Nicholas Christakis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Nicholas A. Christakis)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Nicholas Christakis
Nicholas Christakis.jpg
Born (1962-05-07) May 7, 1962 (age 60)
EducationYale University (BS)
Harvard University (MD)
Harvard University (MPH)
University of Pennsylvania (PhD)
SpouseErika Christakis
Scientific career
InstitutionsUniversity of Pennsylvania
University of Chicago
Harvard Medical School
Harvard University
Yale University
Doctoral advisorRenée Fox

Nicholas A. Christakis (born May 7, 1962) is a Greek-American[1] sociologist and physician known for his research on social networks and on the socioeconomic, biosocial, and evolutionary determinants of behavior, health, and longevity. He is the Sterling Professor of Social and Natural Science at Yale University, where he directs the Human Nature Lab. He is also the Co-Director of the Yale Institute for Network Science.[2][3]

Christakis was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 2006; of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2010; and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2017.[4] In 2021, he received an honorary degree from the University of Athens, Greece.[5]

In 2009, Christakis was named to the Time 100, Time magazine's list of the 100 most influential people in the world.[6] In 2009 and again in 2010, he was named by Foreign Policy magazine to its list of top global thinkers.[7]

Early life[edit]

Christakis' parents are Greek. They had three biological children and then adopted two others, an African-American girl and a Taiwanese boy.[8] His father was a nuclear physicist turned business consultant and his mother a physical chemist turned psychologist.[9] He was born in New Haven, Connecticut in 1962 when both his parents were Yale University graduate students. His family returned to Greece when he was three, and Greek became his first language. He returned to the United States with his family at age six and grew up in Washington, D.C.[10] He graduated from St. Albans School (Washington, D.C.).[8]


Christakis obtained a B.S. degree in biology from Yale University in 1984, where he won the Russell Henry Chittenden Prize. He received an M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School and an M.P.H. degree from the Harvard School of Public Health in 1989, winning the Bowdoin Prize on graduation.

In 1991, Christakis completed a residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Health System. He was certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine in 1993. He obtained a Ph.D. degree in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1995. While at the University of Pennsylvania as a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar, he studied with Renee C. Fox, a distinguished American medical sociologist; other members of his dissertation committee were methodologist Paul Allison and physician Sankey Williams. His dissertation was published as Death Foretold, his first book.[11]


In 1995, Christakis started as an Assistant Professor with joint appointments in the Departments of Sociology and of Medicine at the University of Chicago. In 2001, he was awarded tenure in both Sociology and Medicine. He left the University of Chicago to take up a position at Harvard in 2001. Until July 2013, he was a Professor of Medical Sociology in the Department of Health Care Policy and a Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine at Harvard Medical School; a Professor of Sociology in the Department of Sociology in the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences; and an Attending Physician at the Harvard-affiliated Mt. Auburn Hospital.[12]

In 2013, Christakis moved to Yale University, where he is a Professor of Social and Natural Science in the Department of Sociology, with additional appointments in the Departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Statistics and Data Science; Biomedical Engineering; Medicine; and in the School of Management. He served as the Sol Goldman Family Professor of Social and Natural Science until 2018, when he was appointed as a Sterling Professor, the highest honor bestowed on Yale faculty.

From 2009 to 2013, Christakis and his wife, Erika Christakis, were Co-Masters of Pforzheimer House, one of Harvard's twelve residential houses.[13] From 2015 to 2016, he served in a similar capacity at Silliman College at Yale University.[14]


Christakis uses quantitative methods (e.g., mathematical models, statistical analyses, and experiments). His work focuses on network science and biosocial science, and it has also involved evolutionary biology, evolutionary psychology, behavior genetics, epidemiology, demography, and sociology. He is an author or editor of six books, more than 200 peer-reviewed academic articles, numerous editorials in national and international publications, and at least three patents.[15][16][17] His laboratory is also active in the development and release of software to conduct experiments and other studies (e.g., Breadboard, Trellis).

Studies by Christakis and James H. Fowler, beginning in 2007, suggested that a variety of attributes like obesity,[18] smoking,[19] and happiness,[20] rather than being solely individualistic, also arise via social contagion mechanisms over some distance within social networks (see: "three degrees of influence").[21] Other work by Christakis and Fowler used experimental methods and diverse data sets and settings to study social networks (e.g., to show that altruistic behavior in college students or vitamin use in developing world villages is contagious).[22][23][24][25][26] In 2010, they demonstrated, using an experiment, that cooperative behavior could spread to three degrees of separation.[27] In a TED talk, Christakis summarizes the broader implications of the role of networks in human activity.[28]

In 2009, his group extended the study of social networks to genetics, publishing in PNAS: Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences a finding that social network position may be partially heritable, and specifically that an increase in twins' shared genetic material corresponds to differences in their social networks.[29] In 2011, Fowler and Christakis published a follow-up paper on "Correlated Genotypes in Friendship Networks" in PNAS, advancing the argument that humans may be "metagenomic" with respect to the people around them.[30] Further work on this topic included "Friendship and Natural Selection" in PNAS in 2014.[31] In 2012, in a paper in Nature, the group analyzed the social networks of the Hadza hunter gatherers, showing that human social network structure appears to have ancient origins.[32] Christakis and his colleagues did similar work mapping the networks of the Nyangatom people of Sudan in 2016.[33] His group has also demonstrated that social networks are deeply related to human cooperation.[22][23] These ideas are explored in his 2019 book, Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society.

