Commemorative plaque on Rodney Street, Liverpool
|Born||Nicholas John Turney Monsarrat
22 March 1910
|Died||8 August 1979
|Occupation||Lawyer, writer, sailor|
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge University|
|Notable works||The Cruel Sea|
|Spouse||Eileen Rowland, Phillipa Crosby, and Ann Griffiths|
|Children||Marc, Anthony, and Max|
Lieutenant Commander Nicholas John Turney Monsarrat FRSL RNVR (22 March 1910 – 8 August 1979) was a British novelist known today for his sea stories, particularly The Cruel Sea (1951) and Three Corvettes (1942–45), but perhaps best known internationally for his novels, The Tribe That Lost Its Head and its sequel, Richer Than All His Tribe.
Monsarrat was born on Rodney Street in Liverpool, Lancashire, to parents Sir Keith Montsarrat, surgeon, and Marguerite Turney Waldegrave. Monsarrat was educated at Winchester and Trinity College, Cambridge. He intended to practise law. The law failed to inspire him, however, and he turned instead to writing, moving to London and supporting himself as a freelance writer for newspapers while writing four novels and a play in the space of five years (1934–1939). He later commented in his autobiography that the 1931 Invergordon Naval Mutiny influenced his interest in politics and social and economic issues after college.
Though a pacifist, Monsarrat served in World War II, first as a member of an ambulance brigade and then as a member of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). His lifelong love of sailing made him a capable naval officer, and he served with distinction in a series of small warships (corvettes and frigates), assigned to escort convoys and protect them from enemy attack. Monsarrat ended the war as commander of a frigate, and drew on his wartime experience in his postwar sea stories. It has been alleged that during his wartime service, Monsarrat claimed to have seen the ghost ship Flying Dutchman while sailing the Pacific, near the location where the young King George V had seen her in 1881. No mention was made of this in his autobiographies however, and the ship he was supposedly serving on (HMS Jubilee) did not, in fact, exist.
Resigning his wartime commission in 1946, Monsarrat entered the diplomatic service. He was posted at first to Johannesburg, South Africa and then, in 1953, to Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. He turned to writing full-time in 1959, settling first on Guernsey, in the Channel Islands, and later on the Maltese island of Gozo.
- July 1940 : Sub-Lieutenant
- October 1940 : Lieutenant
- December 1943 :Lt-Commander
- Aug 1940-Dec 1941: 1st Lt, HMS Campanula (Flower-class corvette)
- Feb 1942-Feb 1943: 1st Lt, HMS Guillemot (Kingfisher-class corvette)
- Mar 1943-Oct 1943: CO, HMS Shearwater (Kingfisher-class corvette)
- Dec 1943-Mar 1944: CO, HMS Ettrick (River-class frigate)
- Apr 1944-Dec 1944: CO, HMS Perim (Colony-class frigate: a US-built version of the River class)
- Dec 1944-Jul 1945: Dept. of Naval Information
"HMS Dipper" and "HMS Winger" were fictional Kingfisher class corvettes in the stories East Coast Corvette (1943) and Corvette Command (1944), (republished with H M Corvette as Three Corvettes in 1945).
"HMS River" and "HMS Saltash" were fictional River class frigates in H M Frigate (1946), and the novel The Cruel Sea (1951). (In the 1953 film version HMS Saltash was depicted by Castle-class corvette: HMS Portchester Castle, and hence named "Saltash Castle").
- June 43 : Mentioned in Dispatches
Monsarrat's first three novels, published in 1934–1937 and now out of print, were realistic treatments of modern social problems informed by his leftist politics. The Visitor, his only play, fell into the same category. His fourth novel and first major work, This is the Schoolroom, took a different approach. The story of a young, idealistic, aspiring writer coming to grips with the "real world" for the first time, it is at least partly autobiographical.
The Cruel Sea (1951), Monsarrat's first postwar novel, is widely regarded as his finest work, and is the only one of his novels that is still widely read. Based on his own wartime service, it followed the young naval officer Keith Lockhart through a series of postings in corvettes and frigates. It was one of the first novels to depict life aboard the vital, but unglamorous, "small ships" of World War II—ships for which the sea was as much a threat as the Germans. Monsarrat's short-story collections H.M.S. Marlborough Will Enter Harbour (1949), and The Ship That Died of Shame (1959, made into a film of the same name), mined the same literary vein, and gained popularity by association with The Cruel Sea.
