Niğde

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Niğde
View from Nigde Castle
View from Nigde Castle
Niğde is located in Turkey
Niğde
Niğde
Coordinates: 37°58′00″N 34°40′45″E / 37.96667°N 34.67917°E / 37.96667; 34.67917Coordinates: 37°58′00″N 34°40′45″E / 37.96667°N 34.67917°E / 37.96667; 34.67917
CountryTurkey
ProvinceNiğde
Government
 • MayorEmrah Özdemir (AKP)
Area
 • District2,302.99 km2 (889.19 sq mi)
Elevation
1,229 m (4,032 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total
362,071
 • Total density160/km2 (410/sq mi)
Websitewww.nigde.bel.tr

Niğde (Turkish pronunciation: [ni:de]; Ancient Greek: Νίγδη; Hittite: Nahita, Naxita) is a city and the capital of Niğde province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey at an elevation of 1,299 m. In 2017 the city population was 141,010 people.[2]

The city is small with plenty of green space and gardens around the houses. Its people generally tend to be religious and conservative.

Medieval monuments are scattered about the centre of the town, especially around the market place.

The nearest airport is Nevşehir Kapadokya Airport (NAV) which is 90.6 km (50.6 miles) away.

History[edit]

Late Hittite stele fragment from Andaval, plaster cast in the Niğde Archaeological Museum.

Niğde is located near a number of ancient trade routes, particularly the road from Kayseri (ancient Caesarea Mazaca) to the Cilician Gates and thence to the Mediterranean coast. The area has been settled by Hittites, Assyrians, Greeks, Armenians, Romans, Byzantines and Turks. In the early Middle Ages, it was known as Magida (Greek: Μαγίδα), and was settled by the remaining inhabitants of nearby Tyana after it fell to the Arabs in 708/709.

By the early 13th century Niğde was one of the largest cities in Anatolia. After the fall of the Sultanate of Rûm (of which it had been one of the principal cities), Niğde was captured by Anatolian beyliks such as the Karaman Beylik and Eretna Beylik. Passing through in the 14th century, the explorer Ibn Battuta reported it ruinous. It did not pass into Ottoman hands until 1467.

Prodromos Church in Niğde Province.

According to the Ottoman population statistics of 1914, the sanjak of Niğde, then part of the Konya Vilayet, had a total population of 291,117, consisting of 227,100 Muslims, 58,312 Greeks, 4,935 Armenians and 769 Protestants. The demographics of the town of Niğde, which was part of the Niğde sanjak, consisted of 52.754 Muslims, 26.156 Greeks, 1.149 Armenians and 137 Protestants.[3] Most of the Christian population of late 19th-century Niğde lived in the Eski Saray Mahallesi near the Sungur Bey Mosque where the remains of two large stone churches still survive in a neglected condition.[4]

Republican era[edit]

More recent immigrants include Turks from Bulgaria and other Balkan countries, who were settled here by the Turkish authorities in the 1950s and 1960s.

Eski Gümüşler Monastery in Niğde

The opening of Niğde University in 1992 started to bring more cultural and social amenities to what was at the time essentially a large town with a rather rural feel to it.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Niğde has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk, Trewartha: BS), bordering on a temperate continental climate (Köppen: Dsa, Trewartha: Dc). Niğde has hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters.

Climate data for Niğde (1991–2020, extremes 1935–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.6
(65.5)
20.5
(68.9)
26.4
(79.5)
30.8
(87.4)
33.0
(91.4)
35.0
(95.0)
38.5
(101.3)
38.5
(101.3)
37.3
(99.1)
32.0
(89.6)
25.0
(77.0)
21.2
(70.2)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.0
(44.6)
11.9
(53.4)
17.2
(63.0)
22.2
(72.0)
26.6
(79.9)
30.2
(86.4)
30.3
(86.5)
26.3
(79.3)
20.4
(68.7)
13.2
(55.8)
7.4
(45.3)
18.2
(64.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
1.4
(34.5)
6.0
(42.8)
11.0
(51.8)
15.6
(60.1)
19.8
(67.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.1
(73.6)
18.8
(65.8)
13.3
(55.9)
6.5
(43.7)
2.0
(35.6)
11.7
(53.1)
Average low °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−3.2
(26.2)
0.8
(33.4)
5.0
(41.0)
9.1
(48.4)
12.9
(55.2)
15.8
(60.4)
15.6
(60.1)
11.4
(52.5)
7.0
(44.6)
1.3
(34.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) −25.6
(−14.1)
−24.2
(−11.6)
−23.9
(−11.0)
−6.9
(19.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
3.5
(38.3)
6.6
(43.9)
6.5
(43.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
−6.2
(20.8)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−25.6
(−14.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34.3
(1.35)
32.0
(1.26)
38.8
(1.53)
41.1
(1.62)
43.4
(1.71)
29.2
(1.15)
5.5
(0.22)
7.7
(0.30)
12.4
(0.49)
30.3
(1.19)
32.7
(1.29)
42.5
(1.67)
349.9
(13.78)
Average precipitation days 9.37 8.40 11.00 12.30 12.93 8.50 2.40 2.13 3.73 6.80 7.37 9.40 94.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.8 141.3 179.8 207.0 254.2 297.0 344.1 341.0 288.0 226.3 165.0 114.7 2,676.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.8 5.0 5.8 6.9 8.2 9.9 11.1 11.0 9.6 7.3 5.5 3.7 7.3
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[5]

