Newaric languages

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Newaric
Geographic
distribution
Nepal
Linguistic classification Sino-Tibetan
  • Newaric
Subdivisions
Glottolog newa1245[1]

The Newaric languages are a proposed group of Sino-Tibetan languages. George van Driem (2003) and Mark Turin (2004) argue that Newar and Baram–Thangmi (consisting of the two closely related languages Baram and Thangmi) share many features with each other, and thus group with each other.

Newaric was part of van Driem's (2001) Mahakiranti branch. However, this proposed grouping was retracted in van Driem (2003), who maintained that the Newaric is likely a group, but is not closely related to the Kiranti languages. van Driem (2003) notes that similarities between Kiranti and Newaric due to shared retentions from Proto-Sino-Tibetan rather than from a more recent common ancestor.

Comparative vocabulary[edit]

The following comparative 100-word Swadesh list of the Newaric languages Baram, Thami (Thangmi), and Newar, along with Chepang is from Kansakar, et al. (2011: 220-223).[2]

English gloss Baram Thami Newar Chepang
I ŋa gai ji ŋa
you naŋ naŋ cʰə, cʰi naŋ
we ni ni jʰi:, jipĩ ni, ŋi
this yo ka tʰwə ʔiʔ
that u, to to ʔowʔ, ʔuwʔ
who su su su su
what hai hara cʰu doh
not ma- ma- mə-, -mə- -la, -ma
all səpəi (< Nep.) sakale pʰukkə, dakkwə juda, ʔanə
many dʰerəi (< Nep.) ahe ye-kwə ʔa.nə
one de di cʰə-gu yat
two nis nis nyi-gu nis
large alam jekʰa tə:dʰə̃: taŋh-ʔo
long alam ələmga tahakə: gyaŋ-ʔo
small ikine ucya cidʰi:, cidʰə:̃ mi-ʔo
woman mama camaica misa nom-coʔ
man papa mi mijə̃ goy-coʔ
person bal mi mənu manta, coʔ
fish nəŋa naŋa nya ŋaʔ
bird jyali, wa (hen) ḍaŋaṇeŋ, wa (hen) jʰə̃gə: waʔ
dog akya kucu kʰyica kuyʔ
louse kʰat sirik syi kras, srəyk
tree seŋma seŋ syi-ma siŋʔ
seed ayu puya pusa sayʔ
leaf su/hola aja ləpte, hə: lo, mat
root jəra (< Nep.) nara ha rut, goyʔ
bark bokra (< Nep.) sebu (skin) kʰwəla pun
skin cʰala (< Nep.) sebi cʰẽgu pun
meat kusya cici la mayʔ
blood cihwui cwoi, cəi hi wəyʔ
bone hoṭ kʰosa kwəẽ hrus
fat ucʰo cʰyəu, cyou da: cʰaw
egg wohom, wom ahum, wom kʰẽ: ʔum
horn uyuŋ naru nyeku roŋʔ
tail pitik limek nʰipyə̃: meʔ
feather pwãkʰ (< Nep.) - pəpu meʔ, pʰeh
hair syam sam sə̃: myaŋ
head kəpu kapu cʰyə̃: ta.laŋ
ear kuna kunla nʰaepə̃ no
eye mik mesek mikʰa mik
nose cina ciŋa nʰae neh
mouth anam ugo mʰutu hmo.toŋ
teeth swa suwa wa syək, səyk
tongue cele cile mye le
nail luŋjiŋ, ləgjuŋ pin lusyi sən
leg unjik konṭe, ulaŋ tuti dom
knee gʰũḍa (< Nep.) pokolek puli kryoŋ
hand hit lak lʰa: krut
abdomen uyaŋ baŋkal, guŋguŋ pwa: tuk
throat gʰãṭi (< Nep.) kaṇṭu gəpə: kəyk
