He wrote a number of works both in prose and verse, of which two survive complete. The longest, Theriaca, is a hexameter poem (958 lines) on the nature of venomous animals and the wounds which they inflict. The other, Alexipharmaca, consists of 630 hexameters treating of poisons and their antidotes. Nicander's main source for medical information was the physician Apollodorus of Egypt.[a] Among his lost works, Heteroeumena was a mythological epic, used by Ovid in the Metamorphoses and epitomized by Antoninus Liberalis; Georgica, of which considerable fragments survive, was perhaps imitated by Virgil.
The works of Nicander were praised by Cicero (De oratore, i. 16), imitated by Ovid and Lucan, and frequently quoted by Pliny and other writers (e. g. Tertullian in De Scorpiace, I, 1).
Earlier editions by JG Schneider (1792, 1816); O. Schneider (1856) (with the Scholia).
The Scholia (from the Göttingen manuscript) were edited by G. Wentzel in Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, vol. 48, Göttingen, in der dieterichschen Buchhandlung, 1892, pagg. 131-226.
H. Klauser, "De Dicendi Genere Nicandri" (Dissertationes Philologicae Vindobonenses, vi. 1898).
W. Vollgraff, Nikander und Ovid (Groningen, 1909 ff.).
Theriaca et Alexipharmaca recensuit et emendavit, fragmenta collegit, commentationes addidit Otto Schneider. Accedunt scholia in Theriaca ex recensione Henrici Keil., scholia in Alexipharmaca ex recognitione Bussemakeri et R. Bentlei emedationes, Lipsiae sumptibus et typis B. G. Teubneri, 1856.