was Billboard magazine's number one single of 1979. The success of "My Sharona" combined with the fact that new wave albums were much cheaper to produce during a time when the music industry was in its worst slump in decades,[75] prompted record companies to rush out and sign new wave groups.[18] New wave music scenes developed in Ohio[64] and Athens, Georgia.[76] 1980 saw brief forays into new wave-styled music by non-new wave artists Billy Joel, Donna Summer and Linda Ronstadt.[18]

Early in 1980, influential radio consultant Lee Abrams wrote a memo saying that with a few exceptions, "we're not going to be seeing many of the new wave circuit acts happening very big over here (in America). As a movement, we don't expect it to have much influence." Lee Ferguson, a consultant to KWST, said in an interview that Los Angeles radio stations were banning disc jockeys from using the term and noted, "Most of the people who call music new wave are the ones looking for a way not to play it."[77] Despite the success of Devo's socially critical but widely misperceived song "Whip It",[78] second albums by artists who had successful debut albums, along with newly signed artists, failed to sell, and radio pulled most new wave programming.[18]

The arrival of MTV in 1981 would usher in new wave's most successful era in the United States. British artists, unlike many of their American counterparts, had learned how to use the music video early on.[64][79] Several British acts signed to independent labels were able to outmarket and outsell American artists that were signed with major labels. Journalists labeled this phenomenon a "Second British Invasion".[79][80] MTV continued its heavy rotation of videos by new wave-oriented acts until 1987, when it changed to a heavy metal and rock dominated format.[81]

Martha Davis of The Motels performs at Hollywood Park.

In a December 1982 Gallup poll, 14% of teenagers rated new wave music as their favorite type of music, making it the third most popular.[82] New wave had its greatest popularity on the West Coast. Unlike other genres, race was not a factor in the popularity of new wave music, according to the poll. [82] Urban Contemporary radio stations were the first to play dance-oriented new wave artists such as the B-52's, Culture Club, Duran Duran and ABC.[83]

New wave soundtracks were used in mainstream "Brat Pack" films such as Valley Girl, Sixteen Candles, Pretty in Pink, and The Breakfast Club.[64][84] John Hughes, the director of several of these films, was enthralled with British new wave music and placed songs from acts such as The Psychedelic Furs, Simple Minds, and Echo and The Bunnymen in his films, helping to keep new wave in the mainstream. Several of these songs remain standards of the era.[85] Critics described the MTV acts of the period as shallow or vapid.[64][79] The homophobic slurs "faggot" and "art fag" were openly used to describe new wave musicians.[86][87] Despite the criticism, the danceable quality of the music and the quirky fashion sense associated with new wave artists appealed to audiences.[64]

The use of synthesizers by new wave acts influenced the development of house music in Chicago and techno in Detroit. In September 1988 Billboard launched their Modern Rock chart. While the acts on the chart reflected a wide variety of stylistic influences, new wave's legacy remained in the large influx of acts from Great Britain and acts that were popular in rock discos, as well as the charts name itself which reflected how new wave had been marketed as "modern".[88] New wave's indie spirit would be crucial to the development of college rock and grunge/alternative rock in the latter half of the 1980s and beyond.[64]

Post-1980s revivals and influence[edit]

Franz Ferdinand performing in 2006.

In the aftermath of grunge, the British music press launched a campaign to promote the New Wave of New Wave. This campaign involved overtly punk and new wave-influenced acts such as Elastica but was eclipsed by Britpop.[19] Other acts of note during the 1990s included No Doubt, Metric,[89] Six Finger Satellite, and Brainiac.[20][90] During that decade, the synthesizer-heavy dance sounds of British and European new wave acts influenced various incarnations of Euro disco and trance.[23][64] Chris Martin was inspired to start Coldplay by a-ha.[91]

