Newark High School (Delaware)
|Newark High School|
750 East Delaware Avenue
|Motto||Excellence is the Expectation|
|School district||Christina School District|
|Principal||Aaron Selekman (2016—present)|
|Faculty||64 (FTE) (2019-2020)|
|Student to teacher ratio||16.55 (2019-2020)|
|Campus||Semi-urban (small city)|
|Color(s)||Black and gold|
|Athletics conference||Blue Hen Conference - Flight A|
|Mascot||Yellowjacket (named Buzz)|
|Athletics||24 varsity sports (1 club sport)|
Newark High School is a public high school in Newark, Delaware, and is one of three high schools within the Christina School District. It is one of the oldest educational institutions in the state, graduating its first class of students in 1893. In 2009, it saw its 20,000th student graduate.
Newark has been named by Newsweek magazine as one of their "Top Schools in America." In 2006 Newark was ranked #521, in 2007 it was #271, and in 2008 it was #1041. This list represents the top 5% of the schools in the nation based on the number of AP, IB, and Cambridge exams taken divided by students graduating. The school was also named a GRAMMY Signature School in 2010 by the GRAMMY Foundation for its outstanding commitment to music education. Newark won the DIAA Sportsmanship Award in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006.
The school serves a portion of Wilmington. In the suburbs it serves almost all of Newark, most of Brookside, and the Christina School District portions of North Star, Pike Creek, and Pike Creek Valley. Within Wilmington it serves the Church Street Historic District.
The first incarnation of what became Newark High School was located at 83 East Main Street in downtown Newark. The building itself belonged to the Unified School District and was erected by the town in 1884 at a cost of $10,000. When it was built, students wishing to pursue an education past the eighth grade would have had to move to nearby Wilmington, Delaware, or attend private schools, like the nearby Newark Academy.
Originally intended to instruct students through eighth grade, the building began college preparation (high school level) classes on the second floor of the building in the early 1890s. The first graduating class consisted of nine students in 1893, nearly matching the number of faculty members at the time (five).
Slowly, as the town began to grow, conditions began to get cramped at 83 East Main Street. When the school (and its 185 students from first through twelfth grade) moved to a larger facility in 1898, 83 East Main Street remained the school district's primary school until the 1920s, served as part of the high school's vocational program until the 1950s, and became the headquarters for the Newark Special School District through 1981. When the Christina School District was created in 1981, the location was absorbed by the new district and continued to be used as the district headquarters until 2004.
The building is currently owned by the University of Delaware, which renovated the building in 2011 and currently serves as its primary bookstore. This building has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1982 and as such the exterior of the building will remain intact.
In 1898, the school population moved to the recently vacated Academy of Newark Building at the corner of Main and Academy Streets in Newark. The Newark Academy, which had previously occupied the building, had closed the previous year. The building itself was constructed in 1843 and was originally home to the Academy of Newark, a predecessor to the University of Delaware.
While at the Academy Building, the only prolonged educational interruption in Newark's history occurred. During October 1918, classes were suspended for three weeks due to the Spanish flu, which was particularly bad in the Philadelphia metro area. No students or faculty members are believed to have died from the influenza pandemic in 1918. A total of 109 students attended Newark that year (28 of whom were seniors) under the direction of seven faculty members.
The daily routine at the Newark Public School (as it was called then) started at 8 am and ended at 4 pm. All sports games and practices were held behind Wolf Hall on the University of Delaware campus since they had the only available sports fields in the area at the time. Various traditions, most notably the first documented prom at Wolf Hall in 1923, began during this period in Newark's history.
As the school continued to grow, a report on Delaware schools conducted by Columbia University ended up spurring the local community to build a more modern facility. The report listed various problems, calling the building an "inadequate fire trap" with "narrow halls", "inaccessible" outhouses and a basement "deep in mud and water."
Currently, the Newark Academy Building belongs to the University of Delaware and is home to the Office of Public Relations. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1976.
The third incarnation of what became known as Newark High School (housing grades one through twelve) was built in 1924 at a cost of $417,225 off of High Street (later renamed Academy Street). Local philanthropist Pierre S. DuPont was one of the main benefactors of the district when it sought construction money for the building, donating $125,000.
