Nickel silicide

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Ni2Si
Ni2Si.png
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
EC Number
  • 235-033-1
  • InChI=1S/2Ni.Si
    Key: RUFLMLWJRZAWLJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • [Si](=[Ni])=[Ni]
Properties
Ni2Si
Molar mass 145.473 g/mol[1]
Density 7.40 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 1,255 °C (2,291 °F; 1,528 K)[1]
Structure[2]
Orthorhombic, oP12
Pnma, No. 62
a = 0.502 nm, b = 0.374 nm, c = 0.708 nm
4
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
NiSi
FeB structure 2.png
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
  • InChI=1S/Ni.Si
    Key: PEUPIGGLJVUNEU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • [Si].[Ni]
Properties
NiSi
Molar mass 86.778 g/mol
Structure[3]
Orthorphomic, oP8
Pnma, No. 62
a = 0.519 nm, b = 0.333 nm, c = 0.5628 nm
4
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
NiSi2
CaF2 polyhedra.png
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
  • InChI=1S/Ni.2Si
    Key: MGTLYUZSHHQPEY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • [Ni].[Si].[Si]
Properties
NiSi2
Molar mass 114.864 g/mol[1]
Density 7.83 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 993 °C (1,819 °F; 1,266 K)[1]
Structure[4]
Cubic, cF12
Fm3m, No. 225
a = 0.5406 nm
4
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Nickel silicides include several intermetallic compounds of nickel and silicon. Nickel silicides are important in microelectronics as they form at junctions of nickel and silicon. Additionally thin layers of nickel silicides may have application in imparting surface resistance to nickel alloys.

Compounds[edit]

Nickel silicides include Ni3Si, Ni31Si12, Ni2Si, Ni3Si2, NiSi and NiSi2.[5] Ni31Si12, Ni2Si, and NiSi have congruent melting points; the others form via a peritectic transformation.[citation needed] The silicides can be made via fusion or solid state reaction between the elements, diffusion at a junction of the two elements, and other methods including ion beam mixing.[citation needed]

Properties[edit]

Nickel silicides are generally chemically and thermally stable.[citation needed] They have low electrical resistivity; with NiSi 10.5–18 μΩ·cm, Ni2Si 24–30 μΩ·cm, NiSi2 34–50 μΩ·cm; nickel-rich silicides have higher resistivity rising to 90–150 μΩ·cm in Ni31Si12.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

Microelectronics[edit]

Nickel silicides are important in microelectronic devices – specific silicides are good conductors, with NiSi having a conductivity approaching that of elemental nickel.[citation needed] With silicon carbide as the semiconductor nickel reacts at elevated temperatures to form nickel silicides and carbon.[citation needed]

Other[edit]

Nickel silicides have potential as coatings for nickel-based superalloys and stainless steel, due to their corrosion, oxidation, and wear resistance.[citation needed] NiSi has been investigated as a hydrogenation catalyst for unsaturated hydrocarbons.[6] Nickel silicide nanoparticles supported on silica support have been suggested as an alternative catalyst to widely used pyrophoric Raney nickel.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.77. ISBN 978-1439855119.
  2. ^ El Boragy M., Rajasekharan T.P., Schubert K. (1982). Z. Metallkd., 73, 193–197
  3. ^ Wopersnow W., Schubert K. (1976) Z. Metallkd., 67, 807–810
  4. ^ Beck, U.; Neumann, H.-G.; Becherer, G. (1973). "Phasenbildung in Ni/Si-Schichten". Kristall und Technik. 8 (10): 1125–1129. doi:10.1002/crat.19730081005.
  5. ^ Dahal, Ashutosh; Gunasekera, Jagath; Harringer, Leland; Singh, Deepak K.; Singh, David J. (July 2016), "Metallic nickel silicides: Experiments and theory for NiSi and first principles calculations for other phases", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 672: 110–116, arXiv:1602.05840, doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.02.133, S2CID 55434466
  6. ^ Itahara, Hiroshi; Simanullang, Wiyanti F.; Takahashi, Naoko; Kosaka, Satoru; Furukawa, Shinya (2019), "Na-Melt Synthesis of Fine Ni3Si Powders as a Hydrogenation Catalyst", Inorganic Chemistry, 58 (9): 5406–5409, doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b00521, PMID 30983337
  7. ^ P. Ryabchuk, G. Agostini, M.-M. Pohl, H. Lund, A. Agapova, H. Junge, K. Junge and M. Beller, Sci. Adv., 2018, 4, eaat0761 https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat0761

Further reading[edit]

  • Lavoie, C.; d’Heurle, F.M.; Detavernier, C.; Cabral, C. (Nov 2003), "Towards implementation of a nickel silicide process for CMOS technologies", Microelectronic Engineering, 70 (2–4): 144–157, doi:10.1016/S0167-9317(03)00380-0