Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, born Nicolae Georgescu (4 February 1906 – 30 October 1994) was a Romanian American mathematician, statistician and economist. He is best known today for his 1971 magnum opus The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, where he argued that all natural resources are irreversibly degraded when put to use in economic activity. A paradigm founder in economics, Georgescu-Roegen's work was seminal in establishing ecological economics as an independent academic subdiscipline in economics.
Georgescu-Roegen's influence extends well beyond his well-known work on the thermodynamic foundations of economic systems and his career involved "his ambitious attempt to reformulate economic process as 'bioeconomics,' a new style of dialectical economic thought". He is therefore considered "one of the key intellectual progenitors of ecological economics" and of what would become the "minimal bioeconomic program."[dead link] 
He studied mathematics at the University of Bucharest, graduating in 1926. After winning a scholarship, he went on to study at the University of Paris, where his interests turned towards statistics and economics. He received a Ph.D. degree in 1930 for a thesis on latent cyclical components in time series. Another scholarship allowed him to pursue his studies for two years at the University College in London with Karl Pearson. In 1932, Georgescu-Roegen returned to Romania and became Professor of Statistics at the University of Bucharest. He held this position until 1946. He was a professor of economics at Vanderbilt University from 1950 to 1976. He won the university's Harvie Branscomb Distinguished Professor Award in 1961, and in 1971 the American Economic Association named him a Distinguished Fellow.
A principal contribution to economics by Georgescu-Roegen was the concept of entropy from thermodynamics (as distinguished from the mechanistic foundation of neoclassical economics drawn from Newtonian physics), as well as foundational work which later developed into evolutionary economics. His work contributed significantly to bioeconomics and to ecological economics.
He was a protégé of the renowned economist Joseph Schumpeter. His own protégés included foundational ecological economist Herman E. Daly and Kozo Mayumi who further extended Georgescu-Roegen’s theories on entropy in the study of energy analysis.
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In 2007, the Economist Herman Daly postulated that the work of Georgescu-Roegen was under-appreciated because he was ahead of his time. In 2012, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in New Delhi, India announced the first edition of the "Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen Annual Awards" in honor of economist and mathematician, from which Herman Daly is a jury member. Professor Kozo Mayumi, former student of Georgescu-Roegen, has been announced to be the first recipient of the award.
The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, described by the Library Journal as "...a great seminal work that challenges economic analysis", is a wide-ranging technical and philosophical exposition which promotes the case that economic activity can not be adequately described without taking into account the implications of second law of thermodynamics. It notes that the discovery of the second law in the mid nineteenth century resulted in the downfall of the mechanistic dogmas of Classical Physics. Whereas the equations of Newton's Laws of Motion were symmetrical with respect to time, the new law introduced the concept of irreversibility. Although the processes of living organisms appear to violate the second law, Schroedinger demonstrated in What is Life? that there is no inconsistency - organisms feed on low-entropy sources of energy to build and preserve their complex structures, and dissipate the energy in a higher entropic state. It argues that social and economic endeavours are an extension of these biological processes and are governed by the same principles.
He categorized the attempt by economists to quantify everything as an "arithmomorphic fallacy", and asserted that economic features should be viewed as dialectical in nature, ie having aspects which are logically inconsistent with each other.
- "'Bigger and better' motorcycles, automobiles, jet planes, refrigerators, etc., necessarily cause not only 'bigger and better' depletion of natural resources, but also 'bigger and better' pollution."
- "William Petty was right in teaching that 'Nature is the mother and labour is the father of all wealth' – only, he should have said '... of our existence'."
- Ecological economics
- Energy economics
- Energy accounting
- Analytical Issues and Problems (1966). Harvard University Press.
- "Utility", International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1968). Macmillan: New York.
- Energy and Economic Myths : Institutional and Analytical Economic Essays (1976). Pergamon Press: New York.
- The Entropy Law and the Economic Process (1971). Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- "Afterword", in J. Rifkin and T. Howard, Entropy: A New World View (1980). The Viking Press: New York.
- Mayumi, Kozo (2001). The Origins of Ecological Economics: The Bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 0-415-23523-5.
- Sunderlin, W.D. 2003. Ideology, Social Theory, and the Environment. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
- Zamagni, Stefano (2008) , "Georgescu-Roegen, Nicholas", in Eatwell, John; Milgate, Murray; Newman, Peter K., The New Palgrave: a dictionary of economics volume 2, London New York Tokyo: Macmillan Stockton Press Maruzen, pp. 515–516, ISBN 9780333740408.
- Maneschi, Andrea; Zamagni, Stefano (May 1997). "Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, 1906–1994". The Economic Journal (Wiley) 107 (442): 695–707. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.1997.tb00035.x. JSTOR 2957794.
- Vanderbilt University. "Harvie Branscomb Distinguished Professor Award". Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- American Economic Association. "Distinguished Fellows". Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- Mayumi, Kozo; Gowdy, John, eds. (1999). Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essays in Honor of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1-85898-667-2.
- Cleveland, Cutler J.; Ruth, Matthias (September 1997). "When, where, and by how much do biophysical limits constrain the economic process?: A survey of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's contribution to ecological economics". Ecological Economics (ScienceDirect) 22 (3): 203–223. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(97)00079-7.
- Daly, Herman E. (June 1995). "On Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's contributions to economics: an obituary essay". Ecological Economics (ScienceDirect) 13 (3): 149–154. doi:10.1016/0921-8009(95)00011-W.
- Mayumi, Kozo (August 1995). "Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen (1906–1994): an admirable epistemologist". Structural Change and Economic Dynamics (ScienceDirect) 6 (3): 115–120. doi:10.1016/0954-349X(95)00014-E.
- Daly, Herman (2007). "How long can neoclassical economists ignore the contributions of Georgescu-Roegen?". Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development: Selected Essays of Herman Daly. Edward Elgar Pub. p. 126.
- "Georgescu-Roegen Awards". The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Daly, Herman E., ed. (1997). "The Contribution of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen". Ecological Economics (Amsterdam: Elsevier) 22 (3). (Special issue)
- Beard, T. Randolph; Lozada, Gabriel (1999). Economics, Entropy and the Environment: The Extraordinary Economics of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1840641223.
- Mayumi, Kozo; Gowdy, John M., eds. (1999). Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essays in Honor of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1858986672.
- "Bibliography of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen". Associazione Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. (Italian website)
- Antonio Valero (1991). "An interview with Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen" (Location: Nashville, Tennessee). Ciudades para un Futuro más Sostenible. (Introduction to the interview in Spanish (Castilian), the interview itself in English)
- Sylvia Nasar (5 November 1994). "Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, Leading Economist, Dies at 88". New York Times. (Obituary)
- Robert Nadeau (2008). "Environmental and ecological economics". The Encyclopedia of Earth. (A thorough account of the historical development of ecological economics, including Georgescu's contribution)
- Rex Weyler (2010). "Deep Green: Entropy and Ecology". Greenpeace International. (A brief perspective on Georgescu's 'entropy' view)
- "Facebook profile of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen". Facebook.