A few blocks away on New London Road, the Newark Colored School was built for the African-American population of Newark for $36,250. Over 50% of the cost, about $19,000, was donated once again by DuPont, making the Newark Colored School one of the most expensive one room schoolhouses in the country (although it still paled in comparison in terms of facilities and faculty).
While at the High Street address, Newark saw the birth of the school newspaper, The Yellowjacket Buzz, in 1936. The paper was originally produced monthly, and by the 1940s it was published twice a month. It was sold for 10 cents a copy. Originally starting as a supplement in the Buzz, the first yearbook (the Krawen) was published in 1941. The paper-covered book was 60 pages long and contained advertisements to help keep the cost to students down. Both the Buzz and Krawen are among the oldest continuously running student-run publications in Delaware.
The first documented senior class trip, which stayed in the Lafayette Hotel in Washington, D.C. after traveling by train, took place in 1938. The following year, the Class of 1939 traveled to New York City and visited the 1939 World's Fair. As a sign of the growing nature of NHS, 1939 was also the first year with split lunches.
When World War II arrived, many faculty members (and eventually several students) were either drafted or enlisted in the military. Several members of the Class of 1944 were called upon to teach classes due to a shortage of available teachers. Arthur Gribble, William Lehman, Anthony Gaskiewicz, Ollie Salminen, Oliver Suddard, and Eugene Campbell (Class of 1944); Frank Sanborn, Walter "Cueball" Martin, Howard Dean, "Ebbie" Lewis, "Alex" Zabenko, Robert Davis, Gerald Gilston, Lewis McCormick, Henry Hammond, Hugh McKinney, Herbert Murphy, Oscar Pickett and Thomas Runk (Class of 1945) all enlisted in the service prior to their graduations. Another long-term impact on student life at Newark began as Driver's Education became a class in 1944.
Following the war, an influx of families to the city of Newark (which only increased with the building of I-95 nearby) caused the student population to swell at a rate of nearly 15% a year between 1945 and 1960. Enrollment jumped at NHS from 586 in 1956 to 1096 in 1960. This growth eventually led to calls for a newer facility, which was completed in 1956.
The High Street building was transformed into Central Middle School following the move and continued to serve the Newark community until 1981. In 1983, it was sold to the University of Delaware, who rededicated the building in 1994 as Pearson Hall. It currently houses the Geography Department, the Communications Department, and SLTV (UD's student-run television network).
The site of the Newark Colored School was bought by the City of Newark following the integration of both populations in 1956. The building, now known as the George Wilson Center, is still used by the City of Newark for meetings and events.
With an increasing population in the city and the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling, the current incarnation of Newark High School opened as an integrated school able to serve a student population of around 1,000. At a cost of $3,532,312.24, the facility at 750 East Delaware Avenue was completed in 1956. It was not quite ready for the first day of school, and split sessions were used to begin the year. In October 1956, the 10–12th graders came to the Academy Street address, collected their books and walked a half mile to the new school.
The school itself was later expanded in 1970 in order to accommodate additional growth, adding the three story E and D wings, a second cafeteria, a new library, and a second gym, which was among the largest in the area at the time. The only difference in the classrooms between the old wing and the new wing was the lack of a teacher office in the classroom. Christiana High School was also opened in 1963 to alleviate overcrowding concerns at Newark. With the expansion, ninth grade was added to the building.
1962 also saw the beginning of athletic excellence in cross country when the Yellowjackets won both the Blue Hen Conference and State Championships for the first time in school history. Led by a trio of phenoms, Jake Correll (the Machine), Sami Bandak (the Spark Plug) and Jonathan Owens (The Big O), Newark defeated Brandywine High School 23–32 for the Conference Crown and earned the State title by 76-77 over Salesianum.
In 1995, a random spectator broke his watch when he punched the wall during a basketball game. His legacy lives on to this day. Today, Newark features four classroom wings on three floors (103 classrooms in all), five administrative centers, two cafeterias, two gyms, a telecommunications studio (which started cable-casting in 1970), a distance learning lab, a Wellness Center (since 1994), nearly 800 computers available for student use, a library (with 20,000 books), and a 700-seat auditorium.
