Ngura languages

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Eastern Karnic
Northwest New South Wales, southwest Queensland, Australia
Extinctca. 1990
Linguistic classificationPama–Nyungan;
some languages may be Karnic, some Maric, but most are unclassified
  • Wangkumara–Bundhamara
  • Galali
  • ? Bidjara
  • ?? Dhiraila
  • ?? Garandala
  • ?? Mambangura
  • ?? Mingbari
  • ?? Ngurawarla
  • ?? Yarumarra
  • × Badjiri
ISO 639-3[ ekc (Eastern Karnic) ekc (Eastern Karnic)]
Glottologngur1261  (Ngura)[1]

Ngura is an ethnic designation of central Australia.

Of the various languages that have gone by this name, Bowern (2001) classifies Galali/Garlali and Wangkumara-plus-Bundhamara/Punthamara (also known as Ngandangara/Yarumarra) as Eastern Karnic. Bidjara (not to be confused with the Bidjara language of the Maric languages) may be another, but there is not enough data to be sure. Bowern believes that Badjiri was probably not even a Karnic language, but again the data is too sketchy to be sure.

Other poorly attested varieties listed in Ethnologue are:

Dhiraila, Garandala (Karendala), Mambangura, Mingbari (Minkabari), Ngurawarla.[2]

None of these can be usefully classified, and it is doubtful that Mingbari was an actual dialect.[3] However, in 2013 the ISO code ekc was assigned to 'Eastern Karnic', including only the questionable varieties, despite the fact that it is not clear that there is any data for this 'language'.[4][5]


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ngura". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Ngura at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  3. ^ AIATSIS:Minkabari
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]