In 2010, Christakis and Fowler published a paper (based on the spread of H1N1 at Harvard University in 2009) regarding the use of social networks as 'sensors' for forecasting epidemics (of germs and other phenomena).[34] In another TED talk, Christakis describes this effort (and computational social science more generally).[35] A follow-up paper in 2014 documented the utility of this approach to forecast online trends, again based on the "friendship paradox," using Twitter data.[36]

Beginning in 2010, Christakis and his colleagues initiated a program of research to deploy social networks to improve health and other social phenomena—for example, facilitating the adoption of public health innovations in the developing world (published in 2015),[37] or demonstrating the utility of autonomous agents (Artificial Intelligence "bots") in optimizing coordination in groups online (published in 2017).[38]

The 2017 Nature paper on bots[38] initiated a program of work on "hybrid systems" composed of humans and machines (endowed with AI) that reshape how humans interact not with the machines, but with each other. A paper published in 2020 in PNAS extended this idea by showing that physical robots could modify conversations among people interacting in groups.[39] Another paper that year showed that simply programmed bots could re-engineer social connections among humans in networked groups in order to make them become more cooperative.[40] Christakis has argued that "the effects of AI on human-to-human interaction stand to be intense and far-reaching, and the advances rapid and broad, we must investigate systematically what second-order effects might emerge, and discuss how to regulate them on behalf of the common good."[41]

Christakis' lab has been supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, by the Pioneer Program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and by other funders. In 2019, his lab received support to extend their work to studies of the human microbiota from the Nomis Foundation.[42]


Christakis has practiced as a home hospice physician and in consultative palliative medicine. He took care of indigent, home-bound, dying patients in the South Side of Chicago while at the University of Chicago, from 1995 to 2001.[43] During this time, he was also active in translating research results into national policy changes with respect to end-of-life care in the USA; for instance, he testified before the US Senate Special Committee on Aging in 2000 (regarding barriers to hospice use, prognostication, and the cost-effectiveness of hospice).[44]

In Boston, from 2002 to 2006, Christakis worked as an attending physician on the Palliative Medicine Consult Service at Massachusetts General Hospital. In 2006, he moved to Mount Auburn Hospital. In 2013, he moved to the Department of Medicine at Yale University.


Christakis' first book, Death Foretold: Prophecy and Prognosis in Medical Care, was published by the University of Chicago Press in 1999, and has been translated into Japanese.[11] The book, based on his dissertation, explored the role of prognosis in medical thought and practice, documenting and explaining how physicians are socialized to avoid making prognoses. It argues that the prognoses patients receive, even from the best-trained American doctors, are driven not only by professional norms but also by religious, moral, and even quasi-magical beliefs (such as the "self-fulfilling prophecy").

His second book, Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives, was co-authored with James Fowler and was published by Little, Brown in 2009.[45][46] It was awarded the "Books for a Better Life" Award in 2009 and has been translated into 20 languages.[47] Connected draws on previously published and unpublished studies and makes several new conclusions about the influence of social networks on human health and behavior. In Connected, Christakis and Fowler put forward their "three degrees of influence" rule, which theorizes that each person's social influence can stretch to roughly three degrees of separation (to the friend of a friend of a friend) before it fades out.[48][49]

Christakis' third book, Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society, was published by Little, Brown Spark in 2019.[50] It made The New York Times Best Seller list in its debut week.[51] It was widely and favorably reviewed.[52][53][54][55][56][57] For instance, Bill Gates described the book as "optimistic and terrific."[57] Blueprint explores the idea that evolution has given humans a suite of beneficial capacities, including love, friendship, cooperation, and learning; humans have innate proclivities to make a good society, one that is similar worldwide. “For too long,” Christakis writes, “the scientific community has been overly focused on the dark side of our biological heritage: our capacity for tribalism, violence, selfishness, and cruelty. The bright side has been denied the attention it deserves.”[58]

Christakis' fourth book, Apollo's Arrow: The Profound and Enduring Impact of Coronavirus on the Way We Live, was published by Little, Brown Spark in October, 2020.[59] It was widely and favorably reviewed,[60][61][62][63][64] and the book has been called "magisterial",[65] "gripping",[66] and "provocative".[67] It was long-listed for the PEN America EO Wilson Literary Science Writing Award.[68] Apollo's Arrow provides an account of the origins and course of the COVID-19 pandemic and its likely end, biologically and also socially (in what Christakis has compared to the Roaring Twenties of the 20th century). In essence, the book argues that "plagues are not new to our species — they are just new to us".[69]

Christakis also co-edited two clinical textbooks on end-of-life care, published by Oxford University Press.[70][71]

Public intellectual[edit]

In addition to his scientific research and books, Christakis has contributed to popular media as a public intellectual, in a range of publications and on a range of topics. He has said he is invested in "advancing the public understanding of science",[72] and he typically writes about matters at the intersection of the social, biological, and/or computational sciences.

