Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Various Nicktoon characters, as shown in 2013 artwork for the Nickelodeon Animation Studio. From left to right: Leonardo, SpongeBob SquarePants, Craig, Cosmo, Wanda and Bloom.

Nicktoons is a collective name used by Nickelodeon for their original animated series. All Nicktoons are produced partly at the Nickelodeon Animation Studio and list Nickelodeon's parent company (Viacom, now known as Paramount Global) in their copyright bylines.

Since its launch in the late 1970s, Nickelodeon's schedule incorporated animation produced by other companies. The channel did not invest in its own original cartoon series until 1989 when producer Vanessa Coffey visited Los Angeles to accept pitches from local animators. Geraldine Laybourne, the channel's then-president, greenlit three pitches for full series: Doug, Rugrats and The Ren & Stimpy Show. On August 11, 1991, the three cartoons premiered as part of a 90-minute block, becoming the first branded Nicktoons. In contrast to the merchandise-based cartoons that dominated the 1980s animation industry, Vanessa Coffey and Geraldine Laybourne agreed that the Nicktoons should be creator-driven: based on original characters designed by animators.

The first Nicktoons debuted to financial success, convincing Viacom to invest in original animated shows for its other network MTV. Until 1998, Nickelodeon's animation division operated out of a rented office complex in Studio City, California. Production moved to an individual building in nearby Burbank on March 4, 1998. Among the first shows produced at this new facility was SpongeBob SquarePants, which by 2004 had become the most profitable program in Nickelodeon history. In 2002, a cable channel also called Nicktoons was launched, followed by multiple international versions. Several original shows have premiered new episodes on the Nicktoons network.

In the early 2010s, Nickelodeon debuted the first two Nicktoons based on preexisting TV franchises, as opposed to new characters: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and Winx Club. These two revamped shows were developed at Nickelodeon Animation Studio following Viacom's purchases of both properties. In 2019, Nick Animation debuted its first streaming-exclusive Nicktoon, Pinky Malinky, which was released on Netflix rather than television. Several months later, the studio announced a multi-year deal to produce animated content for Netflix, including new properties and spin-offs of previous Nicktoons.


Early efforts (1979–1988)[edit]

Nickelodeon's first original animated program, Video Dream Theatre, was left unaired.[1] It was produced over a half-year period in 1979, when the network hired its future president Geraldine Laybourne to make two pilots for the show. Video Dream Theatre used animation to visualize children's dreams in different styles, such as color Xerox.[2] According to an interview with Laybourne herself, Nickelodeon did not broadcast the show because it was deemed too frightening; she commented, "the trouble with kids' dreams is they're really scary. It's a lot about abandonment, it's a lot about suffocation. They don't make very good stories."[3]

The network continued to only broadcast externally-produced animation until almost a decade later, when animator Ralph Bakshi pitched an original animated series called Tattertown. In 1988, a half-hour pilot episode was produced, overseen by Debby Beece (Nickelodeon's senior vice president of programming). Nickelodeon declined to pick up a full series, and the pilot "Christmas in Tattertown" premiered on December 21, 1988, as a standalone Christmas special. The network's next attempt at an original animation was Nick's Thanksgiving Fest, which was composed of two shorts. According to Linda Simensky, the Thanksgiving shorts "gave Nickelodeon executives the confidence they needed to get the animation department started."[4]

During the production of Nick's Thanksgiving Fest in 1989, Geraldine Laybourne held a meeting at her house to develop a philosophy for the channel's original cartoons. She played tapes of current animated shows, which her colleagues viewed as merchandise-driven and overly commercial. The group decided that Nickelodeon should aim for the opposite of their contemporaries, producing cartoons that would keep their creators in a key creative role rather than prioritizing an efficient "assembly line" process.[5]

Later investments and success (1988–2000)[edit]


Everybody else was doing toy-driven stuff and it was garbage. It's hard to create a character out of a toy for a lot of reasons. You have limited time to produce because you have to get the thing out when the product hits the market. How about, instead, we do this radical thing of looking around the country for animators who have great characters living inside them?

