Newspaper of record
A newspaper of record is a major newspaper that has a large circulation and whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered professional and typically authoritative. A newspaper of record may also be a publicly available newspaper that has been authorized or maintained by a government to publish public or legal notices, and therefore serves as a "newspaper of public record".
Newspapers of public record
A "newspaper of public record", sometimes referred to as an "official newspaper", refers to a publicly available newspaper that has been authorised by a government to publish public or legal notices. It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice.
In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices. Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names. These are sometimes referred to as "legally adjudicated newspapers".
A variation of newspapers of public record are those newspapers controlled by governments or political parties that serve as official newspapers reflecting the positions of their controlling bodies. State organs such as the Soviet-era Izvestia (the name of which translates to "delivered messages", derived from the verb izveshchat which means "to inform", "to notify") and the People's Daily in China are examples of this type.
Newspapers of record (by reputation)
The second type of "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French term Presse de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and its characteristics can be variable. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence and attention to accuracy, and are usually renowned internationally. Despite changes in society, such newspapers have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style, and traditions.
Origin of the term
The term is believed to have originated among librarians, who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when, in 1913, it became the first U.S. newspaper to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages. In recognition of the usage, The Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record". The Times, and other newspapers of its type, then sought to be chroniclers of events, acting as a record of the day's announcements, schedules, directories, proceedings, transcripts and appointments. The Times no longer considers itself a newspaper of record in the original, literal sense.
Over time, historians began to rely on The Times and similar titles as a reliable archival record of significant past events and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing. The term "newspaper of record" thus evolved from its original literal sense to its currently understood meaning.
In the summer of 2005, 1533 German journalists were asked by a professor of communication studies, Siegfried Weischenberg, which print media they regularly read. According to this study, the five most influential newspapers and magazines were:
- Süddeutsche Zeitung – 35 %
- Der Spiegel – 34 %
- Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung – 15 %
- Die Zeit – 11 %
- Bild – 10 %
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edn. West Publishing. 1990. ISBN 90-6544-631-1.
- See, for example, L.N. 362 of 1997 of The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette
- Texas Local Government Code - Section 52.004. Official Newspaper
- "City of McCleary, Official Newspaper".
- "Fictitious Names: Adjudicated Newspapers". County Clerk. County of Sonoma. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- "Izvestiia Digital Archive 1917-2010. Online access to the Kremlin's newspaper of record" (PDF). Minneapolis, MN: East View Information Services. p. 5. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Frederick, Brian (2005-05-09). "Genocide v. Civil Conflict: Comparing Coverage of the Darfur Crisis in the New York Times and the People's Daily" (PDF). University of Colorado at Boulder.
The New York Times and the People's Daily were chosen because of their status as their respective countries' "newspaper of record." In the case of the People's Daily, it is the official newspaper of record.
- Mattis, Michael (November 1995). "(Not) Wild about Harry". Prism.
With a circulation over three million the People's Daily is the official newspaper of China's Communist Party. It is the newspaper of record for state socialism in China.
- "Officials Warn Against Rural Instability". China News Digest. 2002-01-11.
On Tuesday the People's Daily, the Communist Party's newspaper of record, published a front-page article and a strongly worded editorial
- "Research Databases". University of Massachusetts Amherst. 2012-02-10.
People's Daily (Ren Min Ri Bao): Chinese newspaper of record, 1946-present.
- Badiou, Alain. The Rational Kernel of the Hegelian Dialectic (PDF). re.press. p. xx.
Among the venues that published philosophically charged writings... during the heat of the GPCR were Renmin Ribao (People's Daily, the newspaper of record that continues to be so today)
- Salles, Chloë (January 2010). "Media Coverage of the Internet: An Acculturation Strategy for Press of Record?" (PDF). Innovation Journalism 7 (1): 5.
- Martin, Shannon (1998). Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. pp. 6, 27, 31. ISBN 0275959600.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 7. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Okrent, Daniel. "THE PUBLIC EDITOR; Paper of Record? No Way, No Reason, No Thanks". The New York TImes. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Vigón, Mercedes (July 12, 2013). Journalism ethics is 'personal and non-transferable'. Interview with International Press Institute.
