2019 United Kingdom general election

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2019 United Kingdom general election
← 2017 12 December 2019 Next →

All 650 seats in the House of Commons
326 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls

2019UKElectionMap.svg
A map of UK parliamentary constituencies

Incumbent Prime Minister

Boris Johnson
Conservative



A general election is scheduled to be held in the United Kingdom on 12 December 2019. It is to be held under the provisions of the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019, two and a half years after the previous general election in June 2017.

Background[edit]

The 2019 election is due to be the first UK general election to be held in December since 1923,[1] and was arranged at short notice in late October. Each parliamentary constituency of the United Kingdom elects one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons using the first-past-the-post voting system. This indirectly elects the government, which is formed by a party or coalition of parties that can command the confidence of a majority of MPs in the Commons. Both majority and minority governments are possible election outcomes.

Voting eligibility[edit]

In order to vote in the general election, one must be:[2][3]

  • on the Electoral Register;
  • aged 18 or over on polling day;
  • either a Commonwealth citizen (within the meaning of section 37 of the British Nationality Act 1981) or a citizen of the Republic of Ireland (section 1(c) of the Representation of the People Act 1983);
  • resident at an address in the United Kingdom,[n 1] or a British citizen living abroad who has been registered to vote in the UK at any time in the last 15 years.[n 2][5]
    • Irish citizens who were born in Northern Ireland and qualify as a British citizens, whether or not they identify themselves as such, may also be overseas voters[6]
  • not legally excluded from voting (most notably a convicted person detained in prison or a mental hospital, or unlawfully at large if the person would otherwise have been detained,[7] or a person found guilty of certain corrupt or illegal practices[8]) or disqualified from voting (peers sitting in the House of Lords).[9][10]

Individuals must be registered to vote by midnight twelve working days before polling day.[11] Anyone who qualifies as an anonymous elector has until midnight six working days before polling day to register.[n 3] A person who has two homes (such as a university student who has a term-time address and lives at home during holidays) may be able to register to vote at both addresses as long as they are not in the same electoral area, but can only vote in one constituency at the general election.[13]

Constituencies[edit]

The election is to be contested under the same boundaries for 650 constituencies that have been used since the 2010 general election. The Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies, tasked by the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 with reducing the number of constituencies to 600, proposed modified boundaries. These boundary changes are not due to be implemented until they have been approved by both Houses of Parliament, and the government did not submit the proposed changes for consideration before the election was called.[14]

Postal and proxy voting[edit]

Voters in Great Britain may freely apply to vote by post,[15] and voters in Northern Ireland can vote by post if they give a reason they could not vote in person.[16] Postal ballots need to reach the relevant Electoral Office by the time of the close of polls or be handed into the voter's local polling station in order to be counted.[15] Voters may apply to allow another person to cast a proxy vote for them if they can give a valid reason why this is required.[15]

Date of the election[edit]

The deadline for delivery of candidates' nomination papers was 14 November.[17] The election is scheduled for 12 December 2019, with polling stations opening at 7am and closing at 10pm.[18]

This date occurred despite the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (FTPA), which introduced fixed-term parliaments to the United Kingdom, with elections scheduled on the first Thursday in May of the fifth year after the previous general election.[19] This would have led to an election on 5 May 2022.[20] On 29 October 2019 the House of Commons passed the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019 which circumvented the FTPA so as to hold a December election.[21] The House of Lords followed suit the following day,[22] with Royal Assent the day afterward.[23]

Due to the impasse about the Brexit withdrawal agreement, some political commentators in 2019 considered an early election to be highly likely.[24] In January 2019 [[[2019 vote of confidence in the May ministry|a vote of no confidence]] in Theresa May's government was called by the Labour Party. If passed, and no alternative government could be formed, this would have resulted in a general election, but this motion failed.[25] After becoming Prime Minister in the summer, Boris Johnson made three attempts at a vote for an early general election under the terms of the FTPA, but each failed to achieve the required two-thirds supermajority.[26][27][28][29] The eventually successful bill, which required only a simple majority to pass (though it could be amended during its passage through Parliament), was proposed by the Liberal Democrat and Scottish National parties on 28 October and adopted by the government the following day (albeit with a Thursday 12 December date rather than Monday 9 December proposed by the opposition parties). An amendment changing the date to 9 December failed by 315 votes to 295.[21] The final Commons vote on the bill passed by 438 votes to 20.[30]

The election would be the first UK general election in December since 1923,[31] and the first general election to be held by virtue of an Act of Parliament.