—Nickelodeon president Geraldine Laybourne[6]

Geraldine Laybourne laid out a set of rules for the network's cartoons, most importantly wanting to "put the creator back, front and center."[5] She approached her fellow executive Vanessa Coffey to find artists in Los Angeles interested in pitching original cartoons. Coffey had experience working in animation and was the producer for Nick's Thanksgiving Fest in 1988.[6] Laybourne gave Coffey "pretty much free rein to look for properties."[7]

Vanessa Coffey rented an apartment in Los Angeles for two weeks and accepted hourly pitches. She mailed animators a call for submissions, which she summarized as "I'm looking for ideas, I'm looking for concepts. The less developed, the better. I want drawings, not a big pitch."[8] As Coffey accepted pitches, she decided that she did not want a "consistent look like Disney,"[8] specifically searching for projects that had completely different styles from each other.

Of the pitches she accepted, Coffey decided to approve eight six-minute pilots at a cost of $100,000 each. Laybourne would eventually select three pilots to expand into full series, meant to fill a programming block of an hour and a half. The first Nicktoon that Coffey approved was Jim Jinkins' Doug, followed by Arlene Klasky and Gabor Csupo's Rugrats. The final pitch that went to series came from John Kricfalusi, who presented a variety show titled Your Gang[9] with a live-action host presenting different cartoons, each cartoon parodying a different genre. Ren and Stimpy were pets of one of the children in Your Gang. Coffey was dissatisfied with most of the pitch but did like Ren and Stimpy, singling them out for their own series.[9] Both Coffey and Laybourne allowed the three shows to enter development. Between the pilots and series' production, Vanessa Coffey was named Nickelodeon's Vice President of Animation.[7]

In fall 1992, Nickelodeon fired John Kricfalusi. Coffey and Laybourne asserted that Kricfalusi was in breach of contract for not delivering on time, creating inappropriate content, and going over budget.[10] Kricfalusi suspected the real reason was that the network was uncomfortable with more crude humor.[11] After Kricfalusi and Nickelodeon missed several promised new-episode delivery and air dates, the network—which had purchased the rights to the Ren & Stimpy characters from Kricfalusi—negotiated a settlement with him.[11] Production on Ren & Stimpy moved to Nickelodeon's animation department, Games Animation, and the show was put under the creative supervision of Bob Camp.[12] Coffey soon stepped down as animation vice president for Nickelodeon to pursue her own projects. She was replaced by Mary Harrington, a Nickelodeon producer who moved out from New York to help run the Nicktoons division after Kricfalusi was fired.[12]

At the time, the Nicktoons were produced primarily out-of-house at Jumbo Pictures (Doug) and Klasky-Csupo (Rugrats), with Nickelodeon's executives overseeing development. Hoping to concentrate production under one roof, Nickelodeon greenlit its first fully-in-house series, Rocko's Modern Life, in 1992. A budget freeze in 1995 at Viacom (parent company of Nickelodeon) resulted in Ren & Stimpy being canceled that same year and the network passing on the final 13 episodes of their option for Doug. Jinkins sold Jumbo Pictures to Disney in 1996, moving Doug over to ABC and Toon Disney as a result. Nickelodeon retained the rights to the 52 episodes produced between 1991 and 1994 as a part of the agreement.[13]


In 1996, Albie Hecht, then-president of Film and TV Entertainment for Nickelodeon, met with Nickelodeon artists to brainstorm an idea for a new Nicktoons studio. Nickelodeon's new facility, named Nickelodeon Animation Studio, would eventually open on March 4, 1998; Hecht said, "For me, this building is the physical manifestation of a personal dream, which is that when people think of cartoons, they'll say Nicktoons."[14]

In June 1997, Nickelodeon began a five-year, $350 million investment into original animation.[15] As part of this effort, the company doubled its animation staff and produced many new pilots, including one for SpongeBob SquarePants. Before commissioning SpongeBob SquarePants as a full series, Nickelodeon executives insisted that it would not be popular unless the main character was a child who went to school, with his teacher as a main character. The show's creator, Stephen Hillenburg, recalled in 2012 that Nickelodeon told him, "Our winning formula is animation about kids in school... We want you to put SpongeBob in school."[16] Hillenburg was ready to "walk out" on Nickelodeon and abandon the series, since he wanted SpongeBob to be an adult character. He eventually compromised by adding a new character to the main cast, Mrs. Puff, who is a boat-driving teacher. Hillenburg was happy with the compromise and said, "A positive thing for me that came out of it was [how it brought] in a new character, Mrs. Puff, who I love."[16]