Geology[edit]

The town is located between the volcanic Melandiz Mountains, which include the Mount Hasan Stratovolcano near the city of Aksaray to the north, and the Niğde Massif to the south-southeast. The massif is a metamorphic rock dome that contains abandoned antimony and iron mines. Several marble quarries are currently being used to dig out the pure white crystalline marble of the massif.

Sightseeing[edit]

Portal of Alaaddin Mosque, Niğde

In town[edit]

  • Sungur Bey Mosque, a unique early 14th-century mosque in the town centre which combines elements of Selçuk and Gothic architecture, including quadripartite vaulting and a rose window. Standing on a platform above the market place, it was recently restored.[6]
  • Alaaddin Mosque, a 13th-century mosque whose portal is decorated with muqarnas. Shadows cast on the stone masonry around the entrance at a specific time on specific days of the year are said to form an image of a woman's face with a crown and long hair (Islam forbade human imagery but tessellations and calligraphic pictures were allowed, so "accidental" silhouettes became a creative escape).[7]
  • Hudavend Hatun Türbe, the finest of several Selçuk tombs in the centre of Niğde, dates back to the early 14th century.[8]
  • Ak Medrese (White Medrese), built in 1409 during the years when the Karamanoğlu dynasty ruled Niğde.[9]
  • Niğde Castle (Niğde Kalesi) looms above the town, its location made obvious by a clocktower (1902) inside it. It dates back in part to Selçuk times. Its interior is now a public park.[10]
  • Niğde Archaeological Museum, one of whose star attractions is the Niğde Stele which was recovered from the Dışarı Mosque where it was being used as a door lintel.[11]

Around town[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Nüfus". nigde.gov.tr.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ Kemal Karpat (1985), Ottoman Population, 1830-1914, Demographic and Social Characteristics, The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 188-189
  4. ^ "NİĞDE". www.turkeyfromtheinside.com. Retrieved 2022-09-29.
  5. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  6. ^ "Tarihi Sungurbey Camisi'nin restorasyonu sürüyor". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2022-09-27.
  7. ^ https://www.google.no/webhp?hl=no#hl=no&q=ni%C4%9Fde+alaaddin+camii+kap%C4%B1s%C4%B1 Niğde Alaaddin Mosque where a chiaroscuro drawing of a woman's face with crown and long hair appears at a specific time of the year.
  8. ^ https://www.kulturportali.gov.tr/turkiye/nigde/gezilecekyer/hudavent-hatun-turbes. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ "NİĞDE". www.turkeyfromtheinside.com. Retrieved 2022-09-29.
  10. ^ https://www.kulturportali.gov.tr/turkiye/nigde/gezilecekyer/nigde-kalesi. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ https://turkishmuseums.com/museum/detail/2212-nigde-museum/2212/4. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ "Gümüsler Monastery at Cappadocia". voyageanatolia.blogspot.com. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  13. ^ Borges, Jason. https://www.cappadociahistory.com/post/tyana-kemerhisar. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ https://turkeytravelplanner.com/go/CentralAnatolia/Nigde/aladag.html. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ http://www.ulukisla.gov.tr/bolkar-daglari. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ https://www.neredekal.com/cinili-gol-gezilecek-yer-detay/. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ Werkgroep Coupure, Werkgroep Coupure (2009). De Coupure in Gent. Scheiding en verbinding. Academia Press. p. 304. ISBN 9789038213231. Leonidas-Kestekidès (°1882 Nikede, met Griekse nationaliteit…(Translated: Leonidas Kestekides (° 1882 Nigde of Greek nationality
  18. ^ Rōmanou, Kaitē (2009). Serbian and Greek Art Music: A Patch to Western Music History. Intellect Books. p. 152. ISBN 9781841502786. Petros Petrides was born in Nigde, Kappadokia, in 1892 and died in Kifissia (Attica) in 1977. A man of vast knowledge on various fields of science and art, who is rightfully placed among the most cultivated and educated Greek composers of the first half of the 20th century;

External links[edit]