Despite its location within the city limits of Newark, by the 1970s Newark was known, at least in ag circles, as “the farm school” in the state of Delaware. At its height, NHS had five ag teachers at that time, owned and harvested crop fields, and had a working farm shop. The centerpiece of this program was (and still is) the greenhouse behind the school, which is the largest in the state.
The campus' athletic facilities include a 400-meter track and field with shot-put and discus throwing areas; long, triple, and high jump facilities and a pole-vaulting area; a soccer field that doubles as the baseball field's outfield; a football field that doubles as a soccer and lacrosse field; two softball fields and six tennis courts. The building was last renovated in 1998, although several capital improvements, such as central air for the entire building, were approved in a 2002 referendum and completed in 2006.
Newark hosted a Millennium Reunion in June 2000. The event was the brainchild of NHS 1978 grad the late Kay Cole Buglass, and welcomed alumni from all graduating years up till 2000. The event was hosted by many volunteer organizations including the then-active Army JROTC unit, the Key Club and many volunteer alumni. The event was a big success that was complemented by the book Buzzing through the Years, authored by Kay, who had written the book to complement the reunion and to provide a detailed history of Newark High School for its alumni. Two copies of this book were provided to the high school's library. The Millennium Reunion was instrumental in the reunion committee receiving an award from the Delaware House of Representatives for building better school spirit. It also revitalized the dormant NHS Alumni Association.
Despite the school's large student population (the third largest in the state), the school currently occupies the smallest area of any high school in the state - a site which would be prohibited if the construction had taken place today (due to various land sales, expansions of the building, and the Christina Transportation lot "eating" away at the original area). Many of the school's sports teams practice at nearby middle schools due to space limitations.
Parking is also extremely limited due to space limitations. Attempts to rectify the parking situation have placed Newark in the news during periods of high enrollment, most notably disagreements between the school's student population and local businesses in the College Square Shopping Center in 2004 and the failed 2006 referendum that included a proposal for building a $12 million parking garage on the site of the current parking lot. Due to redistricting and demographic changes (fewer students in the attendance area) in the late 2000s, this problem has largely disappeared as an issue amongst the student body.
In the spring of 2007 the lighting system for Hoffman Stadium was deemed unsafe by the school district. Due to financial restraints, the district was unwilling to pay for the repairs, instead turning to the school community to raise the funds. The football booster club raised $67,000 through donations to repair the system, notably receiving checks from notable football alumni Kwame Harris and the National Football League. Newark was one of the first high schools in the state to install stadium lighting in 1987 and Friday evening football has become a tradition at the school. Similar renovations, largely made through donations from boosters and notable alumni, improved the baseball field in 2007, installed a new basketball court floor in the West Gym in 2010, and installed new sports bleachers in the West Gym in 2012.
The Newark School District came into existence under the direction of the City of Newark in 1919. Following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling, the Newark School District was placed into the jurisdiction of the State of Delaware.
However, the Delaware public school system was redistricted in 1981 following the 1978 U.S. Supreme Court ruling of Evans v. Buchanan (1978 US, 439 U.S. 1360), which found that inequalities still existed and that Delaware schools were not adequately desegregated. Newark High School at that time became part of the Christina School District, which it remains part of today.
Although Newark was desegregated prior to the ruling, with the creation of the Christina School District in 1981, students from the City of Wilmington were bussed to the school, increasing the minority representation in the school. A change in feeder patterns took place in the 2010-2011 school year as the Christina School District reorganized to meet Delaware's Neighborhood Schools Act.
- All information for this section can be found at the Delaware School profile page.
|White, not Hispanic||42.3%||46.3%||46.8%||47.2%||49.4%||49.3%||52.7%||53.6%||56.2%|
|Black, not Hispanic||36.0%||34.4%||34.0%||35.8%||35.8%||35.7%||33.0%||33.2%||31.8%|
|Native American/Alaskan Native/Hawaiian Native||0.2%||0.3%||0.2%||0.3%||0.1%||0.0%||0.1%||0.4%||0.4%|
- As of the 2012-2013 school year the student to teacher ratio was 16 to 1.
- As of the 2012-2013 school year the percentage of students listed as "English language learner" was 2.5% (down 0.8% compared to the previous year).
