News satire

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News satire is a type of parody presented in a format typical of mainstream journalism, and called a satire because of its content. News satire has been around almost as long as journalism itself, but it is particularly popular on the web (for example on websites like The Onion or Faking News), where it is relatively easy to mimic a legitimate news source. News satire relies heavily on irony and deadpan humor.

Two slightly different types of news satire exist. One form uses satirical commentary and sketch comedy to comment on real-world news events, while the other presents wholly fictionalized news stories.

In history[edit]

Author Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) was employed as a newspaper reporter before becoming famous as a novelist, and in this position he published many satirical articles. He left two separate journalism positions, Nevada (1864) fleeing a challenge to duel[1] and San Francisco fleeing outraged police officials because his satire and fiction were often taken for the truthful accounts they were presented as. Ironically, the accuracy of many newspaper and autobiographical accounts used to follow the early life of Samuel Clemens are in doubt.[2]

Newspapers still print occasional news satire features, in particular on April Fools' Day. This news is specifically identified somewhere in the paper or in the next day as a joke.

In 1934, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer released a series of ten one-reel theatrical shorts called Goofy Movies, which included "Wotaphony Newsreel," a newsreel parody that paired actual footage with a mocking, deadpan narration.

Also in 1934, halfway through a Kraft Music Hall radio show, Dean Taylor ("Others collect the news, Dean makes it!") narrated a fake newsreel which began with a report on the New York Giants and Philadelphia Phillies being cancelled due to bad weather, and baseball season being rescheduled to when farmers need rain.

On television[edit]

News satire has been prevalent on television since the 1960s, when it enjoyed a renaissance in the UK with the "Satire Boom", led by such luminaries as Peter Cook, Alan Bennett, Jonathan Miller, David Frost, Eleanor Bron, and Dudley Moore, and the television program That Was The Week That Was. In the United States, the NBC network adapted this program and also produced its own content, from the "news" segment of Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In, to the still-running Saturday Night Live mock newscast segment "Weekend Update". Cable television got into the cable news act with Home Box Office's Not Necessarily the News in the mid-1980s.

In the 21st century, Comedy Central's The Daily Show has been an icon of the American news satire genre; its spinoff, Stephen Colbert's The Colbert Report, also enjoyed a high level of popularity during its 9-year run. The 2004 National Annenberg Election Survey found that Daily Show viewers were better informed than those who relied solely on conventional network news,[3] and Steven Young of Los Angeles Daily News compares the trust and influence that long-time host Jon Stewart enjoyed to that of CBS anchor Walter Cronkite in the 1970s.[4] However, a study published in the Journal of Communication suggests that entertainment news shows such as The Daily Show or The Colbert Report may not be as influential in teaching voters about political issues and candidates as was previously thought. Researchers from Ohio State University have found reasons to discount how effective these shows are in informing the general public. People watching television news learned more about a candidate's position on issues and about political procedures compared to those watching the fake news shows, while fake news shows primarily taught viewers about a candidate’s personal background.[5]

After the success of The Daily Show, Fox News launched its own news satire program in February 2007 with the title of The 1/2 Hour News Hour. Its creator describes it as "The Daily Show for conservatives", but it was canceled within a few months. Fox News then launched the more successful series Red Eye which ran from February 6, 2007 to April 7, 2017. As of 2017, news satire in the United States remains popular, especially in late night television; late-night talk shows often incorporate elements of news satire. Current American programs known primarily for their news satire include those hosted by former correspondents for The Daily Show (John Oliver's Last Week Tonight, Samantha Bee's Full Frontal, and The Daily Show itself under Trevor Noah's tenure), as well as Bill Maher's Real Time.

In Britain, several news satires have been created, most famously the works of Chris Morris. Shows such as the radio series On the Hour and its television version The Day Today parodied news programs very accurately, so they were almost believable and could have been confused with actual news programs, if it was not for the fake stories reported. Morris went on to continue this and several other themes in Brass Eye, one of the most controversial series on British television, especially after one episode broadcast mocked the way the news covered stories about pedophilia. Previous news satire shows in Britain include: The Late Edition with Marcus Brigstocke, on digital station BBC Four, which was heavily influenced by The Daily Show; News Knight with Sir Trevor McDonald, which parodied news differently by using an actual newsreader as the host; and Broken News, which featured several sketches of different news channels blending into each other.

