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Newburgh Bay is in the Hudson River approximately 60 miles (105 km) north of New York City, just upriver from the Hudson Highlands. It takes its name from Newburgh, for many years the major port on this section of the river.
Between Newburgh and Beacon the river is almost two miles (3.2 km) in width, not as wide as Haverstraw Bay to the south but wide enough that it was the last section of the Hudson to be bridged when the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge was opened in November 1963. Its maximum depth is 80 feet (24 m).
The recently restored Newburgh-Beacon Ferry also makes passenger-only trips between both cities during commuting hours in the morning and evening for riders on the Metro North Hudson Line's Beacon station.
Other towns on the bay are New Windsor (once the leading port) and the village of Cornwall-on-Hudson, both on the west (Orange County) side. At its north end, also on the west bank, are Central Hudson's Roseton and Danskammer power plants, within the Town of Newburgh. Both plants are now owned by the Dynegy Company.