|Developer(s)||Nextcloud GmbH., Community|
|Operating system||Server: Linux|
Clients: Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS
|Type||Online storage, data synchronization|
Nextcloud is a suite of client-server software for creating and using file hosting services. It is enterprise-ready with comprehensive support options. Being free and open-source software, anyone is allowed to install and operate it on their own private server devices.
Nextcloud is functionally similar to Dropbox, Office 365 or Google Drive when used with its integrated office suite solutions Collabora Online or OnlyOffice. It can be hosted in the cloud or on-premise. It is scalable from home office solutions based on the low cost Raspberry Pi all the way through to full sized data centre solutions that support millions of users.
Nextcloud files are stored in conventional directory structures, accessible via WebDAV if necessary. User files are encrypted during transit and optionally at rest. Nextcloud can synchronise with local clients running Windows (Windows 7, 8, and 10), macOS (10.6 or later), or various Linux distributions.
Nextcloud permits user and group administration (via OpenID or LDAP). Content can be shared by defining granular read/write permissions between users and groups. Alternatively, Nextcloud users can create public URLs when sharing files. Logging of file-related actions, as well as disallowing access based on file access rules is also available.
Nextcloud has planned new features such as monitoring capabilities, full-text search and Kerberos authentication, as well as audio/video conferencing, expanded federation and smaller user interface improvements.
Since the software is modular, it can be extended with plugins to implement extra functionality. Developers can offer their extensions to other users for installation via a manufacturer-operated platform. This platform communicates with the Nextcloud instances via an open protocol. The App Store contains over 200 extensions. With the help of these extensions, many functionalities can be added, including:
- calendars (CalDAV)
- contacts (CardDAV)
- streaming media (Ampache)
- browser-based text editor
- bookmarking service
- URL shortening suite
- RSS feed reader
- document viewer tools from within Nextcloud
- connection to Dropbox, Google Drive and Amazon S3
- Web analytics (Use of Matomo)
- Integration of content management systems e.g. Pico CMS
- Viewer for weather forecasting
- Viewer for DICOM
- Viewer for maps
- Managing of cooking recipes
On January 17, 2020, version 18 was presented in Berlin under the product name Nextcloud Hub. For the first time, an office package (here OnlyOffice) was directly integrated here and Nextcloud announced, as its goal, direct competition with Microsoft Office 365 and Google Docs. Furthermore, a partnership with Ionos was announced at this date. Office functionality works with x86/x64 and ARM64 based servers with Collabora Online, OnlyOffice currently does not support ARM. In contrast to proprietary services the open architecture enables users to have full control of their data.
In order for desktop machines to synchronize files with their Nextcloud server, desktop clients are available for PCs running Windows, macOS, FreeBSD or Linux. Mobile clients exist for iOS and Android devices. Files and other data (such as calendars, contacts or bookmarks) can also be accessed, managed, and uploaded using a web browser without any additional software. Any updates to the file system are pushed to all computers and mobile devices connected to a user's account.
With Nextcloud 12, a new architecture was developed with the name Global Scale, with the goal of scaling to hundreds of millions of users. It splits users over separate nodes and introduces components to manage the interaction between them.
In September 2016, Nextcloud, in cooperation with Western Digital Labs and Canonical (the company behind Ubuntu), released the Nextcloud Box. The Nextcloud box was based on a Raspberry Pi, running Ubuntu Core with Snappy; it was intended to serve as a reference device for other vendors. In June 2017, Western Digital shut down Western Digital Labs, which caused the production of the box to end.
History of the fork from ownCloud
The fork was preceded by a blog post of Karlitschek, asking questions such as "Who owns the community? Who owns ownCloud itself? And what matters more, short term money or long term responsibility and growth?" There have been no official statements about the reason for the fork. However, Karlitschek mentioned the fork several times in a talk at the 2018 FOSDEM conference, emphasizing cultural mismatch between open source developers and business oriented people not used to the open source community.
On June 2, within 12 hours of the announcement of the fork, the American entity "ownCloud Inc." announced that it is shutting down with immediate effect, stating that "[…] main lenders in the US have cancelled our credit. Following American law, we are forced to close the doors of ownCloud, Inc. with immediate effect and terminate the contracts of 8 employees.". ownCloud Inc. accused Karlitschek of poaching developers, while Nextcloud developers such as Arthur Schiwon stated that he "decided to quit because not everything in the ownCloud Inc. company world evolved as I imagined". ownCloud GmbH continued operations, secured financing from new investors and took over the business of the ownCloud Inc.
Differences from ownCloud
While Nextcloud was originally a fork of the ownCloud project, there are now many differences. For instance, ownCloud offers an open-source community edition, but also offers a proprietary Enterprise Edition with additional features and supports subscriptions—Nextcloud instead uses the same public code base for both free and paid users.
|Version||Original release date||Latest version||Release date||Major features|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 9||June 14, 2016||9.0.58||2017-04-24|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 10||August 25, 2016||10.0.6||2017-08-07|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 11||December 13, 2016||11.0.8||2018-03-15|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 12||May 22, 2017||12.0.13||2018-11-22|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 13||February 6, 2018||13.0.12||2019-02-29|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 14||September 10, 2018||14.0.14||2019-08-16|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 15||December 10, 2018||15.0.14||2019-12-19|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 16||April 25, 2019||16.0.11||2020-06-04||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 17||September 30, 2019||17.0.10||2020-10-08||
|Old version, no longer maintained: 18||January 17, 2020||18.0.14||2021-01-27|
|Older version, yet still maintained: 19||June 3, 2020||19.0.10||2021-04-09||Features|
|Older version, yet still maintained: 20||October 3, 2020||20.0.9||2021-04-09||Features
|Current stable version: 21||February 22, 2021||21.0.1||2021-04-09|
Maintenance and release schedule
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- Comparison of file hosting services
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...fully pre-configured and automatically updated in time so you won’t have to do any manual maintenance on it
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- "ownCloud Secures Financing and Expands its Management Team - ownCloud". 14 July 2016.
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- "Secure, Monitor and Control your data with Nextcloud 10 – get it now!". Retrieved 2018-09-10.
- "Nextcloud 11 sets new standard for security and scalability". Retrieved 2018-09-10.
- "Welcome to Nextcloud 12!". Retrieved 2018-09-10.
- "Nextcloud 13 Brings Improved UI, Video and Text Chat, End-to-end Encryption, Improved performance and more". Retrieved 2018-09-10.
- "Nextcloud 14 now available with Video Verification, Signal/Telegram 2FA support, Improved Collaboration and GDPR compliance". Retrieved 2018-09-10.
- "Nextcloud 15 goes social, enforces TFA and gives you a new generation real-time document editing". Retrieved 2018-12-10.
- "Nextcloud 16 implements Access Control Lists to replace classic File Servers". 2019-04-25.
- "Nextcloud 16 introduces machine learning based security and usability features, ACL permissions and cross-app projects". 2019-04-25.
- "Nextcloud 16 allows you to link resources to keep track of your projects". 2019-04-25.
- "Talk 6 brings Commands, improved user experience and more". 2019-04-25.
- Nextcloud. "The new standard in on-premises team collaboration: Nextcloud Hub". Nextcloud. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "Talk 9: big step forward for team calls, efficient work flows and open source back-end". Nextcloud. Archived from the original on 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
- "Maintenance and Release Schedule".
- Maintenance and Release Schedule, Nextcloud, 2019-11-13, retrieved 2019-12-05
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