Timetable[edit]

The key dates are:[32]

Tuesday 29 October
Passage of the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019 through the House of Commons
Wednesday 30 October
Passage of the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019 through the House of Lords
Thursday 31 October
Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019 receives Royal Assent and comes into force immediately. The Act sets 12 December as the date for the next parliamentary general election.
Wednesday 6 November
Dissolution of Parliament (the 57th) and official start of the campaign. Beginning of purdah. Royal Proclamation summoning a new Parliament and setting the date for its first meeting issued.
Thursday 7 November
Receipt of writ – legal documents declaring election issued
From Friday 8 November
Notice of election given in constituencies
Thursday 14 November
Nominations of candidates close
Saturday 16 November
Candidates lists are published for each constituency
Thursday 21 November
Deadline to register for a postal vote at 5pm (Northern Ireland)[33]
Tuesday 26 November
Deadline to register for a postal vote at 5pm (Great Britain)[33]
Deadline for registering to vote at 11:59pm[33]
Wednesday 4 December
Deadline to register for a proxy vote at 5pm. (Exemptions apply for emergencies.)
Thursday 12 December
Polling Day – polls open 7am to 10pm
Friday 13 December
Results to be announced for the majority of the 650 constituencies. End of purdah.
Tuesday 17 December
First meeting of the new (58th) Parliament of the United Kingdom, for the formal election of a Speaker of the Commons and the swearing-in of members, ahead of the State Opening of the new Parliament's first session.[34][35][36]

Campaign[edit]

Background[edit]

The Conservative Party and Labour Party have been the two biggest political parties, and have supplied every Prime Minister, since 1922. The Conservative Party have governed since the 2010 election, in coalition with the Liberal Democrats from 2010 to 2015. At the 2015 general election the Conservative party committed to offering a referendum on whether the UK should leave the European Union and won a majority in that election. A referendum was held in June 2016, and the leave campaign won by 51.9% to 48.1%. The UK initiated the withdrawal process in March 2017, and Prime Minister Theresa May triggered a snap general election in 2017, in order to demonstrate support for her planned negotiation of Brexit. The outcome was the Conservative Party winning a plurality but not a majority of MPs; so they formed a minority government, with the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) as confidence and supply partners. Neither May nor her successor Boris Johnson (winner of the 2019 Conservative Party leadership election)[37][38] were able to secure parliamentary support either for a deal on the terms of the UK's exit from the EU, or for exiting the EU without an agreed deal. Johnson later succeeded in bringing his Withdrawal Agreement to a second reading in Parliament, following another extension until January 2020.

During the lifespan of the 2017 parliament, an unprecedented[dubious ] number of MPs left their parties, most due to disputes with party leadership, with some forming new parties and alliances. In February 2019, eight Labour and three Conservative MPs resigned from their parties to sit together as The Independent Group.[39] Having undergone a split and two name changes, at dissolution this group numbered five MPs who sat as the registered party The Independent Group for Change under the leadership of Anna Soubry.[40][41] Two MPs sat in a group called The Independents (which had at its peak 5 members), one MP created the Birkenhead Social Justice Party, while a further 20 MPs who began as Labour or Conservative ended the Parliament as unaffiliated independents. Seven MPs, from both the Conservatives and Labour, joined the Liberal Democrats during the parliament, in combination with a by-election gain. The Lib Dems ultimately raised their number from 12 at the election to 20 at dissolution.[42]

Policy positions[edit]

Party Brexit positions[edit]

The major parties have a wide variety of stances on Brexit. The Conservative Party support leaving under the terms of the withdrawal agreement as negotiated by Johnson (amending Theresa May's previous agreement), and this agreement forms a central part of the Conservative campaign.[43] The Brexit Party are in favour of a "no-deal Brexit", with their leader Farage calling for Johnson to drop the deal.[44] The Scottish National Party (SNP),[45] Plaid Cymru,[46][47] The Independent Group for Change,[48] and the Green Party of England and Wales[49] are each opposed to Brexit, and propose that a further referendum be held with the option – which they would campaign for – to remain in the EU. This is similar to the Liberal Democrat position, with the additional pledge that a Liberal Democrat majority government (considered a highly unlikely outcome by observers[50]) would revoke the article 50 notification immediately.[51][52][53] The Labour party position is that a Labour government would renegotiate the withdrawal agreement (towards a closer post-withdrawal association with the EU) and would then put this forward as an option in a referendum against remaining in the EU.[54] The Labour party's campaigning stance in that referendum would be decided at a special conference.[55] Although the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) are in favour of a withdrawal agreement in principle, they oppose the deals negotiated by May and Johnson as they consider that they create too great a divide between Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK.[56][57] Sinn Féin, the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and Alliance all favour remaining in the EU. The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) favour remaining over Johnson's proposed deal.[58][failed verification]