During the 2000s, a number of acts emerged that mined a diversity of new wave and post-punk influences. Among these were The Strokes, Interpol, Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Franz Ferdinand, The Epoxies, She Wants Revenge, Bloc Party, Foals,[92] Kaiser Chiefs, and The Killers. These acts were sometimes labeled "New New Wave". By 2004, these acts were described as "hot".[21] The new wave revival reached its apex during the mid-2000s with acts such as The Sounds, The Ting Tings, Melody Club, Hot Chip,[93][94] Passion Pit,[95] The Presets,[96] La Roux, Ladytron,[97][98] Shiny Toy Guns,[99] Hockey,[100] Gwen Stefani and Ladyhawke.[20][21][101][102][103][104][105][106][107] While some journalists and fans regarded this as a revival, others argued that the phenomenon was a continuation of the original movements.[20][108][109][110]

The Drums are an example of the trend in the U.S. indie pop scene that employs both the sounds and attitudes of the British new wave era.[22][23][24][111] A new wave-influenced genre called chillwave also developed in the late 2000s, exemplified by artists like Toro Y Moi, Neon Indian, Twin Shadow and Washed Out.[112][113][114]

Disney Channel stars such as Jonas Brothers and Hannah Montana have been described as embracing new wave sounds,[25] as have acts like Marina and the Diamonds.[115][116] Hip-hop artists commonly sample 1980s synthpop, and R&B artists such as Rihanna have also embraced that subgenre.[25]

In electronic music[edit]

See also: Dance-punk
Klaxons in concert in 2007

New wave had a seminal role in the development and popularity of contemporary electronic music.[117][118]

During the late 1990s, new wave received a sudden surge of attention when it was fused with electro and techno during the short-lived electroclash movement.[119][120][121][122] It received popular attention from musical acts such as I-F, Peaches, Fischerspooner, and Vitalic,[121][122] but largely faded as a genre when it was combined with tech house to form the electro house genre.[123]

During the mid 2000s, new rave combined new wave with elements from several other genres, such as indie rock and electro house,[124] and added aesthetic elements archetypal of a rave, such as light shows and glow sticks.[125][126][127] Despite the term itself receiving controversy to the point where many affiliated reject it,[128][129] new rave as a musical genre has been fronted by artists such as the Klaxons, NYPC, Shitdisco, and Hadouken![124][125]

Since the late 2000s, nostalgia for 80's new wave has seen a resurgence in the form of synthwave, which is primarily characterized by new wave and soundtrack influences and a retrofuturistic, cyberpunk visual aesthetic.[130][131][132] This term has been applied in particular to the music of artists such as Kavinsky and Power Glove,[130] and to the visual styles and soundtracks of films and video games such as Drive, Tron: Legacy, Hotline Miami and Far Cry 3: Blood Dragon.[130][131][dubious ]