According to Nickelodeon writer Micah Wright, the series pickups for both SpongeBob and CatDog were announced on the same day in 1997. Nickelodeon's senior vice president, Kevin Kay, confirmed to the animation studio's creative team that it had greenlit 100 episodes (200 individual segments) of CatDog and six episodes (twelve segments) of SpongeBob.[17] Nickelodeon believed CatDog had the potential to be its next breakout hit, and their order represented an investment of $50 million into the series alone.[17] Stephen Hillenburg was doubtful that his show would last, and he stated in 2009: "I was thinking if we could make a pilot, then we'd have one episode and have accomplished that. Then I thought if it did go to a full season that we'd get twelve chances to write stories and that might be it... that we'd make twelve shows and get canceled."[18]

In 1998, Nickelodeon premiered Oh Yeah! Cartoons, which was intended as a "character laboratory" to test out cartoon characters.[19] Creator Fred Seibert described the show as an experiment into a seven-minute format that Nickelodeon generally avoided; he said, "they were very willing to try an experiment to see how it would work."[20] The series eventually yielded three half-hour spin-offs based on segments from the show: The Fairly OddParents, ChalkZone, and My Life as a Teenage Robot. 1998 also marked the release of the first feature film based on a Nicktoon: The Rugrats Movie, which became the first non-Disney animated film to gross over $100 million at the North American box office.[21] On December 8, Nickelodeon's movie division greenlit theatrical adaptations of Hey Arnold! and The Wild Thornberrys, less than a month after Rugrats opened in theaters.[22]

Building new brands (2000–2009)[edit]

At the turn of the millennium, Nickelodeon noticed that a new competitor, Cartoon Network, was attracting some of its 11–15 year old demographic. Desiring a cartoon suited for older viewers,[23] Nickelodeon producer Mary Harrington contacted Jhonen Vasquez for a series pitch after reading his Squee! comic books. Vasquez pitched Invader Zim, which satisfied Nickelodeon's requests for "something 'edgy'."[24]

Nickelodeon also sought out a new action-adventure cartoon after commissioning several anime-inspired pilots that "didn't go anywhere," according to a New York Times article.[25] By 2002, Nickelodeon had rejected multiple Japanese series, considering them derivative or too mature for the channel's target audience.[25] In response, Bryan Konietzko and Michael Dante DiMartino pitched Avatar: The Last Airbender, and Nickelodeon ordered six episodes of the show. Avatar premiered in February 2005 to high ratings, after which Nickelodeon increased its order to 13 episodes and again to 20.[25]

In the early 2000s, Nickelodeon briefly continued its strategy of adapting Nicktoon franchises into theatrical features. Executives at the company's movie division decided to reconsider this approach after several films (Hey Arnold!: The Movie and Rugrats Go Wild) were met with poor financial and critical reception. According to the Chicago Tribune, Nickelodeon believed the Hey Arnold! movie "didn't just fail but actually tarnished one of the company's best selling points: its trustworthy brand name."[26] Aside from SpongeBob SquarePants films, Nickelodeon Movies stopped producing animated theatrical features based on their shows.[26]

In February 2005, high ratings from Butch Hartman's two Nicktoons (The Fairly OddParents and Danny Phantom) convinced the network to sign a multi-year deal with Hartman.[27] As part of the agreement, Hartman developed original animated and live-action concepts for Nickelodeon and its sister channel, Noggin. In a statement, Hartman said, "Working with everyone at Nickelodeon over the past several years has been hugely satisfying and I look forward to forging the same kind of terrific creative alliances with the folks at Noggin."[27]

In October 2006, DreamWorks Animation (who was then in a distribution deal with Nickelodeon's corporate sister Paramount Pictures) announced that it would partner to co-produce animated shows with the channel.[28] The partnership resulted in three CGI-animated shows based on DreamWorks' character library: The Penguins of Madagascar, Kung Fu Panda: Legends of Awesomeness, and Monsters vs. Aliens.

Rebranding (2009–2017)[edit]

Logo introduced for the Nicktoons channel's 2009 rebranding.