The similar Three Corvettes (1945 and 1953) comprising H.M. Corvette (set aboard a Flower class corvette in the North Atlantic), East Coast Corvette (as First Lieutenant of HMS Guillemot) and Corvette Command (as Commanding Officer of HMS Shearwater) is actually an anthology of three true-experience stories he published during the war years and shows appropriate care for what the Censor might say. Thus Guillemot appears under the pseudonym Dipper and Shearwater under the pseudonym Winger in the book. H M Frigate is similar but deals with his time in command of two frigates. His use of the name Dipper could allude to his formative years when summer holidays were spent with his family at Trearddur Bay. They were members of the famous sailing club based there, and he recounted much of this part of his life in a book My brother Denys. Denys Monsarrat was killed in Egypt during the middle part of the war whilst his brother was serving with the Royal Navy. Another tale recounts his bringing his ship into Trearddur Bay during the war for old times' sake.
Monsarrat's more famous novels, notably The Tribe That Lost Its Head (1956) and its sequel Richer Than All His Tribe (1968), drew on his experience in the diplomatic service and make important reference to the colonial experience of Britain in Africa. Several have peripheral connections to the sea: The Nylon Pirates (1960) tells a story of piracy aboard a modern ocean liner, not pirates in the traditional meaning of the word, but card-sharps, and A Fair Day's Work (1964) deals with labour unrest in a shipyard. The Kappillan of Malta (1973) is as much a story of a place, the island of Malta, as it is of a priest on that island during the terrible days of World War II.
His book The Story of Esther Costello (1952), later made into a film of the same name, while perceived as an uncomplimentary take on the life of Helen Keller and her teachers and assistants, is really an exposé of sleazy practices and exploitation of real causes in the fundraising racket, similar to criticisms of televangelism. It caused a minor public outcry when it first appeared, and Keller's staff considered suing him, then tried to keep the book off the shelves. His final work, unfinished at the time of his death but published in its incomplete form, was a two-volume historical novel titled The Master Mariner. Based on the legend of the Wandering Jew, it told the story of an Elizabethan English seaman who, as punishment for a terrible act of cowardice, is doomed to sail the world's seas until the end of time. His hero participates in critical moments in history; Monsarrat used him to illustrate the central role of seamen.
In his book Decolonizing the Mind, Ngugi wa Thiong'o refers to Monsarrat as one of the "geniuses of racism," along with Rider Haggard. He condemns authors like Monsarrat for reinforcing negative ideas of Africans and being part of forcing African children to associate their own languages with "low status, ...slow-footed intelligence and ability or downright stupidity, non-intelligibility and barbarism."
Two non-fiction books, Life is a Four Letter Word: Breaking In (London, 1966) and Life is a Four Letter Word: Breaking Out (London, 1970) comprise Monsarrat's autobiography.
The two naval ratings responsible for the lifting of the cask at his burial were AB Graham Savage and AB Stephen Knight, aboard HMS Scylla (F71)
- Think of Tomorrow (1934)
- At First Sight (1935)
- The Whipping Boy (1937)
- This is the Schoolroom (1939)
- The Visitor – play
- H.M. Corvette (1942)
- East Coast Corvette (1943)
- Corvette Command (1944)
- Three Corvettes (1945) (a consolidation of H.M. Corvette, East Coast Corvette and Corvette Command)
- Leave Cancelled (1945)
- Three Corvettes (1945 and 1953)
- H. M. Frigate (1946)
- Depends on What You Mean by Love (1947)
- H.M.S. Marlborough Will Enter Harbour (1947)
- My Brother Denys (1948)
- The Cruel Sea (1951)
- The Story of Esther Costello (1952)
- The Boy's Book of the Sea – as editor (1954)
- Canada from Coast to Coast (1955)
- Castle Garac (1955)
- The Tribe That Lost Its Head (1956)
- The Boy's Book of the Commonwealth – as editor (1957)
- The Ship That Died of Shame, and Other Stories (1959) (comprising The Ship That Died of Shame; Oh To Be In England!; The Reconciliation; The List; The Thousand Islands Snatch; Up The Garden Path; The Man Who Wanted a Mark IX; I Was There; The Dinner Party; Licensed To Kill; Postscript)
- The Nylon Pirates (1960)
- The White Rajah (1961)
- The Time Before This (1962)
- To Stratford with Love (1963)
- Smith and Jones (1963)
- Something to Hide (1963)
- A Fair Day's Work (1964)
- The Pillow Fight (1965)
- Life Is a Four-Letter Word (volume 1): Breaking In (London, 1966) – autobiography
- Richer Than All His Tribe (1968)
- Life Is a Four-Letter Word (volume 2): Breaking Out (London, 1970) – autobiography
- The Kappillan of Malta (1973)
- Monsarrat at Sea (1975)
- The Master Mariner, Book 1: Running Proud (1978)
- The Master Mariner, Book 2: Darken Ship – unfinished novel (1981)
Film adaptations of his works
- The Cruel Sea (1953), directed by Charles Frend, starring Jack Hawkins, Donald Sinden, Denholm Elliott, Stanley Baker, John Stratton, Virginia McKenna. Screenplay by Eric Ambler.