For instance, in addition to his book about the COVID-19 pandemic, Apollo's Arrow, released in 2020, Christakis published numerous essays helping to advance understanding of the social and epidemiological aspects of the pandemic, including in the The Wall Street Journal, where he forecast the long course of the pandemic[73] and outlined optimal responses;[74] in The Washington Post regarding the role of compassion during epidemics;[75] in the The Atlantic regarding school closures,[76] risk perception,[77] and public health responses;[78] and in FiveThirtyEight regarding how voting in the primary elections did not worsen the course of the pandemic.[79] Early in the pandemic (in August 2020), he wrote an invited essay for The Economist about how intrinsic properties of SARS-CoV-2 would make the COVID-19 pandemic more challenging to fight.[80] The magazine relied on him for subsequent assessments of the long-term impact of the pandemic.[81] In an interview for The Atlantic, Christakis also discussed the importance of free expression in combating the COVID-19 pandemic.[82]

For The New York Times, Christakis has written on prognostication,[83] university education,[84] free expression,[85] and the evolution of social sciences.[86] His essay on social science was said to have "created quite a stir", and it prompted debate and commentary.[87][88] For The Washington Post, he has written not only about COVID, but also on mass shootings[89] and fatherhood.[90] He also wrote a piece about how to "construct novel, unnatural social systems based on the predictable ways that humans act" for The Boston Globe.[91] Christakis has published on the role of social artificial intelligence (in 2019) in the The Atlantic[92] and on social network dynamics (in 2012) in the Financial Times.[93] In 2012, he wrote a series of online columns for TIME with his wife, Erika Christakis, on a range of topics (from academic dishonesty to women in the armed services)[94] and a piece on biosocial science in 2011.[95] In 2019, for the same publication, he wrote about the link between cooperation and individuality, arguing such a perspective was useful "in a moment when too much tribalism is causing devastating problems".[96]

Christakis has also appeared frequently on TV and radio, commenting on social interactions, the COVID-19 pandemic, and other matters, including on NPR,[97][98] Amanpour & Company,[99] and other venues. Krista Tippett of NPR has said his perspective on human goodness "deepens and refreshes".[100] Interviews with Christakis have appeared in The New York Times,[101][102] The Atlantic,[103] and elsewhere.[104] He has been a repeat guest on many leading podcasts, including Joe Rogan,[105][106] Sam Harris,[107][108][109] Michael Shermer,[110][111] and Reason.[112]

He has given two mainstage TED talks,[113][114] appeared at the Aspen Ideas Festival,[115] and been a frequent contributor to the online salon of leading scientists and intellectuals Edge, including answering ten of its annual questions, from 2009 to 2019[116] and giving a talk on the science of social connections in 2013.[117]

Free speech advocacy[edit]

While both at Harvard University and at Yale University, Christakis was involved in the defense of free expression.

At Harvard, in 2012, he and his wife, Erika Christakis, came to the defense of minority students who were using satire to criticize the elite final clubs at that institution. They suggested that the critics might be "more concerned with ugly words than the underlying problems" and that policing free expression on campus "denies students the opportunity to learn to think for themselves."[118] Their argument expressed confidence in the capacity and maturity of Harvard students to discuss contentious issues.

At Yale, in 2015, they were involved in a controversy related to the regulation of Halloween costumes. On October 29, 2015, Christakis' wife Erika Christakis, a Lecturer on Early Childhood Education at the Yale Child Study Center, wrote an e-mail to Yale undergraduates on the role of free expression in universities; she argued, from a developmental perspective, that students might wish to consider whether administrators should provide guidance on Halloween attire or whether students might wish to be allowed to "dress themselves."[119] This e-mail was in response to a long earlier e-mail sent to undergraduates by a group of 14 administrators at Yale which suggested students be careful when choosing Halloween costumes, and which provided links to recommended and non-recommended costumes.[120][121] The e-mail played a role in protests on campus that received national attention in the United States.[122] Christakis and his wife were criticized by some students for placing "the burden of confrontation, education, and maturity on the offended."[123] But other students pointed out that Erika Christakis was defending the rights to free expression of all Yale students and expressing confidence in them and in their capacity to discuss and confront such issues among themselves.[124][125] Ninety-one Yale faculty members signed a letter supporting the Christakises, and this letter noted that the Christakises themselves distinguished support for freedom of expression from supporting the content of such expression (they had noted that they would find many of the same costumes offensive as some students would).[126] Despite Christakis' belief that Yale students could discuss controversial issues (such as costumes) among themselves, and his confidence in their ability to do so, he stepped down from his role at Silliman College eight months later, at the end of the academic year, a step The Atlantic later decried (noting "When Yale’s history is written, they should be regarded as collateral damage harmed by people who abstracted away their humanity").[127]

In a subsequent Op-Ed in The New York Times (his only published comment on the events), Christakis argued: "Open, extended conversations among students themselves are essential not only to the pursuit of truth but also to deep moral learning and to righteous social progress."[128] A year later, commentators condemned how students, administrators, and faculty had behaved at Yale (and linked to substantial video footage of the events).[129] In her only published remarks regarding what happened, a year later in October 2016, Erika Christakis described the circumstances (including threats) that she had faced in an Op-Ed published in The Washington Post.[130]