In October 2009 and September 2010, respectively, Viacom brought Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and Winx Club into the Nickelodeon family by purchasing both franchises. Nickelodeon Animation Studio produced a new CGI-animated Turtles series[29] and new seasons of Winx Club with CGI sequences.[30] TMNT and Winx were both inducted into the Nicktoons franchise after Nickelodeon launched them.[31] The two productions comprised Nickelodeon's strategy to reboot two established brands for new viewers: TMNT was intended to reach an audience of boys aged 6 to 11, and Winx was aimed at the same age group of girls. In February 2011, Viacom bought out a third of Rainbow SpA,[32] the Italian animation studio that introduced Winx Club. The purchase was valued at 62 million euros (US$83 million)[33] and led to new shows being co-developed by Rainbow and Nickelodeon, including Club 57[34] and a pilot for the Nickelodeon Animated Shorts Program called "Crazy Block".[35]

In the early 2010s, Nickelodeon executives searched for independent animations on the Internet, looking for original ideas. Chris Viscardi, who would later become Nickelodeon Animation's senior vice president, stated that the studio desired to "[get] back to more creator-driven things."[36] Nickelodeon eventually came across two animations they enjoyed: The Forest City Rockers (a short series by Jay Howell and Jim Dirschberger) and Breadwinners (a stand-alone short by Gary DiRaffaele and Steve Borst). Howell and Dirschberger were recruited to develop Sanjay and Craig while DiRaffaele and Borst were asked to expand their Breadwinners short into a full series.[37] Sanjay and Craig premiered first, on May 25, 2013. After its debut, Los Angeles Times critic Robert Lloyd optimistically compared the show to the Nicktoons of the 1990s, writing that "the goofy and delightful series ... represents a positive step back for the network to where it once belonged."[36]

In the late 2010s, Nickelodeon revived three existing Nicktoons IP as one-off movies, including Hey Arnold!: The Jungle Movie, Rocko's Modern Life: Static Cling, and Invader Zim: Enter the Florpus. The first aired on the Nickelodeon channel in November 2017, while the latter two premiered in August 2019 on Netflix.[38] Jhonen Vasquez, the creator of Invader Zim, stated in 2019 that the studio's support for the revival films waned due to a shift in management: "We had an immense amount of support throughout most of the production. Things just turn on a dime, people get axed, new people come in."[39]

Expanding beyond cable (2018–present)[edit]

In 2018, Nickelodeon began to shift from focusing only on cable broadcasting to what it describes as a "studio model" that provides content for third-party companies.[40] The decision was made based on the sharp decline of cable viewership due to the rise of streaming services.[40] As part of this strategy, Nickelodeon announced that the series Pinky Malinky would release on Netflix as "the first straight-to-Netflix Nicktoon."[41] The series premiered on the platform on January 1, 2019. On November 13, 2019, Nickelodeon expanded their relationship with Netflix with the announcement of a multi-year output deal, under which Nickelodeon Animation Studio will produce "original animated feature films and TV series based on both new and existing IP."[42] On February 21, 2020, Nickelodeon's Glitch Techs premiered on Netflix, becoming the second Nicktoon to receive a digital only release.[43]

List of Nicktoons[edit]

Note: Animated series made for Nickelodeon's other brands (namely Nick Jr. and Nick at Nite) are not included in this list.


Title Premiere date
Video Dream Theatre Produced from 1979 to 1980; unaired
Christmas in Tattertown December 21, 1988
Nick's Thanksgiving Fest November 22, 1989

Full series[edit]

