Nicholas of Ilok

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Nicholas of Ilok
King of Bosnia; Ban of Macsó, Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia; Voivode of Transylvania
Epitaf Nikole Ilockog crkva sv Ivana Kapistrana Ilok 221208.jpg
Gravestone of Nikola Iločki in the Church of St. John of Capistrano in Ilok, Croatia
Born 1410
Ilok, Kingdom of Hungary
(today's Croatia)
Died 1477
Burial Ilok, Croatia
Spouse Margit Rozgonyi
Dorottya Széchy de Felsőlendva
Issue
more...
Laurence, Ban of Macsó
House House of Ilok
Father Ladislaus, Ban of Macsó
Mother Anna Stiboriczi

Nicholas of Ilok (Bosnian and Croatian: Nikola Iločki, Hungarian: Újlaki Miklós; 1410–1477) was Ban of Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia and Macsó, Voivode of Transylvania and titular King of Bosnia from 1471 until his death.

A member of the Iločki noble family, he was one of the richest landowners in the Kingdom of Hungary and Croatia and one of its most influential magnates. He held a reputation of a great hero and served under four kings of Hungary: Albert, Vladislaus I, Ladislaus V and Matthias I.

Early career[edit]

His parents were Ladislaus of Ilok, Ban of Macsó, and Anna Stiboriczi, daughter of Stibor of Stiboricz, Voivode of Transylvania. His father died shortly after his birth. He had four brothers: John, Stephen, Peter and Paul. His great-grandfather, Nicholas Kont, served as palatine to King Louis I of Hungary. Nicholas was the best known lord of the city of Ilok. While he was in power, the city experienced its golden age. In 1430, Nicholas' brother Stephen died and Nicholas succeeded him as Ban of Macsó.

When King Albert died in 1439, Nicholas supported his widow, Elizabeth of Luxembourg, in her struggle to secure the Holy Crown of Hungary for her son, Ladislaus the Posthumous. As a reward, Queen Elizabeth had him knighted. However, Nicholas soon took the side of Vladislaus III of Poland and allied himself with John Hunyadi. Upon becoming King of Hungary, Vladislaus gave Nicholas and Hunyadi extraordinary powers, appointing them as joint Voivodes of Transylvania.[1]

Matthias' reign[edit]

In 1457, Nicholas took part in the liquidation of John Hunyadi's son, Ladislaus.[2] The next year, Ladislaus' brother, Matthias Corvinus, was elected King of Hungary. However, various Hungarian and Croatian nobles refused to recognise him as their sovereign. The opposition was led by Nicholas himself and Palatine Ladislaus II Garay, who asked Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III for support. Matthias was, however, eventually recognised as king.[3]

He retained his influence throughout the reign of Matthias Corvinus, who created him perpetual ispán of Teočak in 1464, making him only the third person to bear such a title.[1] In 1471, having settled his disputes with Nicholas, King Matthias I conferred upon him the title of King of Bosnia, that being an empty title considering the fact that the Kingdom of Bosnia had been conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1463. Nicholas seems to have been made Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia by early 1472, probably in order to secure his loyalty to the King and to enable him to defend the region against the Ottomans. He had been named ban to replace Blaise Magyar, who had rebelled against the King. However, he did not retain that office for long; by the end of the same year, he was replaced by Damian Horvat.[3]

As King of Bosnia, Nicholas even minted his own currency.[4] However, Nicholas failed to defend his satellite kingdom, losing most of it to the Ottomans. The Hungarian Kingdom of Bosnia consisted of a few fortresses.[3] Nicholas ruled those remnants and retained the kingly title until his death, styling himself "Nicholas, by the Grace of God King of Bosnia" (Latin: Nicolaus Dei Gratia Rex Bosniae).[2] He was succeeded, as Ban of Macsó and Lord of Ilok, by his eldest surviving son, Laurence.[3]

Marriages and issue[edit]

Nicholas was first married to Margit Rozgonyi (fl 1441-1458). By his first wife, Nicholas had the following children:[5]

  1. Nicholas (fl 1452)
  2. Stephen (fl 1459-1465)
  3. Catherine (fl. 1448-1493), whose daughter's sons claimed their great-grandfather's inheritance
  4. Euphrosyne (fl. 1458-1476)
  5. Hieronyma (fl 1458-1460), married to Leonhard of Gorizia
  6. Ursula (fl 1458-1476)

He was married secondly to Dorottya Széchy de Felsőlendva (fl 1471-1495). Their children were:[5]

  1. Laurence (1459–1524), Nicholas' successor, after whose death without surviving issue the family became extinct
  2. Bernard (fl 1460)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Engel, Pál; Pálosfalvi, Tamás (2005). The realm of St. Stephen: a history of medieval Hungary, 895-1526. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-977-X. 
  2. ^ a b Adrić, Stanko (2000). The miracles of St. John Capistran. Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9116-68-8. 
  3. ^ a b c d Van Antwerp Fine, John (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. USA: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4. 
  4. ^ Bagnell Bury, John (1964). The Cambridge medieval history. UK: University Press. 
  5. ^ a b Marek, Miroslav. "Ujlaki". Genealogy.EU. [self-published source][better source needed]
Royal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Stephen Tomašević
as actual king
Matthias
as Ottoman puppet
— TITULAR —
King of Bosnia
against Matija Vojsalić

1471–1477
Vacant
Political offices
Preceded by
Ladislaus Jakcs
& Michael Jakcs
Voivode of Transylvania
1441–1458
with John Hunyadi (1441–1446)
Emeric Bebek (1446–1448)
John Rozgonyi (1449–1458)
Succeeded by
Ladislaus Kanizsai
& John Rozgonyi
& Sebastian Rozgonyi
Preceded by
Ladislaus Kanizsai
& Nicholas Kanizsai
Voivode of Transylvania
1462–1465
with John Pongrácz
Succeeded by
Bertold Ellerbach
& Sigismund Szentgyörgyi
& John Szentgyörgyi
Preceded by
Blaise Magyar
Ban of Croatia
Slavonia and Dalmatia

1472
Succeeded by
Damian Horvat
Preceded by
Stephen of Ilok
Ban of Macsó
1430-1477
Succeeded by
Laurence of Ilok