- As of the 2012-2013 school year 48% of the student population was listed as "low income" (up 4.7% compared to the previous year).
- As of the 2012-2013 school year 8.1% of the student population was listed as "special education" (up 1.1% compared to the previous year).
|Ethnicity||Percentage of staff||Years of teaching experience||Percentage of staff|
|White, not Hispanic||81.1%||Less than 4 years||24.0%|
|Black, not Hispanic||16.2%||5 to 9 years||21.0%|
|Hispanic||1.8%||10 to 19 years||35.0%|
|Asian American||0.0%||20 to 29 years||14.0%|
|Native American/Alaskan Native||0.9%||30 or more years||6.0%|
- As of the 2011-2012 school year 111 teachers/instructional staff were allocated for NHS.
- As of the 2011-2012 school year all teachers/instructional staff were deemed "highly qualified" by the State of Delaware.
- As of the 2011-2012 school year 46.0% of the instructional staff held a master's degree or higher.
- As of the 2011-2012 school year 6.1% of the instructional staff were NBPTS (National Board for Professional Teaching Standards) certified.
Newark State Testing scores (10th grade)
|2014 score||2014 News Journal rank|
|Math||867||13/38 (was 17th in '13)|
|Reading||852||19/38 (was 14th in '13)|
|2014 score||2013 score||2012 score||2011 score||2010 score||2009 score||2008 score||2007 score||2006 score||2005 score||2004 score||2003 score||2002 score|
|Math||867 (69%)||859 (69%)||854 (63%)||838 (50%)||533 (54%)||531 (51%)||532 (54%)||523 (56%)||530 (54%)||531 (49%)||538 (55%)||536 (59%)||521 (43%)|
|Reading||852 (69%)||852 (72%)||833 (61%)||819 (51%)||507 (60%)||513 (62%)||514 (64%)||521 (72%)||511 (63%)||518 (67%)||522 (73%)||520 (73%)||511 (62%)|
- Rankings are created by The News Journal and are not used by DOE for classification. They are computed based on the DSTP performances by all Delaware Public High Schools, so while an individual school may score higher or lower from year to year, the ranking indicates how other schools did on the same exam.
- DSTP transitioned to a new web-based test called DCAS in 2011. A new scoring system was developed since the test was taken three times over the course of the school year.
Newark SAT scores
|Class of '12||Class of '11||Class of '10||Class of '09||Class of '08||Class of '07||Class of '06|
- Class of '11, '12, and '13 scores will include the scores of all students at the school. One of the features of Delaware's successful Race to the Top application was that all public school students would have a special SAT given during school to 11th graders during the month of April (see below).
Newark School Day SAT scores
|2012 scores||2011 scores|
Newark AP Exam scores
|# of AP courses offered||# of students taking exams||# of exams taken||# of exams with a 3 or higher||% of passing scores|
- In 2005, 2006, 2011, and 2012 the Christina School District paid the registration fees for any student currently enrolled in an AP class who wished to take the exam.
America's Top Schools Ranking (calculated by Newsweek and The Daily Beast)
|National rank (top 5% schools)||Rank within Delaware (35 possible)||% graduating with a passing grade on the national exam|
- Advanced Placement courses offered are English Language, French Language, Human Geography, Spanish Language, Statistics, Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Music Theory, World History, English Literature, US History, European History, AP Biology, Physics B, American Government and Politics, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Psychology, Macroeconomics, and Microeconomics.
- In order to make Advanced Placement courses available to all students (and to encourage students to take the exam), the Christina School District paid the Registration fee for all exams in 2005 and 2006. This has resulted in a surge of new courses being offered while also increasing the number of students enrolled in the various AP programs. These changes are reflected in Newark's inclusion on Newsweek's "Top Schools In America" list for the first time in March 2006. Newark's ranking rose nearly 200 places the following year, when Newsweek published the 2007 rankings in May.
- The school remained on Newsweek's "Top Schools" list in 2008, even after the district discontinued the payment program. Newark's AP program was featured in a December 2006 News Journal article discussing the rise in students from all groups taking the test.
- Starting with the 2007 tests (2006-2007 school year), students had to pay the registration fee(s) on their own unless they have a "special financial situation" that precludes them from affording the test. In such a case, the district will make-up the cost of registration.