# Title Seasons Episodes Premiere date Finale date
1 Doug[note 1] 4[note 1] 52 August 11, 1991 January 2, 1994
2 Rugrats 9 172 August 1, 2004
3 The Ren & Stimpy Show[note 2] 5 52 October 20, 1996
4 Rocko's Modern Life 4 52 September 18, 1993 November 24, 1996
5 Aaahh!!! Real Monsters 4 52 October 29, 1994 December 6, 1997
6 Hey Arnold! 5 100 October 7, 1996 June 8, 2004
7 KaBlam! 4 48 October 11, 1996 May 27, 2000
8 The Angry Beavers 4 62 April 19, 1997 May 26, 2001
9 CatDog 4 68 April 4, 1998 June 15, 2005
10 Oh Yeah! Cartoons 3 34 July 18, 1998 August 30, 2002
11 The Wild Thornberrys 5 91 September 1, 1998 June 11, 2004
12 SpongeBob SquarePants 14 299 May 1, 1999 present
13 Rocket Power 4 71 August 16, 1999 July 30, 2004
14 As Told by Ginger 3 60 October 25, 2000 November 14, 2006
15 The Fairly OddParents 10 172 March 30, 2001 July 26, 2017
16 Invader Zim 2 27 August 19, 2006
17 Action League Now! 1 12 November 18, 2001 February 10, 2002
18 ChalkZone 4 40 March 22, 2002 August 23, 2008
19 The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron, Boy Genius 3 64 July 20, 2002 November 25, 2006
20 All Grown Up! 5 55 April 12, 2003 August 17, 2008
21 My Life as a Teenage Robot 3 40 August 1, 2003 May 2, 2009
22 Danny Phantom 3 53 April 3, 2004 August 24, 2007
23 Avatar: The Last Airbender 3 61 February 21, 2005 July 19, 2008
24 Catscratch 1 20 July 9, 2005 February 10, 2007
25 The X's 1 20 November 25, 2005 November 25, 2006
26 El Tigre: The Adventures of Manny Rivera 1 26 February 19, 2007 September 13, 2008
27 Tak and the Power of Juju 1 26 August 31, 2007 January 24, 2009
28 Back at the Barnyard 2 52 September 29, 2007 November 12, 2011
29 The Mighty B! 2 40 April 26, 2008 June 18, 2011
30 The Penguins of Madagascar[note 3] 3 80 November 28, 2008 December 19, 2015
31 Random! Cartoons[note 4] 1 13 December 6, 2008 December 20, 2009
32 Fanboy & Chum Chum 2 52 October 12, 2009 July 12, 2014
33 Planet Sheen 1 26 October 2, 2010 February 15, 2013
34 T.U.F.F. Puppy 3 60 April 4, 2015
35 Winx Club[note 5] 3[note 5] 78 June 27, 2011 April 10, 2016
36 Kung Fu Panda: Legends of Awesomeness[note 3] 3 80 September 19, 2011 June 29, 2016
37 The Legend of Korra 4 52 April 14, 2012 December 19, 2014
38 Robot and Monster 1 26 August 4, 2012 March 4, 2015
39 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles[note 6] 5 124 September 29, 2012 November 12, 2017
40 Monsters vs. Aliens[note 3] 1 26 March 23, 2013 February 8, 2014
41 Sanjay and Craig 3 60 May 25, 2013 July 29, 2016
42 Breadwinners 2 40 February 17, 2014 September 12, 2016
43 Harvey Beaks 2 52 March 28, 2015 December 29, 2017
44 Pig Goat Banana Cricket 2 40 July 16, 2015 August 11, 2018
45 The Loud House 7 176 May 2, 2016 present
46 Bunsen Is a Beast 1 26 January 16, 2017 February 10, 2018
47 Welcome to the Wayne 2 30 July 24, 2017 May 31, 2019
48 The Adventures of Kid Danger 1 10 January 15, 2018 June 14, 2018
49 Rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles[note 6] 2 39 July 20, 2018 August 7, 2020
50 Pinky Malinky[note 7] 3 60 January 1, 2019 July 17, 2019
51 The Casagrandes 3 70 October 14, 2019 September 30, 2022
52 It's Pony 2 40 January 18, 2020 May 26, 2022
53 Glitch Techs[note 8] 2 19 February 21, 2020 August 17, 2020
54 Kamp Koral: SpongeBob's Under Years[note 9] 1 26 March 4, 2021 present
55 Rugrats[note 10] 2 45 May 27, 2021 March 22, 2024
56 The Patrick Star Show 2 63 July 9, 2021 present
57 Middlemost Post 2 33 October 21, 2022
58 Star Trek: Prodigy[note 11] 1 20 October 28, 2021 present
59 Big Nate[note 11] 2 36 February 17, 2022 March 22, 2024
60 Monster High 1 29 October 6, 2022 present
61 Transformers: EarthSpark[note 11] 1 26 November 11, 2022
62 Rock Paper Scissors 1 18 February 11, 2024
63 The Fairly OddParents: A New Wish[46][47] 1 12 May 17, 2024

Mini series[edit]

# Title Episodes Premiere date Finale date
1 Making Fiends[note 4] 6 October 4, 2008 November 1, 2008
2 Rugrats Pre-School Daze 4 November 16, 2008 December 7, 2008
3 Middle School Moguls 4 September 2, 2019 September 29, 2019