As of 2017, current British news-related programs that have been described as satire include: Have I Got News for You, Mock the Week, and Charlie Brooker's ongoing Wipe series on the BBC; Channel 4's The Last Leg; ITV's Newzoids; and Dave's Unspun with Matt Forde.

Recent news satire television series in Australia include Working Dog Productions' Frontline, Shaun Micallef's Newstopia, and the many programs created by The Chaser since 2001. As of 2017, current programs of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation include Shaun Micallef's Mad as Hell and The Weekly with Charlie Pickering.

In Canada, This Hour Has 22 Minutes is an ensemble news satire show with four anchors on CBC. The Rick Mercer Report is a spinoff of 22 Minutes with former anchor Rick Mercer, and is also shown on CBC. CBC Radio features This Is That, a satirical public affairs program. The 1960s series This Hour Has Seven Days, although primarily a real newsmagazine, included some satirical features in its format, such as political humor songs by actress and singer Dinah Christie. On French-language television networks in Quebec, noted news satire shows have included La Fin du monde est à 7 heures, Et Dieu créa... Laflaque and Infoman. On the Internet, noted satire sites include The Lapine and The Beaverton.

In Germany, heute-show (ZDF), and formerly Wochenshow (on SAT.1) and Freitag Nacht News (on RTL) are popular news satires on TV.

The Egyptian show El Bernameg, hosted by Bassem Youssef (on Capital Broadcast Center 2011-13 and MBC MASR from 2014 on), is modeled on The Daily Show. Launched in the wake of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, it has been quite popular, but also a source of tremendous controversy, as Youssef has repeatedly been under investigation by the authorities for his willingness to poke fun at powerful people.

Online[edit]

News satire has been posted on the web almost since its inception, with The Onion foremost among recognized news satire sites due to its enduring and profitable business model.[6] The content of the website, which started in 1996, is syndicated through mainstream media sites such as CNN and CNET. Today there are hundreds of news satire sites online. Sites such as Hollywood Leek specialize in satirical articles about celebrities and Hollywood entertainment news.[7] Sometimes fake news reporters influence real world politics, like Citizen Kate whose 90 episodes covered the 2008 presidential campaign trail, she commissioned a butter bust of Obama presented to him by the Butter Cow Lady of Iowa, making international headlines.[8] El Koshary Today is an Egyptian website that carries fake international news stories.[9] Other satire sites attempt to emulate a genuine news source of some sort; however, these sites now take a variety of forms.[10]

Because interesting stories are often emailed and can quickly become separated from their point of origin, it is not uncommon for news satire stories to be picked up as real by the media, as happened with a Faking News story about a lawsuit against Axe by an Indian man after having failed to attract a girl.[11] Additionally, a parody post on Al Sharpton's parody News Groper blog was quoted as if real by MSNBC.[12] Another satire publication, The Giant Napkin, published an article about a man literally fighting his house fire with more fire, a story taken seriously by several social networking sites. That Google News accepts news satire sources helps contribute to this phenomenon; while Google News does mark such stories with a "satire" tag, not all readers notice the tag; moreover, sometimes satirical sources may not carry the tag.[13] At least one site, thespoof.com, relies on user-generated content in a Web 2.0 manner.

Some websites like Literally Unbelievable post the genuine and shocked reactions of individuals who believe the satirical articles are real. The reactions are taken from social media websites, such as Facebook, in which users can directly comment on links to the article's source.

Multi-author Indian website News That Matters Not, launched in November 2009,[14] won a Manthan South Asia Award for socially responsible e-content (Digital Inclusion for Development), organized by Digital Empowerment Foundation.[15] In India, several community-based news satire websites have crept up in recent times. Their popularity on Facebook defines that they are popular amongst the masses. Very new websites such as The Scoop Times, Fakekhabar.com, Sunkey.co.in and The UnReal Times also claim to be run by students, and were covered in The Times of India in July 2011.[16]