Parallel movements[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor, John. "100 Greatest Artists of All Time: Roxy Music". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Kemp, Mark. "David Bowie: Biography". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  3. ^ Cooper, Kim, Smay, David, Bubblegum Music is the Naked Truth (2001), page 248 "Nobody took the bubblegum ethos to heart like the new wave bands"/
  4. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "New Wave". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "Keyboard Magazine, June 1982". Synthpunk.org. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Disco inferno". The Independent (UK). 11 December 2004. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  7. ^ Bernard Edwards, 43, Musician In Disco Band and Pop Producer The New York Times 22 April 1996 "As disco waned in the late 70s, so did Chic's album sales. But its influence lingered on as new wave, rap and dance-pop bands found inspiration in Chic's club anthems"
  8. ^ "Born in 1959: The last happy generation". Helsingin Sanomat. 10 November 2010. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. 
  9. ^ http://avxsearch.se/avaxhome_search?page=6&q=i+want+new+wave+mp3
  10. ^ Pirnia, Garin (13 March 2010). "Is Chillwave the Next Big Music Trend?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  11. ^ Soda Stereo Bio | Soda Stereo Career | MTV
  12. ^ LISTEN: Mutazione Comp Preview The Quietus 12 July 2013
  13. ^ Filipinojournal.com A Tribute to the '80s Philippine New Wave Scene
  14. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 9–12
  15. ^ a b c d New Wave : Significant Albums, Artists and Songs, Most Viewed : AllMusic
  16. ^ a b Reynolds, Simon "Rip It Up and Start Again PostPunk 1978–1984" p160
  17. ^ '80s New Wave Artists – Top 10 New Wave Artists of the '80s
  18. ^ a b c d e f g The Death of New Wave Theo Cateforis Assistant Professor of Music History and Cultures in the Department of Art and Music Histories at Syracuse University 2009
  19. ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture Page 365. Google Books. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  20. ^ a b c d New Wave/Post Punk Revival Allmusic
  21. ^ a b c Paoletta, Michael (17 September 2004). "New wave is back – in hot new bands,". MSNBC. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  22. ^ a b Gill, Andy (4 June 2010). "Album: The Drums, The Drums". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  23. ^ a b c d Gordon, Claire (23 October 2009). "The decade that never dies Still '80s Fetishizing in '09 Yale Daily News". Yaledailynews.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  24. ^ a b Lopez, Korina (30 August 2010). "Indie singers storm the scene with style and spectacle". USA Today. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c Q&A with Theo Cateforis, author of Are We Not New Wave? Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s The University of Michigan Press 2011
  26. ^ a b Cateforis 2011, p. 11
  27. ^ a b AboutNew Wave
  28. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 20
  29. ^ a b c d Gendron, Bernard (2002). Between Montmartre and the Mudd Club: Popular Music and the Avant-Garde (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press), pp. 269–270.
  30. ^ Clinton Heylin, Babylon's Burning (Conongate, 2007), pp. 140, 172.
  31. ^ Murray, Charles Shaar. Sleevenotes to CD reissue of The Boomtown Rats, reproduced at [1]. Retrieved on 21 January 2007.
  32. ^ Joynson, Vernon (2001). Up Yours! A Guide to UK Punk, New Wave & Early Post Punk. Wolverhampton: Borderline Publications. p. 12. ISBN 1-899855-13-0. For a while in 1976 and 1977 the terms punk and new wave were largely interchangeable. By 1978, things were beginning to change, although the dividing line between punk and new wave was never very clear. 
  33. ^ "John Foxx Interviewed – The Quiet Man Speaks". The Quietus. 7 November 2008. 
  34. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 25
  35. ^ Source: The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd edition New 3 Sept 2014
  36. ^ Joynson, Vernon (2001). Up Yours! A Guide to UK Punk, New Wave & Early Post Punk. Wolverhampton: Borderline Publications. p. 11. ISBN 1-899855-13-0. 
  37. ^ Clinton Heylin, Babylon's Burning (Conongate, 2007), p. 17.
  38. ^ Savage, Jon. (1991) England's Dreaming, Faber & Faber
  39. ^ a b Cateforis 2011, pp. 46–47
  40. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 62
  41. ^ a b Cateforis 2011, p. 254
  42. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 56
  43. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 63
  44. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 57–62
  45. ^ Where Are They Now: '80s New Wave Musicians ABC News 29 November 2007
  46. ^ a b Cateforis 2011, p. 69
  47. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 217–223
