Niacin receptor 1
|Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2|
|Symbols||; GPR109A; HCA2; HM74a; HM74b; NIACR1; PUMAG; Puma-g|
|External IDs||IUPHAR: ChEMBL: GeneCards:|
NIACR1 is a high-affinity Gi/Go-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for nicotinic acid (niacin), and is a member of the nicotinic acid receptor family of GPCRs (the other identified member being Niacin receptor 2, also known as GPR109B). Butyrate is also another common ligand (full agonist) of NIACR1.
Niacin receptor 1 is an important biomolecular target of niacin which is a widely prescribed drug for the treatment of dyslipidemia and to increase HDL cholesterol but whose therapeutic use is limited by flushing. In NIACR1 knockout mice, the effects of niacin on both lipids and flushing is eliminated. Furthermore, in arrestin beta 1 knockout mice, niacin's effect on flushing is greatly reduced while the lipid modifying effects are maintained.
The precise mechanism of action of niacin therapeutic effects has not been fully elucidated, but appears to work in part through activation of NIACR1 which reduces the levels of intracellular cAMP thereby inhibiting lipolysis in adipocytes. In contrast, the flushing effect is due to NIACR1 activation of ERK 1/2 MAP kinase mediated by arrestin beta 1. Activation of MAP kinase in turn causes release of prostaglandin D2 from Langerhans cells in the skin.
The mouse ortholog of NIACR1, Niacr1, has recently been proposed to mediate the ability of 5-oxo-ETE, a member of the 5-HETE family of eicosanoids, to stimulate the production of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA, Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and thereby progesterone in mouse cultured MA-10 Leydig cells. Human tissues respond to 5-oxo-ETE and other 5-HETE family members though the OXER1 G protein-coupled receptor. The roles, if any, of Niacr1 in the response of leydig cells to other 5-HETE family members, of Niacr1 in the response of other mouse cells to 5-HETE family members, and the role of NIACR1 in the response of human tissues to 5-HETE family members has not been determined.
- Takeda S, Kadowaki S, Haga T, Takaesu H, Mitaku S (Jun 2002). "Identification of G protein-coupled receptor genes from the human genome sequence". FEBS Letters 520 (1-3): 97–101. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)02775-8. PMID 12044878.
- "Entrez Gene: GPR109A G protein-coupled receptor 109A".
- Wise A, Foord SM, Fraser NJ, Barnes AA, Elshourbagy N, Eilert M, Ignar DM, Murdock PR, Steplewski K, Green A, Brown AJ, Dowell SJ, Szekeres PG, Hassall DG, Marshall FH, Wilson S, Pike NB (Mar 2003). "Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (11): 9869–74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210695200. PMID 12522134.
- Soga T, Kamohara M, Takasaki J, Matsumoto S, Saito T, Ohishi T, Hiyama H, Matsuo A, Matsushime H, Furuichi K (Mar 2003). "Molecular identification of nicotinic acid receptor". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 303 (1): 364–9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00342-5. PMID 12646212.
- Kasubuchi M, Hasegawa S, Hiramatsu T, Ichimura A, Kimura I (2015). "Dietary gut microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and host metabolic regulation". Nutrients 7 (4): 2839–49. doi:10.3390/nu7042839. PMC 4425176. PMID 25875123.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, which are produced by gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, are recognized as essential host energy sources and act as signal transduction molecules via G-protein coupled receptors (FFAR2, FFAR3, OLFR78, GPR109A) and as epigenetic regulators of gene expression by the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Recent evidence suggests that dietary fiber and the gut microbial-derived SCFAs exert multiple beneficial effects on the host energy metabolism not only by improving the intestinal environment, but also by directly affecting various host peripheral tissues.
- Hoeppli RE, Wu D, Cook L, Levings MK (February 2015). "The environment of regulatory T cell biology: cytokines, metabolites, and the microbiome". Front Immunol 6: 61. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00061. PMC 4332351. PMID 25741338.
Specific species that have been recognized by their high levels of butyrate production include Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and the cluster IV and XIVa of genus Clostridium ... Administration of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in drinking water mimics the effect of Clostridium colonization in germ-free mice, resulting in an elevated Treg frequency in the colonic lamina propria and increased IL-10 production by these Tregs (180, 182). Of the three main SCFAs, butyrate has been found to be the most potent inducer of colonic Tregs. Mice fed a diet enriched in butyrylated starches have more colonic Tregs than those fed a diet containing propinylated or acetylated starches (181). Arpaia et al. tested an array of SCFAs purified from commensal bacteria and confirmed butyrate was the strongest SCFA-inducer of Tregs in vitro (180). Mechanistically, it has been proposed that butyrate, and possibly propionate, promote Tregs through inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC), causing increased acetylation of histone H3 in the Foxp3 CNS1 region, and thereby enhancing FOXP3 expression (180, 181). Short-chain fatty acids partially mediate their effects through G-protein coupled receptors (GPR), including GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109A. GPR41 and GPR43 are stimulated by all three major SCFAs (191), whereas GPR109A only interacts with butyrate (192).
Figure 1: Microbial-derived molecules promote colonic Treg differentiation.
- Pike NB (Dec 2005). "Flushing out the role of GPR109A (HM74A) in the clinical efficacy of nicotinic acid". The Journal of Clinical Investigation 115 (12): 3400–3. doi:10.1172/JCI27160. PMC 1297267. PMID 16322787.
- Tunaru S, Kero J, Schaub A, Wufka C, Blaukat A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S (Mar 2003). "PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect". Nature Medicine 9 (3): 352–5. doi:10.1038/nm824. PMID 12563315.
- Benyó Z, Gille A, Kero J, Csiky M, Suchánková MC, Nüsing RM, Moers A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S (Dec 2005). "GPR109A (PUMA-G/HM74A) mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing". The Journal of Clinical Investigation 115 (12): 3634–40. doi:10.1172/JCI23626. PMC 1297235. PMID 16322797.
- Walters RW, Shukla AK, Kovacs JJ, Violin JD, DeWire SM, Lam CM, Chen JR, Muehlbauer MJ, Whalen EJ, Lefkowitz RJ (May 2009). "beta-Arrestin1 mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing, but not its antilipolytic effect, in mice". The Journal of Clinical Investigation 119 (5): 1312–1321. doi:10.1172/JCI36806. PMC 2673863. PMID 19349687.
- Zhang Y, Schmidt RJ, Foxworthy P, Emkey R, Oler JK, Large TH, Wang H, Su EW, Mosior MK, Eacho PI, Cao G (Aug 2005). "Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 334 (2): 729–32. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.06.141. PMID 16018973.
- Richman JG, Kanemitsu-Parks M, Gaidarov I, Cameron JS, Griffin P, Zheng H, Guerra NC, Cham L, Maciejewski-Lenoir D, Behan DP, Boatman D, Chen R, Skinner P, Ornelas P, Waters MG, Wright SD, Semple G, Connolly DT (Jun 2007). "Nicotinic acid receptor agonists differentially activate downstream effectors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 282 (25): 18028–36. doi:10.1074/jbc.M701866200. PMID 17452318.
- Tang Y, Zhou L, Gunnet JW, Wines PG, Cryan EV, Demarest KT (Jun 2006). "Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 345 (1): 29–37. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.051. PMID 16674924.
- Cooke M, Di Cónsoli H, Maloberti P, Cornejo Maciel F (2013). "Expression and function of OXE receptor, an eicosanoid receptor, in steroidogenic cells". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 371 (1-2): 71–8. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2012.11.003. PMID 23159987.
- "Nicotinic Acid Receptor Family: GPR109A". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.
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