Next Japanese general election

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Next Japanese general election

← 2017 On or before 22 October 2021

All 465 seats to the House of Representatives of Japan
233 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
  Shinzō Abe Official (cropped 2).jpg Yukio Edano 201210.jpg Yuichiro Tamaki IMG 5649-1 20160903.jpg
Leader Shinzō Abe Yukio Edano Yuichiro Tamaki
Party Liberal Democratic Constitutional Democratic Democratic for the People
Leader since 26 September 2012 2 October 2017 7 May 2018
Leader's seat Yamaguchi-4th Saitama-5th Kagawa-2nd
Last election 284 seats, 33.28% 55 seats, 19.88% New party[a]
Current seats 283 55 37
Seats needed Steady Increase178 Increase196

  Natsuo Yamaguchi.jpg Kazuo Shii in SL Square in 2017.jpg Ichiro Matsui Ishin IMG 5775 20130713 cropped.jpg
Leader Natsuo Yamaguchi Kazuo Shii Ichirō Matsui
Party Komeito Communist Ishin
Leader since 8 September 2009 24 November 2000 2 November 2015
Leader's seat Not contesting
Minami-Kantō PR Not contesting
(Governor of Osaka)
Last election 29 seats, 12.51% 12 seats, 7.90% 11 seats, 6.07%
Current seats 29 12 11
Seats needed Increase204 Increase221 N/A[b]

  Ichiro Ozawa and Vladimir Putin 20090512 (cropped).jpg Shigefumi Matsuzawa (cropped).jpg
Leader Seiji Mataichi Ichirō Ozawa Shigefumi Matsuzawa
Party Social Democratic Liberal Kibō
Leader since 25 February 2018 25 January 2013 7 May 2018
Leader's seat Not contesting
Iwate-3rd Not contesting
Last election 2 seats, 1.69% Did not contest New party[c]
Current seats 2 2[d] 2
Seats needed Increase231 Increase231 Increase231

Incumbent Prime Minister

Shinzō Abe
Liberal Democratic

The 49th general election of members of the House of Representatives (Japanese: 第49回衆議院議員総選挙, Hepburn: dai-yonjūkyūkai Shūgiin giin sōsenkyo) is scheduled on or before 22 October 2021, as required by the Constitution of Japan. Voting will take place in all Representatives constituencies of Japan including proportional blocks, in order to appoint Members of Diet to seats in the House of Representatives, the lower house of the National Diet of Japan. As the cabinet has to resign after a general House of Representatives election in the first post-election Diet session (Constitution, Article 70), the lower house election will also lead to a new designation election of the Prime Minister in the Diet, and the appointment of a new cabinet (even if the same ministers are re-appointed).

Election date[edit]

Under the post-occupation interpretation of Article 7 of the Constitution, the cabinet may instruct the Emperor to dissolve the House of Representatives before the end of term at will. Elections must be held within 40 days after dissolution.

The only time in postwar history that the House of Representatives was not dissolved before the end of its term was in 1976. If the House of Representatives completes a full four-year term, the election must be held within 30 days before that.[1]

Current composition[edit]

Composition of the House of Representatives of Japan (as of 17 April 2019)[2]
"In-house groups" Parties Representatives
Liberal Democratic Party (Jiyūminshutō) LDP 283
The Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan (Rikken-minshutō・mushozoku forum, lit. "Constitutional Democratic Party/Independent Forum") CDP, independents 68
  Democratic Party for the People (Kokumin-minshutō・mushozoku club, "Democratic Party for the People/Independent Club") DPFP, LP, independent 40
Kōmeitō Kōmeitō 29
Japanese Communist Party (Nihon Kyōsantō) JCP 12
Nippon Ishin (Japan Innovation Party) (Nippon Ishin no Kai) Ishin 11
  The Reviewing Group on Social Security Policy (Shakai-hoshō o tatenaosu kokumin kaigi) none (ex-DP independents) 6
Social Democratic Party (Shakai-minshutō・shimin rengō, "Social Democratic Party/Citizen's League") SDP 2
  The Party of Hope (Kibō no Tō) Kibō 2
  Future Japan (Mirai Nippon) none (ex-DP independents) 2
Independents LDP [Speaker], CDP [Vice-Speaker], independents 8
Total 463
Okinawa 3, Osaka 12 (national by-elections to be held with the second round of the unified prefectural and municipal elections on April 21, 2019)

Opinion polls[edit]


  1. ^ Democratic Party merged with Kibō no Tō in May 2018, forming the Democratic Party for the People.
  2. ^ The party only runs candidates in Osaka Prefecture, and as such is unable to obtain enough seats for a majority alone.
  3. ^ After the DPFP merger, Kibō was re-established in a new form.
  4. ^ Members of the Liberal Party in the House of Representatives ran as independents in the 2017 election.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "公職選挙法".
  2. ^ House of Representatives: Strength of the In-House Groups in the House of Representatives (Japanese original which also contains lists of individual members for each group)