Other issues[edit]

Labour proposed nationalising part of BT and providing free broadband to everyone. The Conservatives criticised the project's expense.[59] The Labour Party proposes to take rail-operating companies, energy supply networks, Royal Mail, sewerage and England’s private water companies back into public ownership.

The Labour Party is running for free education for six years.[60][61]

The Liberal Democrats, Green Party, SNP, and Labour, parties all support a ban on fracking, whilst the Conservatives propose approving fracking on a case-by-case basis.[62][63]

Endorsements[edit]

Newspapers, organisations and individuals have endorsed parties or individual candidates for the election

Television debates[edit]

← 2017 debates 2019

ITV plan to host a head-to-head election debate between Boris Johnson and Jeremy Corbyn on 19 November, hosted by Julie Etchingham.[64] The broadcaster is also planning another debate in which the Liberal Democrats, the SNP, the Brexit Party, the Greens, and Plaid Cymru (in addition to the Labour and Conservative Parties) would be able to participate. Separate debates in Northern Ireland are also planned. STV are planning to hold a debate in Scotland.[65] ITV Cymru Wales aired a debate featuring representatives from the Conservatives, Labour, Liberal Democrats, Plaid Cymru and Brexit Party on 17 November, hosted by Adrian Masters.[66]

On the BBC, broadcaster Andrew Neil is due to separately interview party leaders in The Andrew Neil Interviews, and BBC Northern Ireland journalist Mark Carruthers to separately interview the five main Northern Irish political leaders on The View with Mark Carruthers.[67] The BBC also plans to hold a variety of election debates, including a head-to-head debate between Boris Johnson and Jeremy Corbyn on 6 December and a Question Time special featuring Boris Johnson, Jeremy Corbyn, Jo Swinson and Nicola Sturgeon.[68] BBC Scotland, BBC Wales and BBC Northern Ireland also plan on hosting a variety of regional debates.[69] The BBC's comedy quiz show Would I Lie To You? announced that it would be off air until 20 December, to make way for the BBC's election specials.

Sky News intends to hold a three-way election debate on 28 November and had invited Boris Johnson, Jeremy Corbyn and Jo Swinson. Swinson confirmed she would attend the debate.[70]

2019 United Kingdom general election debates
Date Organisers Venue Leaders of Viewing figures
(millions)
 P  Present   S  Standing-in   NI  Not invited   A  Absent   I  Invited  
Con Lab SNP LD Plaid Green DUP SF SDLP UUP Alli. Brexit
17 November[71] ITV Cymru Wales ITV Wales Studios, Cardiff Bay[66] Wales TBA S
Davies
S
Thomas-Symonds
NI P
Dodds
S
Saville Roberts
NI NI NI NI NI NI S
Gill
19 November[72] ITV Dock10, Salford[73][74] UK 6.7[75] P
Johnson
P
Corbyn
NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI
22 November BBC
(Question Time)
Sheffield[68] UK TBA I
Johnson
I
Corbyn
I
Sturgeon
I
Swinson
NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI
26 November BBC Wales Pembrokeshire (TBC) Wales TBA I
TBC
I
TBC
NI I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
NI NI NI NI NI I
TBC
28 November[76] Sky News TBA UK TBA I
Johnson
I
Corbyn
NI I
Swinson
NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI
29 November[68] BBC Cardiff (TBC) UK TBA I
Johnson
I
Corbyn
I
Sturgeon
I
Swinson
I
Price
I
TBC
NI NI NI NI NI I
Farage
1 December[77] ITV TBA UK TBA I
Johnson
I
Corbyn
I
Sturgeon
I
Swinson
I
Price
I
TBC
NI NI NI NI NI I
Farage
3 December BBC Wales North Wales (TBC) Wales TBA I
TBC
I
TBC
NI I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
NI NI NI NI NI I
TBC
3 December[78] STV Glasgow (TBC) Scotland TBA I
Carlaw
I
Leonard
I
Sturgeon
I
Rennie
NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI
6 December[68] BBC Southampton (TBC) UK TBA I
Johnson
I
Corbyn
NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI
8 December UTV TBA Northern Ireland[79] TBA NI NI NI NI NI NI I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
NI
9 December BBC
(Question Time Under 30)
York[80] UK TBA I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
NI NI NI NI NI I
TBC
10 December BBC Northern Ireland TBA Northern Ireland TBA TBC
10 December BBC Scotland BBC Pacific Quay Scotland TBA I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
I
TBC
NI I
TBC
NI NI NI NI NI I
TBC