  48. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 123–151
  49. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 220
  50. ^ Cateforis 2011
  51. ^ a b Cateforis 2011, pp. 71–94
  52. ^ Adams, Bobby. "Nick Lowe: A Candid Interview", Bomp magazine, January 1979, reproduced at [2]. Retrieved 21 January 2007.
  53. ^ Album Review Look Sharp
  54. ^ Ska Revival by Allmusic
  55. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 95–122
  56. ^ "The Jam Information Pages:The Gigs". Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  57. ^ Power Pop genre Allmusic
  58. ^ Allmusic Post-Punk Essay
  59. ^ Greil Marcus, Ranters and Crowd Pleasers, p.109.
  60. ^ "Punk Rock Brings out a New Wave". Google. Associated Press. 29 October 1977. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  61. ^ D. Rimmer (2003), New Romantics: The Look, London: Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-9396-3 
  62. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 51
  63. ^ Prato, Greg (19 April 2002). "Allmusic bio Yazoo". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "St. James encyclopedia of Pop Culture". Findarticles.com. 29 January 2002. Retrieved 15 May 2011. [dead link]
  65. ^ Thomas, Stephen. "Kajagoogoo Allmusic bio". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  66. ^ Thomas, Stephen. "Allmusic Thompson Twins Allmusic bio". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  67. ^ Synth Britannia BBC 2009
  68. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 152–181
  69. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 185–201
  70. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 203–211
  71. ^ Bondie One Way or Another BBC documentary 2006
  72. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 203
  73. ^ "Anthems of the Blank Generation". Time. 11 July 1977. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  74. ^ Genre Punk/New Wave Allmusic
  75. ^ a b Cateforis 2011, p. 37
  76. ^ American Punk Rock Allmusic
  77. ^ "Is New-Wave Rock on the Way Out?". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  78. ^ Allmusic Whip It Review"But even though most of the listening public took "Whip It" as just a catchy bit of weirdness with nonsensical lyrics about a vaguely sexy topic, the song's actual purpose – like much of Devo's work – was social satire. Putting the somewhat abstract lyrics together, "Whip It" emerges as a sardonic portrait of a general, problematic aspect of the American psyche: the predilection for using force and violence to solve problems, vent frustration, and prove oneself to others"
  79. ^ a b c Rip It Up and Start Again Postpunk 1978–1984 by Simon Reynolds Pages 340,342–343
  80. ^ "1986 Knight Ridder news article". Nl.newsbank.com. 3 October 1986. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  81. ^ Holden, Stephen (15 June 1988). "The Pop Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  82. ^ a b "Rock Still Favorite Teen-Age music". Gainesville Sun. 13 April 1983. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  83. ^ "Crossover: Pop Music thrives on black-white blend". Knight Ridder News Service. 4 September 1986. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  84. ^ "But what does it all mean? How to decode the John Hughes high school movies". The Guardian (UK). 26 September 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  85. ^ Gora, Susannah (7 March 2010). "Why John Hughes Still Matters". MTV. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  86. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 233, reference number 28
  87. ^ "Instant Club Hit – You'll Dance To Anything" by The Dead Milkman 1987
  88. ^ Cateforis 2011, pp. 65–66
  89. ^ Metric Allmusic bio
  90. ^ Strauss, Neil (18 April 1996). "POP REVIEW; Knowing Just How Hard It Is to Be a Teen-Ager,". New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  91. ^ "Coldplay, A-Ha and Mew Members Form Apparatjik". Spinner. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  92. ^ Allmusic Foals bio
  93. ^ Pareles, Jon (7 February 2010). "A British Band's Cerebral Electronics". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  94. ^ Pareles, Jon (27 July 2008). "The Week Ahead". New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  95. ^ "Passion Pit turn up the heat at the Ritz Ybor in Tampa". Blogs.tampabay.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  96. ^ Modular Christmas Party Sydney Morning Herald 1 December 2006 "the "new new wave" of the Presets"
  97. ^ "Ladytron returns with disco heartbreak". Brisbane Times. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  98. ^ "Ladytron Moves Towards the Light | MTV Hive". Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  99. ^ Shiny Toy Guns Allmusic bio
  100. ^ Hockey Allmusic bio
