Nhạc đỏ or literally "Red Music" is the common name of the revolutionary music (nhạc cách mạng) genre in Vietnam. This genre of music began soon after the beginning of the 20th century during the French colonial period, advocating for independence, socialism and anti-colonialism. Red Music was later strongly promoted across North Vietnam during the War, to urge Northerners to achieve reunification under the Communist Party of Vietnam and fight against the "American imperialist puppet" in South Vietnam. Other forms of non-traditional, non-Revolutionary music and culture in the North, like Vietnamese popular music and Western music and culture, were banned, being labelled as "counter-revolutionary", "bourgeois", or "capitalist".
- Alexander Cannon Reorienting the Voices in Nhạc cách mạng: Constructing Identity in Vietnamese Revolutionary Songs.
- Asian music: journal of the Society for Asian Music Volume 35 Page 75 Society for Asian Music 2004 " Đinh Nhu (1910-1945) assumes an important position in the hagiography of Vietnamese revolutionary music. Captured by the French after participating in the Nghệ Tĩnh Soviet uprising in 1930, he organized cultural events in prison including plays and singing."