Reaction[edit]

Date(s)
administered
Poll source Sample size Johnson Corbyn Lead
ITV: Johnson vs. Corbyn
19 Nov 2019 YouGov 1,646 51% 49% 2%

Campaign events[edit]

Before candidate nominations closed, several planned candidates for Labour and for the Conservatives withdrew, principally because of past social media activity.[81]

In the early stages of the campaign, there was considerable discussion of tactical voting (generally in the context of support or opposition to Brexit) and whether parties would stand in all seats or not.[82] There were various electoral pacts and unilateral decisions. The Brexit Party chose not to stand against sitting Conservative candidates, but are standing in most other constituencies. The Brexit Party alleged that pressure was put on their candidates by the Conservatives to withdraw, including the offer of peerages, which would be illegal. This was denied by the Conservative Party.[83] The Liberal Democrats, Plaid Cymru and the Green Party of England & Wales agreed an electoral pact in some seats, Unite to Remain, but some commentators criticised the Liberal Democrats for not standing down in some Labour seats.[84]

Several former Labour MPs critical of Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn endorsed the Conservatives.[85] Meanwhile, several former Conservative MPs endorsed the Liberal Democrats and/or independent candidates.

Contesting political parties and candidates[edit]

Most candidates are representatives of a political party, which must be registered with the Electoral Commission's Register of Political Parties. Candidates who do not belong to a registered party can use an "independent" label, or no label at all. Across the United Kingdom, there are 3,415 candidates representing 68 political parties, including 206 independent candidates.

Great Britain[edit]

Major parties (parties with MPs at dissolution or current MEPs) that are contesting this election in Great Britain are shown in the table below with their results at the 2017 general election, ordered by the number of seats they won.

Party Party leader(s) Leader since Leader's seat Last election Seats at
dissolution
Contesting seats
% of
votes
Seats
Conservative Party Boris Johnson July 2019 Uxbridge & South Ruislip 42.4% 317 298 635 seats in the United Kingdom
Labour Party Jeremy Corbyn September 2015 Islington North 40.0% 262 244 631 seats in Great Britain
Scottish National Party Nicola Sturgeon November 2014 None[n 4] 3.0% 35 35 59 seats in Scotland
Liberal Democrats Jo Swinson July 2019 East Dunbartonshire 7.4% 12 21 611 seats in Great Britain
Plaid Cymru Adam Price September 2018 None[n 5] 0.5% 4 4 36 seats in Wales
Green Party of England and Wales Jonathan Bartley September 2016 None[n 6] 1.6% 1 1 474 seats in England and Wales
Siân Berry September 2018
The Independent Group for Change Anna Soubry June 2019 Broxtowe New party 5 Broxtowe, Nottingham East and Ilford South[86]
Brexit Party Nigel Farage March 2019 None[n 7] New party 0 276 seats in Great Britain

As outlined above, the Conservative Party have governed in coalition or on their own since 2010, and have been led by Boris Johnson since July 2019. Jeremy Corbyn has been Labour Party leader since 2015 and as such becomes the first Labour leader to contest consecutive general elections since Tony Blair. One other party, the Liberal Democrats, is contesting seats across Great Britain. They were led by Tim Farron at the 2017 election, before he was replaced by Vince Cable. Cable was succeeded by Jo Swinson in July 2019.[87][88] The Brexit Party are contesting somewhat under half the seats. They were founded in early 2019 by Nigel Farage, former leader of the UK Independence Party (UKIP), and won the most votes at the May 2019 elections to the European parliament. The Brexit Party have largely replaced UKIP in British politics, with UKIP (which gained 12.6% of the vote but just one MP at the 2015 election) losing almost all its support. UKIP are standing in 42 seats in Great Britain and two seats in Northern Ireland.