Several sites community of selected news satire sites which runs its own satire news feed on HumorFeed. HumorFeed is notable for its relatively high standards of admission and active community involvement.[citation needed] At present,[when?] over 60 sites are contributing members, at least eight of which have published books and two of which publish regular hard-copy periodicals. Several HumorFeed members also run Check Please!, an online journal devoted to the serious examination of online satire, ranging from its role in relation to actual journalism to practical considerations of producing an online satire site.[citation needed]

In July 2009, a satire piece about Kanye West published on the website ScrapeTV was picked up by numerous media outlets and reported as factual,[17][18][19] despite disclaimers on the site.[20]

Satirical Twitter accounts of news sources are popular, and they are often mistaken as legitimate sources. Online publications have made quizzes challenging users to distinguish between the tweets of the real Vice[21] and the tweets of their parodies. The @Salondotcom parody account confused so many Twitter users that the real Salon.com reported them for impersonation.[22]

In Pakistan, Khabaristan Times (KT) is a renowned satire and parody website with its commentary on Pakistani politics and the military.[23] In 2015, a satirical piece by the website went viral and international media outlets including New York Times[24] reported the story as if it were true.[25][26][27] In 2017, KT was reportedly blocked in Pakistan, however, it appeared to be available to users outside Pakistan.[28][29]

In the Middle East, The Pan-Arabia Enquirer is the most widely read satirical news website. It gained notoriety in 2013 when an article about Emirates launching shisha lounges on its fleet of A380s was picked up as fact by news websites around the world. AlHudood, another middle eastern satire news publisher, has gained publicity in the region when they published an article about the Jordanian police arresting Santa Claus and confiscating all of his gifts for not paying the customs before entering Jordan.[30]

In Turkey, Zaytung has become a source of mass reading since the socio-political Gezi Park 2013 protests in Turkey.

In the Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago-based website Wired868 has two satirical columnists under the pseudonyms Mr Live Wire[31] and Filbert Street,[32] who comment satirically on relevant political and news stories such as the fall from power of ex-FIFA vice-president Jack Warner,[33][34] media issues,[35] general news[36] and the challenges faced by Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar and her People's Partnership coalition Government.[37][38][39]

In Australia, there are numerous satirical news websites including The Shovel,[40] The Betoota Advocate,[41] the (Un)Australian,[42] The Fault Report,[43] The Sauce[44] and The Tunnel Presents.[45] The Shovel mainly satirizes the Australian political and social culture and The Betoota Advocate satirizes the political right and Australian journalism. In February 2015, the Betoota Advocate shot to fame after the publication's editor's sneaked in to the media scrum outside Parliament House in Canberra during a leadership spill motion and managed to interview some of Australia's most high-profile media personalities and politicians, posing as legitimate journalists. The fallout from the Betoota Advocate stunt has led to a security increase surrounding parliamentary media and screening of all crew.[46] The Fault Report [47] was established in 2014 and also has a political editorial focus. British-born Australian author John Birmingham once described The Fault Report as "Like The Onion. But with Vegemite" on his blog Cheeseburger Gothic.[48] The Tunnel Presents, which has been online since June 2011, is by Brisbane-based satire writing team The Tunnel and has political and social satire stories with a Queensland focus.[49]

In Italy, the most famous website specialized in mock-journalism is Lercio (it). Born as a parody of the popular press, but in addition to the tabloid press, its goals are also the domestic and foreigns politics. The website was created in the 2012 and the editorial staff is composed of authors who have contributed to La Palestra, a column wanted on his blog by the comedian and satirical author Daniele Luttazzi. In few years Lercio saw the publication of a book[50] with a collection of 2014 best articles. From the same year Lercio it is present on the national radio with a daily strip.[51] Thanks to the many fans the articles are shared on the social network with a good success and, mostly in the beginning of his history, some articles were taken as true by the national press.[52]

In Hungary, HírCsárda[53] is the number one news satire medium. The site, started in 2010, has drawn public attention after the Hungarian government demanded that an article should be emended that dealt with the then state secretary of education Rózsa Hoffmann.[54] The page has since been threatened by various celebrities, but has remained active regardless. Also present in Hungary is Központi Újság[55] (Central News), a news satire website of the joke party Hungarian Two-tailed Dog Party.