The incident led to some students being called members of "Generation Snowflake".[131] In January 2016, Bill Maher expressed consternation at how the Yale students had behaved.[132] In April 2017, an episode of The Simpsons titled "Caper Chase" satirized the events. Also in 2017, a short documentary was released about the episode, arguing that they reflected a collision between "old values" centered on reason and debate, on the one hand, and "administrative bloat" and a shift to a "consumer mentality" on the other (this documentary also noted that Christakis comes from a multi-racial family and has African-American and Chinese siblings).[121] The New York Times published a coda regarding the episode in August 2018, upon Christakis' appointment as a Sterling Professor, Yale's highest faculty rank, in which Christakis noted that he "was eager to make himself useful to Yale's mission."[133]

The 2015 occurrences at Yale have been discussed in at least 20 non-fiction books.[134][135] Blackford provides a very precise and comprehensive timeline.[136] Some of these books noted the "sexism" and "irony" that, in a key episode that was part of the events (when Christakis was surrounded by 150 students in a quad for two hours), the students wished to hold Christakis responsible for his wife's email.[137][138] Murray summarizes statements by students based on his review of extensive video footage released by the students themselves of the events in the quad, and he notes Christakis' emphasis on "our common humanity".[135] Many of the books have expressed concern at the "illiberal" actions of the students (and of many administrators and faculty) at Yale. The behavior of the students also sparked a minor controversy at Harvard Law School when a student there wrote a piece decrying the Christakis' treatment as "fascism" in the Harvard Law Record; criticized for publishing the piece, the Record's liberal editor-in-chief wrote that his role was "editor-in-chief, not thought-policeman-in-chief."[139][140]

Christakis has spoken publicly about the events only rarely. In an October 2017 interview with Sam Harris, he discussed parts of the situation he faced, framing the events at Yale in the broader context of what was happening on many campuses during that time period; Harris noted that Christakis had "the imperturbability of a saint."[141] In March 2019, Christakis told Frank Bruni that, partly in response to the events, he worked to complete a long-standing book project on the origins of goodness in society (Blueprint).[142]

In April 2020, Christakis expressed concern that, in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals and medical schools were seeking to silence faculty and staff who were highlighting problems with the response; he stated that “clamping down on people who are speaking is a kind of idiocy of the highest order."[143]

In July 2020, Christakis was one of the 153 signers of the "Harper's Letter" (also known as "A Letter on Justice and Open Debate") that expressed concern that "the free exchange of information and ideas, the lifeblood of a liberal society, is daily becoming more constricted."[144]

In 2021, Christakis was asked to join the advisory council of the Foundation for Individual Rights and Expression (FIRE).[145] In 2022, he joined the advisory council of Heterodox Academy.[146]

Personal life[edit]

Christakis resides in Norwich, Vermont.[147] He is married to early childhood educator and author Erika Christakis and they have four children, one of whom they adopted later in life, while serving as foster parents.[148][149][150] His hobbies have included Shotokan karate (as noted by his instructor, Kazumi Tabata)[151] and making maple syrup.[152]

Published works[edit]


  • Death Foretold: Prophecy and Prognosis in Medical Care (1999) ISBN 978-0226104706
  • Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives (2009) - with James Fowler ISBN 978-0316036146
  • Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society (2019) ISBN 978-0316230032
  • Apollo's Arrow: The Profound and Enduring Impact of Coronavirus on the Way We Live (2020) ISBN 978-0316628228

Scientific papers[edit]