Title Premiere date Sources
Max & the Midknights TBA [48][49]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Nickelodeon produced seasons 1–4. In 1996, Disney acquired the series and produced three additional seasons.
  2. ^ This list does not include the Ren & Stimpy "Adult Party Cartoon" spin-off, as it was not produced under the Nickelodeon brand. In August 2020, the Paramount-owned network Comedy Central green-lit a reboot of the series, which is also not included on this list.
  3. ^ a b c Co-produced by Nickelodeon Animation Studio and DreamWorks Animation.[44] DreamWorks owns the characters and other elements in the show while Paramount retains half of the show's copyright.
  4. ^ a b Premiered exclusively on Nicktoons Network.
  5. ^ a b Nickelodeon Animation Studio produced the Winx Club revival series, made up of seasons 5–7, in co-development with Rainbow. Paramount owns the copyright to these seasons[45] and, until 2023, co-owned the Rainbow studio itself.[32]
  6. ^ a b Viacom acquired the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise in 2009.[29] Viacom owns the copyright to both the 2012 series and Rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, along the 4Kids-produced 2003 series. The 1987 series and The Next Mutation are owned by other external parties.
  7. ^ Premiered exclusively on Netflix. Each episode is separated into 11-minute segments on the streaming platform and count as individual episodes.
  8. ^ Premiered exclusively on Netflix.
  9. ^ Premiered first on Paramount+ in March 2021 before airing on Nickelodeon the following month.
  10. ^ CGI reboot of the original 1991 series. Premiered on Paramount+ before airing on Nickelodeon for the first time on August 20, 2021.
  11. ^ a b c Premiered on Paramount+ before airing on Nickelodeon.