The Green Party of England and Wales have been led by Jonathan Bartley and Siân Berry since 2018, with their counterparts the Green Party of Scotland standing in Scottish seats. The two parties are standing in a total of 495 seats. The third-largest party in seats won at the 2017 election was the Scottish National Party, led by Nicola Sturgeon since 2014, who stand only in Scotland but hold the majority (35 of 59) of seats there. Similarly, Plaid Cymru, led by Adam Price, stand only in Wales where they hold 4 of 40 seats.

Northern Ireland[edit]

While a number of UK parties organise in Northern Ireland (including the Labour Party, which does not field candidates) and others field candidates for election (most notably the Conservatives), the main Northern Ireland parties are different from those in the rest of the UK. Some parties in Northern Ireland operate on an all-Ireland basis, including Sinn Féin. The only independent elected to Parliament in 2017, Sylvia Hermon, represented North Down but is not standing in 2019.

Party Leader Leader since Leader's
seat
Last election Seats at
dissolution
Contesting seats (18 in total)
%
(in NI)
Seats
Democratic Unionist Party Arlene Foster December 2015 None[n 8] 36.0% 10 10 17 seats
Sinn Féin Mary Lou McDonald February 2018 None[n 9] 29.4% 7 7 15 seats
Social Democratic & Labour Party Colum Eastwood November 2015 None[n 10] 11.7% 0 0 15 seats
Ulster Unionist Party Robin Swann April 2017 None[n 11] 10.3% 0 0 16 seats
Alliance Party Naomi Long October 2016 None[n 12] 7.9% 0 0 18 seats

Sinn Féin are abstensionist and do not take up any Commons seats to which they are elected.

102 candidates are standing in the general election, with Alliance the only party to be standing in all 18 seats. The DUP are standing in 17 seats, the UUP in 16 and Sinn Fein and the SDLP in 15 seats. Aontú are standing in 7 seats, the NI Conservatives in 4, the Green Party of Northern Ireland in 3, and People Before Profit and UKIP in 2. Traditional Unionist Voice are not standing in this election.[89]

Electoral pacts and unilateral decisions[edit]

Constituencies where the Unite to Remain pact is active. Colored by which party will stand a candidate.

In England and Wales, the Liberal Democrats, Plaid Cymru, and the Green Party of England and Wales – parties sharing an anti-Brexit position – have arranged a "Unite to Remain" pact. Labour declined to be involved. This agreement means that in 60 constituencies only one of these parties, the one considered to have the best chance of winning, will stand. This pact aims to maximise the total number of anti-Brexit MPs returned under the first-past-the-post system by avoiding the spoiler effect.[90]

In addition, the Liberal Democrats are not running against Dominic Grieve (independent, formerly Conservative),[91] Gavin Shuker (independent, formerly Labour),[92] and Anna Soubry (The Independent Group for Change, formerly Conservative).[93][94]

The Brexit Party leader Nigel Farage had suggested the Brexit and Conservative parties could form an electoral pact to maximise the seats taken by Brexit-supporting MPs, but this was rejected by Johnson.[95] On 11 November, Farage announced that his party would not stand in any of the 317 seats won by the Conservatives at the last election. This was welcomed by the Conservative Party chairman James Cleverly; although he insisted there had been no contact between them and the Brexit Party over the plan.[96] Newsnight reported that conversations between members of the Brexit Party and the pro-Brexit Conservative group, the European Research Group (ERG) led to this decision.[97] The Brexit Party reportedly requested that Johnson publicly state he would not extend the Brexit transition period beyond the planned end of December 2020 date and that he wished for a Canada-style free trade agreement with the EU. Johnson did make a statement covering these two issues, something which Farage referenced as key when announcing he was standing down some candidates. Both the Brexit Party and the Conservatives deny any deal was done between the two.[97][98][99]

Map showing electoral pacts in Northern Ireland

The Green Party are also not standing in two Conservative-held seats, Chingford and Woodford Green and Calder Valley, in favour of Labour.[100][101] The Green Party had also unsuccessfully attempted to form a progressive alliance with the Labour Party prior to Unite to Remain.[102] The Women's Equality Party have stood aside in three seats in favour of the Liberal Democrats, after the LibDems adopted some of their policies.