  1. ^ "Preface", in Nicholas A. Christakis, Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society, Little, Brown Spark, 2019
  2. ^ Tom Conroy, "New Institute Will Advance the Interdisciplinary Study of Networks", Yale News, April 11, 2013.
  3. ^ "Dr. Nicholas A. Christakis named Sterling Professor". YaleNews. 2018-07-23. Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  4. ^ "Five professors elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences". Yale News. 2017-04-11. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
  5. ^ "Αναγόρευση του Καθηγητή του Yale Nicholas Christakis σε επίτιμο διδάκτορα του Τμήματος Οικονομικών Επιστημών του ΕΚΠΑ". (in Greek). 2021-10-06. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  6. ^ Ariely, Dan (2009-04-30). "Nicholas Christakis - The 2009 TIME 100". TIME. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved 2015-11-10.
  7. ^ [1] Archived December 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b "Good By Design". 19 April 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-13.
  9. ^ Billen, Andrew (2019-04-03). "Nicholas Christakis — the Yale professor who stood up to the mob". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2019-05-13.
  10. ^ "Nature, nurture, or network?". Retrieved 2019-05-13.
  11. ^ a b Gina Kolata, [ "A Conversation with: Nicholas Christakis; A Doctor with a Cause: 'What's My Prognosis?'", The New York Times, November 28, 2000.
  12. ^ "Nicholas A. Christakis". Edge. Retrieved 2015-11-10.
  13. ^ Bita M. Asad and Ahmed Mabruk, "Christakises To Be Pfoho House Masters," The Harvard Crimson, February 17, 2009.
  14. ^ Emma Platoff and Victor Wang, "Christakis named Silliman master," Yale News, February 27, 2015.
  15. ^ "Radiological image interpretation apparatus and method".
  16. ^ "Establishing a social network".
  17. ^ "Disease diagnoses-based disease prediction".
  18. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H. (2007). "The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (4): 370–379. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa066082. PMID 17652652.
  19. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H. (2008). "The Collective Dynamics of Smoking in a Large Social Network". The New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (21): 2249–2258. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa0706154. PMC 2822344. PMID 18499567.
  20. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H. (2008). "Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study". British Medical Journal. 337 (337): a2338. doi:10.1136/bmj.a2338. PMC 2600606. PMID 19056788.
  21. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H. (2009). Connected:The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives. Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 978-0316036146.
  22. ^ a b Fowler, J. H.; Christakis, N. A. (2010). "Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (12): 5334–5338. arXiv:0908.3497. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.5334F. doi:10.1073/pnas.0913149107. PMC 2851803. PMID 20212120.
  23. ^ a b Rand, DG; Arbesman, S; Christakis, NA (November 2011). "Dynamic social networks promote cooperation in experiments with humans". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108 (48): 19193–8. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10819193R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1108243108. PMC 3228461. PMID 22084103.
  24. ^ Kim, David. (2015). "A Randomised Controlled Trial of Social Network Targeting to Maximise Population Behaviour Change". The Lancet. 386 (9989): 145–153. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60095-2. PMC 4638320. PMID 25952354.
  25. ^ Nishi, Akihiro. (2015). "Inequality and Visibility of Wealth in Experimental Social Networks". Nature. 526 (7573): 426–429. Bibcode:2015Natur.526..426N. doi:10.1038/nature15392. PMID 26352469. S2CID 4446774.
  26. ^ Shirado, Hirokazu; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2017-05-18). "Locally noisy autonomous agents improve global human coordination in network experiments". Nature. 545 (7654): 370–374. Bibcode:2017Natur.545..370S. doi:10.1038/nature22332. ISSN 0028-0836. PMC 5912653. PMID 28516927.
  27. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H. (2010-03-23). "Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (12): 5334–5338. arXiv:0908.3497. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.5334F. doi:10.1073/pnas.0913149107. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2851803. PMID 20212120.
  28. ^ "Nicholas Christakis: The hidden influence of social networks | TED Talk". Retrieved 2015-11-10.
  29. ^ Fowler, J.H.; Dawes, C.T.; Christakis, N.A. (February 2009). "Model of Genetic Variation in Human Social Networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (6): 1720–1724. arXiv:0807.3089. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.1720F. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806746106. PMC 2644104. PMID 19171900.
  30. ^ Fowler, James H.; Settle, Jaime E.; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2011). "Correlated genotypes in friendship networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (5): 1993–1997. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.1993F. doi:10.1073/pnas.1011687108. PMC 3033315. PMID 21245293.
  31. ^ Nicholas A. Christakis (2014). "Friendship and natural selection". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111: 10796–10801. arXiv:1308.5257. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111S0796C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1400825111. PMC 4113922. PMID 25024208.
  32. ^ Apicella, Coren L.; Marlowe, Frank W.; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2012). "Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers". Nature. 481 (7382): 497–501. Bibcode:2012Natur.481..497A. doi:10.1038/nature10736. PMC 3340565. PMID 22281599.
  33. ^ Glowacki, Luke; Isakov, Alexander; Wrangham, Richard W.; McDermott, Rose; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2016-10-25). "Formation of raiding parties for intergroup violence is mediated by social network structure". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (43): 12114–12119. doi:10.1073/pnas.1610961113. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5086992. PMID 27790996.