Treefort Music Fest, a grassroots music festival in Boise, Idaho, has satirically used the television news format to announce its line-up of bands.[56]

Satire in Journalism

News representation is very important, when the matter comes to a point where the general citizen's and the public's ideology, about the society and the world gets shaped through news media contents. News is the only channel through which we get information about what is going on all around the world, all about our economy and  all about the important events or anything important happening in general. The way news contents gets presented to the audience is very straightforward. This flat and simple way of representing the content lacks engagement with the audience and the way of representation of news has been the same from the very beginning of the news world. According to Merritt, one of the pundits who has been researching in communications field for a very long time said that, Journalism is not only about presenting the truth to the people, rather it is more about making the audience engage into the matter and create a discussion between the audience, which in return will help to bring a solution to the table. The normal way of presentation of news lacks all these important factors, the news is just getting presented in the daily, timely new shows – there is not level of engagement or criticism about the news topics. If there will be not criticism about a topic then the audience will never try to think critically about the matter and if the people are receiving the informations just without even giving a little bit of thinking then they are actually not getting to know either if it’s the truth or the lie. People at this time period don’t tend to do any research or think twice before accepting the news, believing it and creating their ideology and behave in that manner.  

        There are lots of reason behind it, for example, the lack of time to do so, but we need to understand this low level of engagement can be very dangerous as most of the news media corporations all around the world are controlled by few Elites of our society and they can be very easily influenced by any Government body or any private corporations. The pressure from various strong bodies and corporations is real in the news media world. One good example would be, a celebrity personality like Donald J. Trump becoming the president of the United States, in spite of all his background he was still be able to become the president of US. One big reason behind this would be the way he was portrayed in the news media and the average citizens of the United States trusted  the news and created the ideology within themselves about Trump and believed in all his sayings. News these days are mostly prepackaged and they are made and presented with doing very less research. Satire news is the only type of news representation which actually destroys all these barriers and makes people think about the news topics and creates a high level of citizen engagement.

Examples of News Satire:

The cartoon show "South Park" - this a very popular American adult animated series, which is popular all around the world. This series has taken over almost all the important events of the 2000 century and portrayed those events and the individuals related to the events by criticizing their behavior in the show. South Park has taken on personalities like Saddam Hussein, Osama Bin Laden, Trump and many other politicians and celebrities from every level and places. The goal  this animated TV show plans to achieve is bring out the problems that are being caused by all these personals and showing it to the audience and trying to make them understand the wrong doings of them but by using parody. This show pushed the boundaries of free expression, mocked key government figures, questioned censorship, criticized government policies and always provides a well formulated position on whatever is in the news. It is very hard to grab attention of the audiences these days and normal way of news representation fails to do so, especially the new genration's attention can be only grabbed if there is something of their interest in the content and when there is comedy and animation involved with a storyline, this makes the content way more appealing to the audience. The audience usually try to understand the matter naturally if they are interested in the topic and the easy way the complicated news is portrayed in "South Park" show that there is no one would understand the content, rather they tend to like it. This is only possible by Satire and this show is a great example of Satire representation of news media.

Another good example of Satire will be The Colbert Report. This show is a modern political Satire, it is very different than my first example, this TV show is more like presenting news to the audience, very similar to regular News shows, but the difference is that the news is presented in a satiric style, this creates more discussion about the news and more involvement to the matter. Colbert usually makes statements that are logically untrue but bases them not in logic, but on faith and nationalism or any other belief, just not based on rational thoughts, which ultimately makes the topic impossible to argue rationally. The host in these kinds of shows tend to have the capability to present the news with humor and criticizing it in a natural manner. Even the complicated news in these kinds of shows looks very simple and the host, they usually tend to explain the matters in a very simple way with humor added to it. The Colbert Report is really famous among the communications pundits both positively and negatively. Lots of pundits seems to criticize the show, according to them if satire is added to a news show then it becomes a joke and the audience will never take the news seriously – this is what they and their theories says. Opposing them are also many pundits like Fiona, who thinks that  adding satire is very important to news, she argued that satiric journalism one of the right ways to do journalism, according to her news should be presented with a little dose of self reflection – this creates more engagement and participation of citizens towards the news and also in result it increases the number of people making informed decisions towards politics/voting etc.

Notable news satire outlets[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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