- Newark also has a large cadre of students involved in the Cambridge Program. The program began during the 2006-2007 school year in ninth grade and expanded to include tenth grade the following year. Newark is the first (and only) Delaware High School to have such a program. Newark's participation in this program was highlighted in a January 2007 News Journal article. Cambridge participation stopped counting as part of the Newsweek calculation in 2009.
- Newark has been a PBS (Positive Behavior Support) school since 2005 and an AVID school since 2008.
State Championship Victories since 1942 (39 total) - Blue Hen Conference "Flight A" school 
- Football (1976, 1984, 1985, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, and 2004)
- Girls' swimming and diving (1978, 1980, 1981, 1989, 1990, 1992, 2003, and 2004)
- Baseball (1970, 1971, 1974, 1984, 1990, and 1996)
- NHS baseball last reached the state championship game in 2003 and 2004 (lost both).
- Volleyball (1976, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, and 1990)
- Boys' basketball (1982, 1987, and 1990)
- NHS basketball last reached the state championship game in 2011 (lost).
- Boys' cross country (1962, 1971)
- NHS Boys' cross country finished 2nd in the DIAA Championship in 2002, 2012 and 2013.
- Boys' swimming and diving (2005)
- Boys' indoor track and field (2004)
- Boys' tennis (1996)
- Softball (1977)
Newark teams that have not won a state championship
- Girls' basketball
- Girls' cross country
- Field hockey
- Boys' lacrosse
- Girls' lacrosse
- Boys' soccer
- Girls' soccer
- Girls' tennis
- Girls' indoor track and field
- Boys' outdoor track and field
- Girls' outdoor track and field
- Ice hockey (Delaware Scholastic Hockey Association)
- Boys' volleyball
- Anime Club - publishes a yearly publication called Wired
- Best Buddies - forms one-to-one relationships with those who are disabled
- Business Professionals of America (BPA)
- Chess Club
- Christians in Action
- Debate Club
- DECA - marketing, management, finance, entrepreneurship
- FCCLA (Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America)
- FFA (Future Farmers of America)
- Future Millionaire's Club
- German Club
- Global Perspective
- Junior Achievement (JA) - won the 2007 "JA Banks in Action" North American Tournament)
- Jefferson Award committee - won the 2010 "Most Improved School" for Delaware
- Junior State of America (JSA)
- Key Club
- Marching Band
- Math League
- Metaphysics Conference Club
- Model U.N. (MUN) - run through the YMCA, but many students are active in it
- National Honor Society
- National Art Honor Society
- Newark Nature Society
- Newark Science and Engineering Club
- Newspaper - Yellowjacket Buzz, established in 1937
- Rude Mechanicals - improv troupe, performs throughout the school year
- Science Olympiad
- Spanish Club
- Student Government
- Track Nine - a cappella group
- WNHS Television Crew - on the air since 1970 (5,000th show took place in May 2010)
- Yearbook - Krawen, published since 1941
- Young Democrats
- Youth in Government - run through the YMCA, but many students are active in it
In 1988 Wilmer E. Shue Middle School fed into Newark High, but it was physically located within the Christina High attendance boundary, while no middle schools were physically in the Newark High attendance boundary.
- Krawen (the name of the yearbook) is "Newark" backwards.
- When the current building opened in 1956, the current Main Office served as the school's library. It remained so until the 1970 renovation, which created the D and E wings. All of the older class rooms (in the B and C wings) have small offices attached to each room.
- Gym classes at Newark used to be divided by gender. When the second gym (West Gym) was built in 1970, it became the "Boys' Gym" while the smaller East Gym became the "Girls' Gym".
- The Newark football team played (and won) the highest scoring game in state history against Smyrna in 1929, 114-0.
- Newark has only had nine principals in its long history: Kutz (1946–1969), Freidly (1969–1974, 1987), Stockebrand (1974–1979), McIntosh (1979–1987), Hagen (1988–2002), Rieman (2002–2004), Caulk (2004–2007), and Bedford (July 2007 – July 2016). Aaron Selekman (2016–present) is the current principal at Newark High School. Before 1946, the principal of Newark High School was also the superintendent of the Newark Public School District.