  34. ^ Christakis, N.A.; Fowler, J.H. (2010). "Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks". PLOS ONE. 5 (9): e12948. arXiv:1004.4792. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...512948C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012948. PMC 2939797. PMID 20856792.
  35. ^ "Nicholas Christakis: How social networks predict epidemics | TED Talk". Retrieved 2015-11-10.
  36. ^ Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Cebrian, Manuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H. (2014). "Using Friends as Sensors to Detect Global-Scale Contagious Outbreaks". PLOS ONE. 9 (4): e92413. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...992413G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092413. PMC 3981694. PMID 24718030.
  37. ^ Kim, David A.; Hwong, Alison R.; Stafford, Derek; Hughes, D. Alex; O'Malley, A. James; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2015-07-11). "Social network targeting to maximise population behaviour change: a cluster randomised controlled trial". The Lancet. 386 (9989): 145–153. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60095-2. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 4638320. PMID 25952354.
  38. ^ a b Shirado, Hirokazu; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2017). "Locally noisy autonomous agents improve global human coordination in network experiments". Nature. 545 (7654): 370–374. Bibcode:2017Natur.545..370S. doi:10.1038/nature22332. PMC 5912653. PMID 28516927.
  39. ^ Traeger, Margaret L.; Strohkorb Sebo, Sarah; Jung, Malte; Scassellati, Brian; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2020-03-09). "Vulnerable robots positively shape human conversational dynamics in a human–robot team". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (12): 6370–6375. doi:10.1073/pnas.1910402117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7104178. PMID 32152118.
  40. ^ Shirado, Hirokazu; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2020-09-25). "Network Engineering Using Autonomous Agents Increases Cooperation in Human Groups". iScience. 23 (9): 101438. Bibcode:2020iSci...23j1438S. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2020.101438. ISSN 2589-0042. PMC 7452167. PMID 32823053.
  41. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A. (2019-03-04). "How AI Will Rewire Us". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  42. ^ Stoeter, Sarah (11 January 2019). "Yale News: "New Yale-led project looks at the microbiome-social network connection"". The NOMIS Foundation. Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  43. ^ Sharlet, Jeff (24 February 2000). "Prognosis:Death". The Chicago Reader. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  44. ^ "HEARING BEFORE THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON AGING -- Serial No. 106-37" (PDF). September 18, 2000.
  45. ^ "Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks". Retrieved 2015-11-10.
  46. ^ "Connected". Hachette Book Group. 2009-09-28. Archived from the original on 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2015-11-10.
  47. ^ "Books for a Better Life Awards 2009 |". Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  48. ^ Clive Tomson, "Is Happiness Catching," The New York Times, September 14, 2009.
  49. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A. (2012). "Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior". Statistics in Medicine. 32 (4): 556–577. arXiv:1109.5235. doi:10.1002/sim.5408. PMC 3830455. PMID 22711416.
  50. ^ "Nicholas A. Christakis". Hachette Book Group. 2017-06-27. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  51. ^ "Hardcover Nonfiction Books - Best Sellers - April 14, 2019 - The New York Times". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
  52. ^ Barash, David P. (2019-04-24). "'Blueprint' Review: Bending Toward Goodness". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  53. ^ "Two books explore the evolutionary origins of morality". The Economist. 2019-05-02. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  54. ^ Prasad, Aarathi (2019-05-10). "The Benevolent Power of Other People". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  55. ^ Fuentes, Agustín (2019-03-19). "Evolving society: why humanity coheres". Nature. 567 (7748): 308–309. Bibcode:2019Natur.567..308F. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00873-9.
  56. ^ Billen, Andrew (2019-04-03). "Nicholas Christakis — the Yale professor who stood up to the mob". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  57. ^ a b Elkins, Kathleen (2019-07-27). "Bill Gates has a new favorite book that is 'optimistic and terrific'". CNBC. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  58. ^ "The 'Sick' Professor and our Better Angels". The Attic. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  59. ^ Apollo's Arrow. 2020-05-26.
  60. ^ Quammen, David (2020-11-03). "The Pandemic's Future — and Ours". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  61. ^ APOLLO'S ARROW | Kirkus Reviews.
  62. ^ "Review | The virus isn't transforming us. It's speeding up the changes already underway". Washington Post. Retrieved 2020-12-29.
  63. ^ "Nonfiction Book Review: Apollo's Arrow: The Profound and Enduring Impact of Coronavirus on the Way We Live by Nicholas A. Christakis. Little Brown Spark, $29 (288p) ISBN 978-0-316-62821-1". Retrieved 2020-12-29.
  64. ^ "How will covid-19 change the world?". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  65. ^ "Apollo's Arrow by Nicholas A. Christakis book review | The TLS". TLS. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  66. ^ "Review: 'Apollo's Arrow,' by Nicholas A. Christakis". Star Tribune. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  67. ^ Scarpino, Samuel V. (2020-11-17). "The pandemic is as much about society, leaders, and values as it is about a pathogen". Books, Et Al. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  68. ^ "Announcing the 2021 PEN America Literary Awards Longlists". PEN America. 2020-12-22. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  69. ^ "Epidemiologist looks to the past to predict second post-pandemic 'roaring 20s'". the Guardian. 2020-12-21. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  70. ^ P. Glare and N.A. Christakis, eds., Prognosis in Advanced Cancer, Oxford University Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-19-853022-0
  71. ^ G. Hanks, N. Cherny, S. Kassa, R. Portenoy, N.A. Christakis, and M. Fallon, eds., Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, 2009 ISBN 978-0-19-969314-6