  101. ^ "Gwen Stefani MTV biography". Mtv. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  102. ^ "Gwen Stefani's New Video Hits YouTube". People. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  103. ^ "Indie-rock band The Bravery records all the time and everywhere". The Daily Gazette. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  104. ^ "Daily Disc: The Ting Tings, We Started Nothing,". Network.nationalpost.com. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  105. ^ "Download this: Ting Tings". Minneapolis Star Tribune. 7 June 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  106. ^ "Critics' Choice New CDs,". The New York Times. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  107. ^ "Feathers fly over Ladyhawke's origins". Sydney Morning Herald. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  108. ^ Reynolds, Simon. Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984 p. 398
  109. ^ Tudor, Silke (11 September 2002), House of Tudor, retrieved 25 June 2007 
  110. ^ "MTV Artist biography The Sounds". Mtv. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  111. ^ "Music review: Shy La Roux still brings the party to 9:30 Club". The Washington Post. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  112. ^ Pirnia, Garin (13 March 2010). "Is Chillwave the Next Big Music Trend?". The Wall Street Journal. 
  113. ^ Phares, Heather (28 September 2010). "Forget – Twin Shadow". AllMusic. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  114. ^ Caramanica, Jon (12 July 2011). "Going into the Haze in Their Debut Albums". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 November 2011. 
  115. ^ Lester, Paul (23 September 2008). "No 395: Marina and the Diamonds". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  116. ^ Walters, Barry. "Marina & the Diamonds, 'The Family Jewels' Spin 19 May 2010". Spin.com. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  117. ^ Cateforis, Theo. Are We Not New Wave?: Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. Retrieved 2015-05-24. 
  118. ^ McCasker, Toby (2014-06-22). "Riding the Cyber Doom Synthwave With Perturbator | NOISEY". Noisey.vice.com. Retrieved 2015-05-19. Electronic music has lost a lot of its musicality lately. It's all drops and bass lines looped for five minutes non-stop. Back in the ‘80s, you had classic themes and iconic melodies. I try to take the best of ‘80s music and the best of what modern electro has. The 80s were the golden age of synths too, with master composers like Vangelis and Tangerine Dream, who are huge inspirations for most of us in this genre. There’s this special imagery that comes up in your mind when you think about this decade. There's a lot of ‘80s cliché that I find to be extremely cool, like gory practical effects or over-saturated neon colours. 
  119. ^ D. Lynskey (22 March 2002). "Out with the old, in with the older". Guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011. 
  120. ^ Caramanica, Joe (9 May 2003). "The Electroclash Mix by Larry Tee". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  121. ^ a b Klingman, Jeff (8 August 2012). "10 Electroclash Songs That Still Hold Up in 2012". Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  122. ^ a b Newman, Jason (7 February 2013). "Electroclash: 12 Artists You Need to Know". fuse.tv. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  123. ^ "Electro House". Tumblr. Retrieved 12 June 2012. It was in the early 2000s when a big movement of electroclash being mixed with synthpop. Meanwhile, tech house was also becoming more known and gaining some serious buzz. When the two were combined that is when Electro House came to be the way it is now. ... 'Satisfaction' was one of those songs that people would have stuck in their head for days. This song still continues to receive a lot of attention even now. It won world wide rewards as well as make Benny Benassi the father of Electro House. 
  124. ^ a b The Observer. 5 October 2006 Rousing Rave from the Grave. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
  125. ^ a b BBC News. 3 January 2007. "Sound of 2007: Klaxons". Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  126. ^ The Guardian. 3 February 2007. "The Future's Bright...". Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  127. ^ Times Online. 12 November 2006. "Here We Glo Again". Retrieved 131 February 2009.
  128. ^ Harris, John. 13 October 2006. "New Rave? Old Rubbish". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  129. ^ Entertainment Wise. 1 November 2006. "Klaxons: We're Not New Rave". Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  130. ^ a b c "We Will Rock You: Welcome To The Future. This is Synthwave.". 
  131. ^ a b NerdGlow. "The 7 Most Essential Synthwave Artists". Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  132. ^ McCasker, Toby. "Riding the Cyber Doom Synthwave With Perturbator". Vice (magazine)/Vice. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]