The DUP is not contesting Fermanagh and South Tyrone and the UUP is not contesting Belfast North so as not to split the unionist vote. Other parties are standing down in selected seats so as not to split the anti-Brexit vote. The nationalist and anti-Brexit parties the SDLP and Sinn Féin have agreed a pact whereby the SDLP is not standing in Belfast North (in favour of Sinn Féin), while Sinn Féin is not standing in Belfast South (in favour of SDLP); neither party is standing in Belfast East or North Down[103] and advising their supporters to vote Alliance in those two constituencies. The Green Party in Northern Ireland is not standing in any of the four Belfast constituencies,[104] backing the SDLP in Belfast South, Sinn Féin in Belfast North and West, and Alliance in Belfast East and North Down.[105][106][107][108] Alliance are not standing down in any seats,[109] describing the plans as "sectarian".[110]

Marginal seats[edit]

At the 2017 election, more than 1 in 8 seats were won by a margin of 5% or less of votes,[111] whilst almost 1 in 4 were won by 10% or less.[112] These seats are seen as crucial in deciding the election.[113]

2017–19 MPs standing under a different political affiliation[edit]

The following MPs elected in 2017 are contesting the 2019 election for a different party or as an independent candidate, with a number of these moving to different constituencies.

Outgoing MP 2017 party 2017 constituency 2019 party 2019 constituency
Luciana Berger Labour Liverpool Wavertree Liberal Democrats Finchley and Golders Green
Frank Field Labour Birkenhead Birkenhead Social Justice Birkenhead
Mike Gapes Labour Ilford South Change UK Ilford South
David Gauke Conservative South West Hertfordshire Independent South West Hertfordshire
Roger Godsiff Labour Birmingham Hall Green Independent Birmingham Hall Green
Dominic Grieve Conservative Beaconsfield Independent Beaconsfield
Sam Gyimah Conservative East Surrey Liberal Democrats Kensington
Phillip Lee Conservative Bracknell Liberal Democrats Wokingham
Chris Leslie Labour Nottingham East Change UK Nottingham East
Ivan Lewis Labour Bury South Independent Bury South
Anne Milton Conservative Guildford Independent Guildford
Antoinette Sandbach Conservative Eddisbury Liberal Democrats Eddisbury
Anna Soubry Conservative Broxtowe Change UK Broxtowe
Gavin Shuker Labour Luton South Independent Luton South
Angela Smith Labour Penistone and Stocksbridge Liberal Democrats Altrincham and Sale West
Chris Williamson Labour Derby North Independent Derby North
Sarah Wollaston Conservative Totnes Liberal Democrats Totnes
Chuka Umunna Labour Streatham Liberal Democrats Cities of London and Westminster

Candidates withdrawn[edit]

On 18 November, Sophie Cook announced that she was withdrawing from the race in the East Worthing & Shoreham constituency where she was running as an independent, having previously run as the Labour candidate in 2017. She cited harrassment that she was receiving and its effect on her mental health as the reason for doing so.[114]

On 19 November, the Brexit Party withdrew support from their Glenrothes candidate over homophobic social media posts.[115] On the same day, the Conservatives' Aberdeen North candidate was suspended for alleged anti-Semitic, Islamophobic and homophobic comments.[116] On 20 November, the Conservative candidate for Leeds North East was suspended from the party over anti-semitism.[117]

Members of Parliament not standing for re-election[edit]

A total of 74 MPs who held seats at the end of the Parliament are not standing for re-election.[118][119]

Opinion polling[edit]

The chart below depicts the results of opinion polls, mostly only of voters in Great Britain, conducted from the 2017 United Kingdom general election until the present. The line plotted is the average of the last 15 polls.

Great Britain opinion polling; moving average is calculated from the last 15 polls.
  Conservatives
  Labour
  Liberal Democrats
  Brexit Party
  SNP & Plaid Cymru
  Greens
  Independent Group for Change
  UKIP


Predictions three weeks before the vote[edit]

The first-past-the-post system used in UK general elections means that the number of seats won is not directly related to vote share. Thus, several approaches are used to convert polling data and other information into seat predictions. The table below lists some of the predictions.


