|Molecule of butane in syn-clinal (-sc) conformation|
A Newman projection, useful in alkane stereochemistry, visualizes chemical conformations of a carbon-carbon chemical bond from front to back, with the front carbon represented by a dot and the back carbon as a circle (see below). The front carbon atom is called proximal, while the back atom is called distal. This type of representation is useful for assessing the torsional angle between bonds.
A Sawhorse representation, on the other hand, views a carbon-carbon bond from an oblique angle. This type of representation makes it easy to visualize the molecule as a whole in 3-D.
A Wedge and Dash model views the 3-D shape of a molecule too. It puts the molecule on a page's plane and the bond that is wedged is pointing outwards, in the front of the page, while the dashed bond is pointing backwards, behind the page.
- Newman, M. S. Record. Chem. Progr. (Kresge-Hooker Sci. Lib.) 1952, 13, 111.
- Newman, M. S. A notation for the study of certain stereochemical problems. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 344-347.
- Klein, David R. "Chapter 4 Section 6: Drawing Newman Projections." Organic Chemistry. 2nd ed. N.p.: Wiley, 2012. 158-59. Print.
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