- Newark H.S. received national attention in October 2005 when two members of the Philadelphia Eagles promoted a Christian concert during a school-sanctioned assembly. Although not planned, the resulting fervor led to NHS being the center of a 1st Amendment (public schools and religious expression) debate.
- This Wikipedia entry was featured in the October 2006 edition of NEA Today. The article was entitled "Getting Wiki With It."
- Melissa Bulanhagui (2008), figure skater
- George V. Chalmers (1927), college athlete
- Katherine Ciesinski (1968), mezzo-soprano
- Zach Clark (2001), minor league baseball player
- Brandy Davis (1941), former MLB player
- Chris Dunn (1968), 1972 Olympic high jumper
- Robert W. Gore (1955), inventor
- Kwame Harris (2000), former NFL player
- Orien Harris (2001), former NFL player
- Conway Hayman (1967), former NFL player
- Gary Hayman (1969), former NFL player
- Brian Lesher (1989), former MLB player
- Jack Markell (1978), governor of Delaware
- Derrick May (1986), former MLB player
- Rich Parson, football player
- David Raymond, former (and original) Phillie Phanatic
- Terence Stansbury, former NBA player
- Johnny Weir (2002), 2006 and 2010 Olympic figure skater, three-time National Champion
- Vic Willis (1896), former MLB player, inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1995
- "Newark High School". National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- America's Top Public High Schools | Newsweek Best High Schools | Newsweek.com
- America's Top Public High Schools
- GRAMMY Foundation
- "Urban High Schools" (PDF). Christina School District. 2011-06-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-27. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
Older map: "City of Wilmington Feeder Pattern, Grades 9-12". Christina School District. 2002-11-21. Archived from the original on 2002-11-21. Retrieved 2021-06-22.
- "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: New Castle County, DE" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2021-06-18.
- "Suburban High Schools" (PDF). Christina School District. 2008-07-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-27. Retrieved 2021-06-22.
Earlier map: "Christina School District Suburban Feeder Pattern, Grades 9-12". Christina School District. 2002-11-21. Archived from the original on 2002-11-21. Retrieved 2021-06-22.
- "Church Street Historic District". National Park Service. Retrieved 2021-07-04.
718-720 Church Street
- https://web.archive.org/web/20110717141904/http://www.udreview.com/web-updates/ud-bookstore-to-relocate-to-main-street-1.554077. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Missing or empty
- "History of Leasure". May B. Leasure Elementary School. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
- Newark Public School
- Newark Colored School
- According to Delaware code (14 Del. C. 1953, § 2303)
- Besso, Michele. "With lots full, students bend rules." The News Journal 14 Nov. 2004: B1+.
- Wilson, Lauren. "Football Tradition in danger at Newark High" ABC 6's Action News 31 July 2007: http://abclocal.go.com/wpvi/story?section=news/local&id=5525797
- Finney, Mike. "Newark lags in fundraising to fix stadium's lights." The News Journal 20 July 2007: http://www.delawareonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070720/SPORTS1431/707200379
- "State Report Cards - Delaware Department of Education".
- "2014 School Test Scores".
- "Hotmail, Outlook en Skype inloggen - Laatste nieuws - MSN Nederland". Archived from the original on 2006-08-16.
- "Delaware High School State Team Champions: a searchable database of title winners since 1942". The News Journal. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- "Delaware High School Team State Champions: A searchable database of title winners since 1942". Football State Champion list. The News Journal. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- Collins, Don (2006-08-30). "Winningest football coach at 532 and not about to stop". See table at bottom of page. USA Today. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
(Article printed 2006-08-30)
- "Newark High Football Stats (since 2006-2007 school year)". MaxPreps.com. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- "Global Investment Bank and Financial Services | Citi".
- Dennison, Sandy (1988-10-29). "Christina reassignment plans present challenge". The Morning News. Wilmington, Delaware. p. A3. - Clipping from Newspapers.com.
- Pope, Kristian. "At last, Mayer gets call from Del. Hall" The News Journal 17 May 2007: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:tb9R0NoIJywJ:www.delawareonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article%3FAID%3D/20070513/SPORTS07/705130357+%22duct+tape+is+the+lifeline%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us
- "H.S. Sorry after Eagles talk Christianity at assembly". 2005-10-27.