- Simons, Margaret; Buller, Bradley (December 2013). "Journals of Record - Measure of Quality, or Dead Concept?". Centre for Advancing Journalism, University of Melbourne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "What We're Reading". The New York Times. 14 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Die Presse - Die Geschichte". Archived from the original on 2014-02-06.
- "Die Presse". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2013-10-13.
- "The Daily Star". infoasaid.org. Retrieved 2014-05-18.
- "O Estado de S. Paulo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
It is the...country's newspaper of record. O Estado is sometimes called the "New York Times of Latin America” because of its grave editorial demeanour.
- Fabricio, Roberto (16 April 1992). "Brazilian Officers Issue Manifesto". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
The statement, published on Tuesday by O Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil`s newspaper of record, was datelined in Fortaleza, a mid-sized city in northeastern Brazil.
- "The press in Belgium". BBC News. 2005-11-16.
- "The Globe and Mail". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "CANADIAN STUDIES RESOURCES - Canadian Studies Databases and Indexes". Michigan Canadian Studies Roundtable. 2006-09-05. Archived from the original on 2008-07-08.
- Agence France-Presse (2009-01-11). "Globe and Mail to cut jobs". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- "What's behind the shake up at 'Canada's newspaper of record'?". rabble.ca. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- Buchanan, Carrie (March 2009). Gasher, Mike, ed. "Sense of Place in the Daily Newspaper" (PDF). Aether: The Journal of Media Geography 4: 62–84 . Retrieved 14 October 2012.
[T]he Toronto-based Globe and Mail has had the kind of success in Canada that the New York Times had enjoyed in the U.S., as the leading 'newspaper of record' with a national readership.
- Jiwani, Yasmin (2009). "Helpless Maidens and Chivalrous Knights: Afghan Women in the Canadian Press". University of Toronto Quarterly. 2 78: 728–744. doi:10.3138/utq.78.2.728.
This essay interrogates representations of Afghan women in the Globe and Mail, Canada's major English-language daily and newspaper of record.
- Roger Keil, S. Harris Ali (2011). Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 144439911X. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Where's Mario". Maclean's. 2008-08-25. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- "Endorsements, opinions flourish in Quebec". cbc.ca. 2008-10-10. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
- "El fenómeno de Bachelet pone en jaque a la derecha chilena". BBC Mundo. 2013-11-07. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Middle East Institute, 1950, p. 155.|quote=Al Ahram is... what The Times is to Englishmen and the New York Times to Americans
- Perreault, Gregory (2011). "Islam is Everywhere": Coverage of Islam in the English Egyptian Press". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly: 14. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
This is significant because the state-run Al Ahram is considered the paper of record in Egypt
- paidContent. "Le Figaro opts for freemium web model". the Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Le Figaro". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Le Monde, whose print edition comes out around lunchtime, was launched at the end of Nazi occupation of France in 1944 and took on the role of France's newspaper of record alongside the more conservative Le Figaro." - France's Le Monde newspaper editor quits after power struggle with staff, Reuters, May the 14th, 2014
- Thomas Fuller (2003-08-25). "World of Le Monde looks set to expand". International Herald Tribune.
- "France profile". BBC News. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
Le Monde - respected national daily, considered to be France's newspaper of record
- "Gloves off in German Media Scramble". The New York Times (The New York Times). 13 March 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Die Welt | German newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
- "German language reform resisted". The Washington Times. 29 May 2004.
- "Look back at the Britannica Calendar of Events to find out what happened in the year 2000". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- "Greece - Post Report - e Diplomat". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Lanchester, John (2008). Family Romance: A Love Story. 0143112953: Penguin. p. 140.
The clippings are from the South China Morning Post, the paper of record in Hong Kong
- Escritt, Thomas (2005-09-01). "The e-circulation wars". The Budapest Sun.
- Wilke, Mary; Manicini, Lawrence; Leonard, Spencer (Fall 2007). "Some recent CRL acquisitions related to colonial India". Centre for Research Libraries - Focus on Global Resources.
