Newfoundland one cent

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One-cent Newfoundland type set
Victoria Cent (1885)
Edward VII Cent (1904)
George V Cent (1936)
George VI Cent (1942)

As Newfoundland did not join Canada until 1949, it had its own currency for many decades. It adopted its own decimal currency in 1863. Compared to other pre-Confederation British colonies, it had a wide selection of decimal coinage (including a twenty cent coin). The most important coin in Newfoundland was the Spanish American dollar (the 8-real piece), therefore, the Newfoundland government set its dollar equal in value to this coin. The new decimal cent was equal to the British halfpenny and $4.80 was equal to one pound sterling.[1]

Queen Victoria Laureated Portrait, 1865-1876[edit]

Specifications[edit]

Years Designers Engraver Composition Weight Diameter
1865-1876 Leonard C. Wyon and Horace Morehen Thomas J. Minton .95 copper, .04 tin, .01 zinc 5.67 grams 25.53 mm

Mintages[edit]

Year and Mint Mark Mintage
1865 240,000
1872H 200,000
1873 200,000
1876H 200,000

1880-1896[edit]

Varieties of 1880: Three date varieties exist for 1880. The first has a narrow 0 in the date, while the second and the third have a wide 0 in different positions.[2] Position of the Wide 0 would be either evenly placed or low compared to the other numbers.

Mintages[edit]

Year and Mint Mark Mintage
1880 400,000
1885 40,000
1888 50,000
1890 200,000
1894 200,000
1896 200,000

Edward VII 1904-1909[edit]

The reverse design was a slight modification of the Victorian reverse. Instead of the Imperial State Crown, it was replaced by St. Edward’s crown. The effigy of King Edward VII was similar to most Canadian coins of the era. The difference with the Newfoundland coinage is that the bust on the effigy is larger and the letter size in the legend is very small.[3]

Specifications[edit]

Designer Engraver Composition Weight Diameter
G.W. DeSaulles W.H.J. Blakemore .95 copper, .04 tin, .01 zinc 5.67 grams 25.53 mm

Mintages[edit]

Date and Mint Mark Mintage
1904H 100,000
1907 200,000
1909 200,000

George V 1913-1936[edit]

The reverse for these coins is exactly the same as those for the Edward VII coins. The effigy of King George V was the same as the effigies for Canadian coins. Any coins that were manufactured at the Ottawa Mint have a C Mint Mark to signify it.[4]

Specifications[edit]

Designer Engraver Composition (1913-1920) Composition (1926-1936) Weight Diameter (1913, 1929-1936) Diameter (1917-1920)
Sir E.B. MacKennal Sir E.B. MacKennal .95 copper, .04 tin, .01 zinc .955 copper, .030 tin, .015 zinc 5.67 grams 25.53 mm 25.40 mm

Mintages[edit]

Date and Mint Mark Mintage
1913 400,000
1917C 702,350
1919C 300,000
1920C 302,184
1929 300,000
1936 300,000

George VI 1938-1947[edit]

In 1937, the government of Newfoundland reviewed the option of converting to a smaller cent. The arguments in favour of it were cost-related. The new reverse would feature the Pitcher plant, a plant very native to Newfoundland, although many felt that the coin was too small and the plant had an unnatural look. During World War II, Newfoundland cents were manufactured in Ottawa rather than in England. This was done to avoid the risks of transatlantic shipping. Although coins manufactured in Ottawa between 1940 and 1947 have a C Mint Mark to signify that the coins were manufactured in Ottawa, the C Mint Mark does not exist on the 1940 and 1942 issues.[5]

Specifications[edit]

Designer Engraver Composition Weight Diameter
Percy Metcalfe Walter J. Newman .955 copper, .030 tin, .015 zinc 3.24 grams 19.05 mm

Mintages[edit]

Date and Mint Mark Mintage
1938 500,000
1940 300,000
1941C 827,662
1942 1,996,889
1943C 1,239,732
1944C 1,328,776
1947C 313,772

The 1940 and 1941 both have re-engraved or repunched varieties. The whole date is sometimes visible as re-engraved and sometimes only the 4 followed by the 0 or 1. Numbers of the re engraved 1940 and 1941 struck are included in the overall mintage figures. Re-engraved varieties are much rarer and are therefore more desirable to collectors.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins, p. 34, W.K. Cross, 60th Edition, 2006
  2. ^ Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins, p. 35, W.K. Cross, 60th Edition, 2006
  3. ^ Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins, p. 35, W.K. Cross, 60th Edition, 2006
  4. ^ Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins, p. 36, W.K. Cross, 60th Edition, 2006
  5. ^ Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins, p. 37, W.K. Cross, 60th Edition, 2006