Parties Electoral Calculus[120]
as of 20 November 2019
Election maps[121]
as of 17 November 2019
Election setc [122]
as of 20 November 2019
Election maps [123]
as of 20 November 2019
Parallel Parliament [124] [125]
as of 20 November 2019
Conservatives
365
346
354
346
345
Labour Party 201 211 206 211 203
SNP 46 51 45 51 48
Liberal Democrats 19 18 25 24 24
Plaid Cymru 4 4 4 4 5
Green Party 1 1 1 1 1
Brexit Party 0 0 0 0 0
Others 18 18 18 18 18
Overall result (probability) Conservative
majority
Conservative
majority
Conservative
majority
Conservative
majority
Conservative
majority

Full results[edit]

e • d Results of the December 2019 House of Commons of the United Kingdom results
Political party Leader MPs Votes
Candidates[126] Total Gained Lost Net Of total (%) Total Of total (%) Change (%)
Conservative Boris Johnson 635
Labour Jeremy Corbyn 631
Liberal Democrats Jo Swinson 611
Green Siân Berry & Jonathan Bartley 498
Brexit Party Nigel Farage 275
SNP Nicola Sturgeon 59
UKIP Patricia Mountain (Interim) 45
Plaid Cymru Adam Price 36
Yorkshire Party Christopher Whitwood 28
Christian Peoples Sidney Cordle 27
Monster Raving Loony Howling Laud Hope 24
Scottish Green Patrick Harvie & Lorna Slater 21
SDP William Clouston 20
Liberal Steve Radford 19
Alliance Naomi Long 18
DUP Arlene Foster 17
UUP Steve Aiken 16
Sinn Féin Mary Lou McDonald 15
SDLP Colum Eastwood 14
Aontú Peadar Tóibín 7
Animal Welfare Vanessa Hudson 6
Libertarian Adam Brown 5
Advance Annabel Mullin 5
Renew Julie Girling 4
English Democrat Robin Tilbrook 4
Workers Revolutionary Joshua Ogunleye 4
Green (NI) Clare Bailey 3
Women’s Equality Mandu Reid (Interim) 3
The Independent Group for Change Anna Soubry 3
Gwlad Gwlad Sian Caiach 3
JAC Donald Jerrard 3
Young People's Thomas Hall 3
Alliance for Green Socialism Mike Davies 3
Socialist Equality Collective 3
Scottish Family Party Richard Lucas 2
Communities United Kamran Malik 2
BNP Adam Walker 2
North East Party Mark Burdon 2
People Before Profit Collective 2
Christian Jeff Green 2
Socialist (GB) None 2
Veterans and People's Robin Horsfall 2
Peace John Morris 2
Yeshua John Morris 2
Mebyon Kernow Dick Cole 1
Scottish Libertarian Party Tam Laird 1
Speaker Lindsay Hoyle 1
Total 3429 650

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Persons without a permanent or fixed address can make a "Declaration of local connection" to a particular location in order to register[4]
  2. ^ Or, in the case of a British citizen who moved abroad before the age of 18, if his/her parent/guardian was on the Electoral Register in the UK in the last 15 years
  3. ^ The deadline for the receipt and determination of anonymous electoral registration applications is one working day before the publication date of the notice of alteration to the Electoral Register (that is the sixth working day before polling day).[12]
  4. ^ Nicola Sturgeon sits as an MSP in the Scottish Parliament for Glasgow Southside. Ian Blackford, MP for Ross, Skye and Lochaber leads the SNP in the British House of Commons.
  5. ^ Adam Price sits as an AM in the Welsh Assembly for Carmarthen East and Dinefwr. The party's leader in the Commons is Liz Saville Roberts, the MP for Dwyfor Meirionnydd.
  6. ^ Bartley sits as a councillor on Lambeth Council while Berry sits on the London Assembly.
  7. ^ Farage sits as an MEP in the European Parliament for South East England. The party has no MPs in the House of Commons.
  8. ^ Arlene Foster sat as an MLA in the Northern Ireland Assembly for Fermanagh and South Tyrone prior to the collapse of the Assembly. The party's leader in the Commons is Nigel Dodds, the MP for Belfast North.
  9. ^ Mary Lou McDonald sits as a TD in Dáil Éireann for Dublin Central.
  10. ^ Colum Eastwood sat as an MLA in the Northern Ireland Assembly for Foyle prior to the collapse of the Assembly. Eastwood is contesting the general election for the conterminous UK parliamentary seat.
  11. ^ Robin Swann sat as an MLA in the Northern Ireland Assembly for North Antrim prior to the collapse of the Assembly.
  12. ^ Naomi Long sits as an MEP in the European Parliament for Northern Ireland.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chris Hanretty (29 October 2019). "Why UK election outcome is impossible to predict". Politico Europe. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  2. ^ "Representation of the People Act 1983, Section 1". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
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