  1. ^ "The Cable Center - Gerry Laybourne". August 20, 2014. Archived from the original on August 20, 2014.
  2. ^ Brennan, Patricia (September 25, 1988). "The kids' channel that 'Double Dares' to be different". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC.
  3. ^ Altschuler, Jane; Laybourne, Geraldine (August 25, 2008). "Television Academy Interviews: Geraldine Laybourne, Executive" (Video interview). Television Academy Foundation and New York Women in Film & Television.
  4. ^ Hendershot 2004, p. 91.
  5. ^ a b Hendershot 2004, p. 92.
  6. ^ a b "The Oral History of 'Nicktoons', Part I: How The Storied Animation Block Came To Be". Decider. June 14, 2016. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  7. ^ a b Owen, Rob (May 5, 2016). "Nickelodeon Animation Studio: Pop-Culture Powerhouse Got an Unlikely Start". Variety. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Nicktoons 25th anniversary oral history revisits 'Rugrats,' 'Doug,' 'Ren & Stimpy'". EW.com.
  9. ^ a b Neuwirth, Allan (2003). Makin' toons: inside the most popular animated TV shows and movies. Allworth Press. ISBN 9781581152692.
  10. ^ Duca, Lauren (December 18, 2014). "One Woman Is Responsible For Starting Nickelodeon's Golden Age Of Cartoons". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  11. ^ a b Andy Meisler (November 21, 1993). "While Team 2 Works to Reform Ren and Stimpy". The New York Times. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  12. ^ a b Andy Meisler (October 17, 1993). "New Kings of TV's Toon Town". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  13. ^ "Animators Feel Free With `Rocko'." The Palm Beach Post
  14. ^ Wendy Jackson (April 1998). "Studio Tour: Nicktoons". Animation World Magazine. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  15. ^ "June 1997 News". www.awn.com.
  16. ^ a b Wilson, Tom (interviewer); Hillenburg, Stephen (interviewee) (May 29, 2012). Big Pop Fun #28: Stephen Hillenburg, Artist and Animator–Interview (mp3) (Podcast). Nerdist Industries. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. Retrieved December 21, 2013.
  17. ^ a b "Micah Wright on Twitter". 2018. Archived from the original on March 11, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  18. ^ White, Peter (October 27, 2009). "SpongeBob SquarePants' creator Steve Hillenburg". TBI Vision. Informa Telecoms & Media. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
  19. ^ Tribune, Harlene Ellin Special to the (July 18, 1998). "NEW CARTOON SHOW WILL HONOR IRREVERENCE". chicagotribune.com.
  20. ^ Maher, John (August 25, 2016). "Exclusive Interview: Fred Seibert on How Creativity Flourished at Nickelodeon".
  21. ^ "THE RUGRATS MOVIE has hit $100 million". Animation World Network.
  22. ^ Katz, Richard (December 9, 1998). "Nick megaskeds original skeins".
  23. ^ "Nickelodeon Cans INVADER ZIM". Ain't It Cool News. January 18, 2002. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  24. ^ Tierney, Adam (September 1, 2004). "An Interview with Jhonen Vasquez and Rikki Simons (page 1)". IGN. Archived from the original on April 24, 2006. Retrieved April 27, 2006.
  25. ^ a b c Lasswell, Mark (August 25, 2005). "Kung Fu Fightin' Anime Stars, Born in the U.S.A." The New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 2006.
  26. ^ a b Horn, John (July 9, 2003). "Nickelodeon flops on big screen". Chicago Tribune. Los Angeles Times. p. 3 (Tempo). Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  27. ^ a b DeMott, Rick (February 23, 2005). "Fairly OddParents' Butch Hartman Signs Multi-Year Deal With Nick". Animation World Network.
  28. ^ Ball, Ryan (October 25, 2006). "Nick, DreamWorks Making TV".
  29. ^ a b "Tuning in to TV: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles have new series, toys". The Washington Times. July 29, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  30. ^ "Global Hit Animated Series 'Winx Club' Comes To Nickelodeon, Starting June 27". Screener. June 9, 2011. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017.
  31. ^ "Nickelodeon Packaging Guide Refresh". Nickelodeon Consumer Products. Viacom International, Inc. July 14, 2016.
  32. ^ a b Vivarelli, Nick (February 4, 2011). "Viacom takes stake in Rainbow". Variety.
  33. ^ "Straffi's Rainbow: Europe's Largest Animation House Has Growing Pains" (PDF). VideoAge International.
  34. ^ "Iginio Straffi de Rainbow: Tuvimos una influencia muy importante en la historia de Club 57 para garantizar su atractivo en Europa". Produ.com. November 20, 2018.
  35. ^ "Nickelodeon Announces Int'l Finalists for 2014 Global Animated Shorts Program". Animation World Network.
  36. ^ a b "Q&A;: 'Sanjay and Craig' and 'Pete & Pete'". Los Angeles Times. May 25, 2013.
  37. ^ James, Meg (February 7, 2014). "Has Nickelodeon found its new bread winner?". Los Angeles Times. pp. 1–3 (paginated). Archived from the original on March 25, 2022. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  38. ^ Snetiker, Marc (April 4, 2017). "Nickelodeon reviving Invader Zim for TV movie". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  39. ^ Jhonen Vasquez [@JhonenV] (July 18, 2019). "NICK isn't one unchanging entity - it's whatever people are there at any given time. We had an immense amount of support throughout most of the production. Things just turn on a dime, people get axed, new people come in" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  40. ^ a b Amidi, Amid (November 13, 2019). "Netflix and Nickelodeon Enter New Partnership For Series And Features". Cartoon Brew.
  41. ^ "Pinky Malinky Series Premieres on Netflix - Nickelodeon Animation". www.nickanimation.com.
  42. ^ "Nickelodeon, Netflix Team for Original Animated Features, TV Series". The Hollywood Reporter. November 13, 2019.
  43. ^ "Stream It Or Skip It: 'Glitch Techs' on Netflix, a Nickelodeon 'Toon in Which Secret Warriors Battle Escaped Video Game Baddies". Decider. February 21, 2020.
  44. ^ Nguyen, Hanh (January 9, 2009). "'Penguins of Madagascar' Move It, Move It to Nickelodeon". chicagotribune.com.
  45. ^ "Copyright Catalog: Winx Club - Eps. 726". Library of Congress.
  46. ^ Lynette Rice (February 23, 2024). "Nickelodeon To Launch The Fairly OddParents Spinoff A New Wish This Spring". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved February 23, 2024.
  47. ^ Dunn, Jack (May 1, 2024). "'Fairly OddParents' Sequel Series Drops First Trailer". Variety. Retrieved May 2, 2024.
  48. ^ Rosario, Alexandra Del (November 16, 2021). "Nickelodeon Orders 'Max & The Midknights', 'Rock, Paper, Scissors' Animated Series". Deadline. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  49. ^ Andrew Barker (October 5, 2022). "Nickelodeon Animation Reaches Across Platforms to Boost Franchises". Variety. Retrieved October 5, 2022.