breast nənu nunu duru-pwə ʔoh
heart muṭu loŋsek nugə hluŋ
liver kəlejo (< Nep.) - syẽ sinh
drink syaŋ-go tun-sa twəne, twənə tuŋʔ-na
eat ca-go cya-sa nələ, nəye jeʔ-na
bite aŋak-ko cek-sa nyatə, wã nyaye ŋawh-na
look ayo-go, ni-go yo-sa kʰənə, kʰəne yo-na, cewʔ-na
hear səi-go na-sai-sa talə, taye sayʔ-na
know ra-go, cigo sai-sa silə, syiye ci-na
sleep nu-go ammi-sa denə, dene ʔenʔ-sa
die si-go si-sa sitə, syie si-sa
kill sat-ko sat-sa syatə, syae sat-sa
swim pəuri bəne-go (< Nep.) lampasa lalkalə/kaye laʔ-na, kwelh-na
fly uble-go per-sa bwələ, bwəye syuŋ-na
walk jyo-go, ya-go (go) cawa-sa, ajyaca nya:se, wənə, wəye wah-na
arrive hyuŋcelgo kelet-sa wələ, jʰalə waŋ-na
lie na-go ami-sa mu:pulə, ʔenʔ-na
sit huk-ko hok-sa dilə, pʰetuye cuŋʔ-na
stand ṭʰiŋ-go tʰeŋ-sa dənə, dane ciŋ-na
give pi-go pi-sa bila, biye bəyʔ-na, hla-na
say da-go ŋa-sa, isdu dʰalə, dʰaye dayh-na
sun uni uni surdyə: nyam
moon cəlauni cəlauni timla lah
star tara (< Nep.) ucʰi nəu, nəgu kar
water awa paŋku lə: tiʔ
rain aŋmət yudu wa tiʔ, waʔ-ʔo
stone kumba lyuŋ, liŋ lwəhã baŋ
sand - - pʰi -
earth nəsa nasa ca saʔ
cloud amu kʰasu supãe mus
smoke isku asku hmeʔ-ku
fire mui me mi hmeʔ
ash mau tarba nəu hmeʔ-mut
burn jo-go jyou-sa cyatə, cyaye jʰəm-na
way/path uŋma ulam lyam
mountain pahaḍ cyuri (top) pahar pa.har
red pʰəya keret hyãũ du-ʔo
green həriyo (< Nep.) - wãũ pli-ʔo
yellow keuwo melu mʰasu yar-ʔo
white gyabo ubo tuyu: bʰam-ʔo
black ciliŋ kiji haku gal-ʔo
night rat (< Nep.) ṭa canʰəe, ca ya. ʔdiŋ
hot gyodum adum kwa: dʰah-ʔo
cool ciso (< Nep.) ajik kʰwaũ nik-ʔo
full kipoŋ ir-ir ja: bliŋ-ʔo
new kaui naka nʰu: rəw-ʔo
good kisen apraca bʰĩ: pe-ʔo
round golo (< Nep.) kurliŋ gwəlla: luŋ-o, gore
dried kyoksi areŋ, gaŋdu gə̃gu sot-ʔo
name umin name məyŋ

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Newaric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Kansakar, Tej Ratna; Yogendra Prasad Yadava; Krishna Prasad Chalise; Balaram Prasain; Dubi Nanda Dhakal; Krishna Paudel. 2011. A sociolinguistic study of the Baram language. Himalayan Linguistics 10: 187-225.
  • van Driem, George (2001). Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12062-4. 
  • van Driem, George (2003). "Mahakiranti revisited: Mahakiranti or Newaric?" (PDF). In Kansakar, Tej Ratna; Turin, Mark. Themes in Himalayan Languages and Linguistics. Heidelberg and Kathmandu: South Asia Institute and Tribhuvan University. pp. 21–26. ISBN 978-99933-54-16-1. 
  • Turin, Mark (2004). "Newar-Thangmi lexical correspondences and the linguistic classification of Thangmi". Journal of Asian and African Studies. 68: 97–120. hdl:10108/20207.