- The Ship That Died of Shame (1955), directed by Basil Dearden, starring Richard Attenborough, George Baker, Bill Owen, Virginia McKenna, Roland Culver, screenplay by Basil Dearden, Michael Relph, John Whiting.
- H.M.S. Marlborough Will Enter Port – TV film (1956), adapted from H.M.S. Marlborough Will Enter Harbour, narrated by Ronald Reagan, produced by Revue Studios. Teleplay by George Bruce.
- The Story of Esther Costello (1957) (also known as The Golden Virgin), directed by David Miller, starring Joan Crawford, Rossano Brazzi, Heather Sears, Lee Patterson. Screenplay by Charles Kaufman.
- Bait for the Tiger (1957) – television film, adapted from Castle Garac, directed by Paul Nickell, starring Anna Maria Alberghetti, Corinne Calvet, Carl Esmond, Peter Lawford. Adaptation by Whitfield Cook.
- Something to Hide (1972) (also known as Shattered), produced by Avton Films, directed by Alastair Reid, starring Peter Finch, Shelley Winters, Colin Blakely, John Stride, Linda Hayden. Screenplay by Alastair Reid.
- The Reconciliation (1984) – TV film, directed by John Jacobs, starring Roger Rees, John Castle, Jim Norton, Meg Davies, teleplay by Roy Russell.
- Krueger, Christine L. (2003), Encyclopedia of British Writers, 19th and 20th Centuries, Facts on File, p. 257, ISBN 0-8160-4670-0
- Liverpool Record Office Annual Report 2008-2009[full citation needed]
- "Nicholas Monsarrat". Historic Naval Fiction. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Pace, Eric (4 Aug 1979). "Nicholas Monsarrat, Novelist, Dies; Wrote War Epic 'The Cruel Sea'". The New York Times. New York, NY: The New York Times. p. 17. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Smith, J. Y. (9 August 1979). "Author Nicholas Monsarrat Dies". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C: The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Hauptfuhrer, Fred (2 July 1979). "To Ann and Nicholas Monsarrat, the Sea Is Never Cruel: It Inspires His Fiction and Their Idyll". People. People. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Lash, Joseph, Helen and Teacher, Addison Wesley 1997, pp. 732–738.
- Thiong'o, Ngugi wa (1994-01-01). Decolonising the mind: the politics of language in African literature. East African Publishers. p. 18. ISBN 9789966466846.
- "THE "CRUEL SEA" MAN GOES TO AFRICA Monsarrat writes a `let-down'.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956). Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia. 13 October 1956. p. 10. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- Xuereb, Paul (March–June 2001). Cauchi, Prof Maurice N, ed. "Nicholas Monsarrat (1910–1979)". The Gozo Observer. University of Malta, Gozo Centre. 1 (5). Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Patrol craft at www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk – See bottom of page for Monsarrat's ships, HMS Shearwater and HMS Guillemot
- Nicholas Monsarrat at uboat.net
- Nicholas Monsarrat at unithistories
- Nicholas Monsarrat on Internet Movie Database
- Nicholas Monsarrat on the Internet Archive