  72. ^ "Living Through the Pandemic: A Review One Year Later". Governing. 2021-03-12. Retrieved 2022-06-30.
  73. ^ Christakis, Nicholas (2020-10-16). "The Long Shadow of the Pandemic: 2024 and Beyond". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  74. ^ Christakis, Nicholas (2020-11-13). "How the Swiss Cheese Model Can Help Us Beat Covid-19". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  75. ^ "Opinion | Compassion in the time of coronavirus". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  76. ^ Christakis, Erika Christakis, Nicholas A. (2020-03-16). "Closing the Schools Is Not the Only Option". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  77. ^ Christakis, Soham Sankaran, Jacob Derechin, Nicholas A. (2021-04-11). "Beach Photos Give People the Wrong Idea". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  78. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A. (2021-10-20). "Sometimes Altruism Needs to Be Enforced". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  79. ^ Feltham, Eric (2020-10-15). "Voting in the 2020 Primaries Didn't Worsen the COVID-19 Pandemic". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  80. ^ "Nicholas Christakis on fighting covid-19 by truly understanding the virus". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  81. ^ "The long goodbye to covid-19". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  82. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (2020-04-10). "Hospitals Must Let Doctors and Nurses Speak Out". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  83. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A. (2007-08-24). "Opinion | The Bad News First". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  84. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A. (2015-07-30). "Making Friends in New Places". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  85. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A. (2016-06-22). "Teaching Inclusion in a Divided World". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  86. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A. (2013-07-19). "Opinion | Let's Shake Up the Social Sciences". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  87. ^ "Do the social sciences need a shake-up?". Times Higher Education (THE). 2014-10-09. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  88. ^ "Do We Need to Shake Up the Social Sciences?". Forum for Philosophy. 2014-10-21. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  89. ^ Christakis, Erika L.; Christakis, Nicholas A. (2013-09-19). "Navy Yard shootings: What role does social isolation play in mass killings?". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  90. ^ Christakis, NIcholas (June 18, 2022). "In some cultures, multiple fathers—or no fathers at all—are the norm". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  91. ^ Arbesman, Samuel. "Introducing the human computer - The Boston Globe". Retrieved 2022-09-21.
  92. ^ Christakis, Nicholas A. "How AI Will Rewire Us". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  93. ^ Christakis, Nicholas (2012). "Americans Need to Leave the Deadbeats Behind". Financial Times. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  94. ^ "Erika Christakis and Nicholas A. Christakis". Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  95. ^ Christakis, Nicholas (December 19, 2011). "Putting the Social into Science". TIME. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  96. ^ "Can Cultivating Individuality Draw Us Closer Together?". Time. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  97. ^ "Nicholas Christakis: How Do Our Social Networks Affect Our Health?". Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  98. ^ "The Enduring Impact Of COVID-19 : Fresh Air". Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  99. ^ "Nicholas Christakis | Guest | Amanpour & Company | PBS". Amanpour & Company. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  100. ^ "Nicholas Christakis — How We're Wired for Goodness". The On Being Project. Retrieved 2022-06-30.
  101. ^ Kolata, Gina (2000-11-28). "A Conversation with: Nicholas Christakis; A Doctor with a Cause: 'What's My Prognosis?'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  102. ^ Bruni, Frank (2019-03-19). "Opinion | A 'Disgusting' Yale Professor Moves On". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  103. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (2020-04-10). "Hospitals Must Let Doctors and Nurses Speak Out". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  104. ^ "Living Through the Pandemic: A Review One Year Later". Governing. 2021-03-12. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  105. ^ #1274 - Nicholas Christakis, 2019-03-28, retrieved 2022-06-19
  106. ^ #1566 - Nicholas Christakis, 2020-11-18, retrieved 2022-06-19
  107. ^ "#100 — Facing the Crowd". Sam Harris. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  108. ^ How Should We Respond to Coronavirus: A Conversation with Nicholas Christakis (Episode #190), retrieved 2022-06-19
  109. ^ A Pandemic of Incompetence: A Conversation with Nicholas Christakis (Episode #222), retrieved 2022-06-19
  110. ^ Michael Shermer with Nicholas A. Christakis — Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society, retrieved 2022-06-19
  111. ^ Michael Shermer with Nicholas Christakis — Profound & Enduring Impact of Coronavirus on How We Live, retrieved 2022-06-19
  112. ^ "Are Humans Predisposed by Evolution to Get Along?: Podcast". 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  113. ^ Christakis, Nicholas (2010-05-10), The hidden influence of social networks, retrieved 2022-06-19
  114. ^ Christakis, Nicholas (2010-09-16), How social networks predict epidemics, retrieved 2022-06-19
  115. ^ "Aspen Times Weekly June 28 edition by Aspen Times Weekly - Issuu". Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  116. ^ "Nicholas A. Christakis |". Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  117. ^ "Nicholas Christakis: The Science of Social Connections (HeadCon '13 Part V) |". Retrieved 2022-06-19.
  118. ^ Christakis, Erika; Christakis, Nicholas A. (4 December 2012). "Whither Goes Free Speech at Harvard?;". Time. Retrieved 2016-07-13.
  119. ^ "Dressing Yourselves". 2015-10-30. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
  120. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (2015-11-09). "The New Intolerance of Student Activism". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