- The Politics of Post-Suharto Indonesia. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Kompas Group Is Back on TV, This Time With Local Partners". The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Iran Media Guide". FRONTLINE - Tehran Bureau. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Journalism in Iran. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Dwan, David (April 2009). "The Irish Times, book review". The London Standard. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
Today, the Irish Times is one of Ireland's most authoritative journals – the newspaper of record for political and intellectual elites from Mayo to Monkstown. Mark O'Brien provides a detailed and colourful account of this transformation. His history of the Irish Times is also the story of modern Ireland: it tracks the newspaper's sceptical response to the emergence of the Free State in 1922 and the declaration of the Republic in 1949; it also examines its fractious relationship with the nation's governments and political figureheads from Eamon de Valera (whom the paper repeatedly compared to Hitler) to Bertie Ahern.
- Israel — Hebrew- and English-Language Media Guide Open Source Center (16 September 2008)
- Gregory Levey (21 August 2008). "Pushing right-wing American politics — in Israel". Salon. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
In the past few months, Haaretz, Israel's paper of record, has run a series of articles expressing misgivings about outside influence.
- Brant Rosen (11 May 2010). "Alan Dershowitz and the Politics of Desperation". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
Recent polling, alongside articles in both the New York Times and the Israeli paper of record, Ha'aretz, indicate that the American Jewish community no longer feels represented by our so-called representatives - if we ever did.
- Gershom Gorenberg (September 2002). "The Thin Green Line". Mother Jones. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
In late January, the declaration ran as an ad in Ha'aretz, the national paper of record...
- Israely, Jeff; Macleod, Scott (1 June 2003). "Editing Out Criticism". Time.
- Grove, Lloyd (6 February 1998). "Diplomatic Affinity". Los Angeles Times.
- Merrill, John C. (June 2000). "Les quotidiens de référence dans le monde" (PDF). Les cahiers du journalisme (in French). Retrieved 22 January 2014.
-  - Retrieved 14 March 2005. Archived September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Benesch, Susan (21 March 2013). "The Kenyan Elections: Peace Happened". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
Kenya's newspaper of record, the Daily Nation, published a banner headline "Never Again" over an editorial with a sharp, eloquent warning
- Christopher, H. Sterling. "A - C., Volume 1". Encyclopedia of Journalism. p. 108.
- Waterfield, Bruno (4 March 2010). "Geert Wilders on course to be next Dutch prime minister". The Daily Telegraph.
- , Journalism.co.uk
- Hubred, Joni. "Portugal Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers".
- "Danas". presseurop. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
Left leaning, Danas has become the independent daily of record in Serbia ...
- "Grigorev Commentary in Politika: Serbs Vote is Pragmatic". The Bulletin Arcadia University. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
... wrote a commentary in the Jan. 26 issue of Politika, the Serbian newspaper of record and the oldest daily in the Balkans.
- Dediu, Horace (19 May 2012). "An interview with Kenney Ho of The Chosun Daily of Korea". Asymco. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
The Chosunilbo "has a history of 90 years, has been the most dominant, and influential paper of all time in Korea. It is the No.1 newspaper company in Korea with more than 1.8 million circulation, firmly holding the largest market possession. The paper is recognized Asianwide, where there are many readers in Japan and China.”
- Phillips, Lindsay (18 December 2002). "Spanish and U.S. Relationship During the "War on Terror"". EU Notes — Texas A&M University.
- "PRESIDENT'S INTERVIEW WITH AL-ARABIYA RECEIVES GOOD COVERAGE IN SWEDEN". Retrieved 10 October 2013.
Paper of record Dagens Nyheter gave limited coverage, on the paper's website.
- "Immigrants outraged over Sweden's racial profiling". The Standard. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
Dagens Nyheter, Sweden's paper of record.
- "Neue Zürcher Zeitung". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "Reports: Israel to apologize for flotilla raid". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "The UK's 'other paper of record'". BBC News. 2004-01-19. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- "The New York Times". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Siegfried Weischenberg, Maja Malik, Armin Scholl: Journalismus in Deutschland 2005. In: Media Perspektiven, No. 7/2006, p. 359. (PDF; 299 kB).