Newcastle–Ottawa scale

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In statistics, the Newcastle–Ottawa scale is a tool used for assessing the quality of non-randomized studies included in a systematic review and/or meta-analyses. Using the tool, each study is judged on eight items, categorized into three groups: the selection of the study groups; the comparability of the groups; and the ascertainment of either the exposure or outcome of interest for case-control or cohort studies respectively. Stars awarded for each quality item serve as a quick visual assessment. Stars are awarded such that the highest quality studies are awarded up to nine stars. The method was developed as a collaboration between the University of Newcastle, Australia, and the University of Ottawa, Canada, using a Delphi process to define variables for data extraction. The scale was then tested on systematic reviews and further refined.[1] Separate tools were developed for cohort and case–control studies. It has also been adapted for prevalence studies.[2][3][4]


  1. ^ Deeks JJ, Dinnes J, D'Amico R, Sowden AJ, Sakarovitch C, Song F, et al. (2003). "Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies" (PDF). Health Technol Assess. 7 (27): 27. doi:10.3310/hta7270.
  2. ^ Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Ramos, Marco A.; Torre, Matthew; Segal, J. Bradley; Peluso, Michael J.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A. (2016-12-06). "Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA. 316 (21): 2214–2236. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.17324. ISSN 1538-3598. PMC 5613659. PMID 27923088.
  3. ^ Douglas A. Mata, Marco A. Ramos, Narinder Bansal, Rida Khan, Constance Guille, Emanuele Di Angelantonio & Srijan Sen (2015). "Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 314 (22): 2373–2383. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15845. PMC 4866499. PMID 26647259.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Torre, Matthew; Ramos, Marco A.; Rosales, Rachael C.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A. (September 18, 2018). "Prevalence of Burnout Among Physicians: A Systematic Review". JAMA. 320 (11): 1131–1150. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.12777. ISSN 1538-3598. PMC 6233645. PMID 30326495.

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