  121. ^ a b We The Internet (2017-03-22), Silence U Part 2: What Has Yale Become? | We the Internet Documentary, retrieved 2017-03-23
  122. ^ Stack, Liam (2015-11-08). "Yale's Halloween Advice Stokes a Racially Charged Debate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
  123. ^ White, Gillian (2015-11-10). "The Problem With Vilifying the Yale Student Activists". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
  124. ^ "Yale Students Demand Resignations from Faculty Members Over Halloween Email;". 2015-11-06. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  125. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (2015-11-09). "The New Intolerance of Student Activism". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
  126. ^ "Letter of Support For Erika and Nicholas Christakis". Retrieved 2016-01-04.
  127. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (26 May 2016). "The Perils of Writing a Provocative Email at Yale". The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  128. ^ Christakis, Nicholas (2016-06-22). "Teaching Inclusion in a Divided World". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-10-07.
  129. ^ Kirchick, James (2016-09-22). "New Videos Show How Yale Betrayed Itself by Favoring Cry-Bullies". Tablet. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
  130. ^ Christakis, Erika (2016-10-28). "My Halloween email led to a campus firestorm". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  131. ^ Fox, Claire (2016) "I find that offensive", Biteback.
  132. ^ "Martyrs Without a Cause". Archived from the original on 2021-12-15.
  133. ^ "Once at Center of Yale Protests, Professor Wins the School's Highest Honor". Retrieved 2018-08-16.
  134. ^
    • Cabranes, J (2017). Campus Speech in Crisis: What the Yale Experience Can Teach America. New York: Encounter Books.
    • Dattel, G (2017). Reckoning with Race: America's Failure. New York: Encounter Books.
    • Fox, C (2017). I Find that Offensive. London: Biteback.
    • Furedi, F (2017). What's Happened to the University? A Sociological Exploration of Its Infantalisation. London: Routledge.
    • Schwartz, HS (2016). Political Correctness and the Destruction of Social Order. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Ben-Porath, Sigal (2017). Free Speech on Campus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    • Chemerinsky, Erwin; Gillman, Howard (2017). Free speech on campus. New Haven. ISBN 9780300226560. OCLC 978291333.
    • Nichols, Thomas M. (2017). The death of expertise: the campaign against established knowledge and why it matters. New York, NY. ISBN 9780190469412. OCLC 965120125.
    • HAIDT, JONATHAN (2018). CODDLING OF THE AMERICAN MIND: how good intentions and bad ideas are setting up a generation for... failure. [S.l.]: PENGUIN BOOKS. ISBN 9780735224896. OCLC 1007552624.
    • CAMPBELL, BRADLEY (2018). RISE OF VICTIMHOOD CULTURE: microaggressions, safe spaces, and the new culture wars. [S.l.]: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN. ISBN 9783319703282. OCLC 1006306577.
    • Whittington, Keith E. (2018-04-10). Speak freely: why universities must defend free speech. Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 9780691181608. OCLC 1028552259.
    • Goldberg, Jonah. Suicide of the west: how the rebirth of tribalism, populism, nationalism, and identity politics is destroying American democracy (First ed.). New York. ISBN 9781101904930. OCLC 973135836.
    • Sasse, Benjamin E. (2018-10-16). Them: why we hate each other--and how to heal (First ed.). New York. ISBN 9781250193681. OCLC 1055766385.
    • Chris, Clearfield (2018). Meltdown: why our systems fail and what we can do about it. Tilcsik, András. New York, New York. ISBN 9780735222632. OCLC 993419323.
    • Maltz, Bovy, Phoebe (2017-03-14). The perils of "privilege": why injustice can't be solved by accusing others of advantage (First ed.). New York. ISBN 9781250091208. OCLC 973480779.
    • Doyle, Eamon (2018-07-15). Freedom of speech on campus. Doyle, Eamon, 1988- (First ed.). New York, NY. ISBN 9781534503076. OCLC 1019833275.
    • Everett, Piper (2017-08-07). Not a daycare: the devastating consequences of abandoning truth. Washington, D.C. ISBN 9781621576051. OCLC 999673768.
    • Heather, Mac Donald. The diversity delusion: how race and gender pandering corrupt the university and undermine our culture (First ed.). New York. ISBN 9781250200914. OCLC 1024091839.
  135. ^ a b Murray, Douglas, 1979- (2019-09-17). The madness of crowds: gender, race and identity. London. ISBN 9781635579987. OCLC 1119529087.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  136. ^ Blackford, Russell (2019). The tyranny of opinion: conformity and the future of liberalism. pp. 142–149. ISBN 9781350056022. OCLC 1048595507.
  137. ^ Fox, 2017
  138. ^ Ben-Porath, 2017
  139. ^ "Fascism at Yale". The Harvard Law Record. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  140. ^ "A Note from the Editor-in-Chief: Why I Don't Censor Conservative Articles". The Harvard Law Record. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  141. ^ Harris, Sam. "Facing the Crowd". Retrieved 2017-10-11.
  142. ^ Bruni, Frank (2019-03-19). "Opinion | A 'Disgusting' Yale Professor Moves On". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-03-24.
  143. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (2020-04-10). "Hospitals Must Let Doctors and Nurses Speak Out". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-04-13.
  144. ^ "A Letter on Justice and Open Debate | Harper's Magazine". Harper’s Magazine. 2020-07-07. Retrieved 2022-08-23.
  145. ^ "FIRE's Advisory Council". FIRE. Retrieved 2022-03-03.
  146. ^ "Our Advisory Council". Heterodox Academy. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  147. ^ Earle, Sarah (May 30, 2019). "Norwich author examines the traits common to good societies". Valley News. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
  148. ^ Kolin, Danielle. "House Master Families Reflect". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  149. ^ Gallagher, Brian (2019-08-22). "Humans Are Wired for Goodness". Nautilus. Retrieved 2019-09-17.
  150. ^ Christakis, Erika (December 9, 2019). "Should We Worry that American Children Are Becoming Less Creative". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 20, 2020.
  151. ^ Tabata, Kazumi, Warrior Wisdom, Tuttle publishing, 2013, ISBN 978-4805312711
  152. ^ "The Thing That Says It All".

External links[edit]