Niclosamide

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Niclosamide
Niclosamide.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Niclocide, Fenasal, Phenasal, others[1]
AHFS/Drugs.com Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information
ATC code P02DA01 (WHO) QP52AG03 (WHO)
Identifiers
CAS Number 50-65-7 N
PubChem (CID) 4477
DrugBank DB06803 YesY
ChemSpider 4322 YesY
UNII 8KK8CQ2K8G YesY
KEGG D00436 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1448 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.052
Chemical and physical data
Formula C13H8Cl2N2O4
Molar mass 327.119 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
Melting point 225 to 230 °C (437 to 446 °F)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Niclosamide, sold under the trade name Niclocide among others, is a medication used to treat tapeworm infestations. This includes diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and taeniasis.[2] It is not effective against other worms such as pinworms or roundworms.[3] It is taken by mouth.[2]

Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and itchiness. It may be used during pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby.[2] Niclosamide is in the anthelmintic family of medications.[3] It works by blocking the uptake of sugar.[4]

Niclosamide was discovered in 1958.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.24 USD for a course of treatment.[7] It is not commercially avaliable in the United States.[3] It is effective in a number of other animals.[4]

Side effects[edit]

Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and itchiness.[2] Rarely, dizziness, skin rash, drowsiness, perianal itching, or an unpleasant taste occur. For some of these reasons, praziquantel is a preferable and equally effective treatment for tapeworm infestation.[citation needed]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Niclosamide inhibits glucose uptake, oxidative phosphorylation, and anaerobic metabolism in the tapeworm.[8]

Research[edit]

Niclosamide, along with oxyclozanide, another anti-tapeworm drug, was found in a 2015 study to display "strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)".[9] A 2016 drug repurposing screening study suggested that niclosamide may inhibit Zika virus replication in vitro.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CID 4477 from PubChem
  2. ^ a b c d WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. 81, 87, 591. ISBN 9789241547659. 
  3. ^ a b c "Niclosamide Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Jim E. Riviere; Mark G. Papich (13 May 2013). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1096. ISBN 978-1-118-68590-7. 
  5. ^ Mehlhorn, Heinz (2008). Encyclopedia of Parasitology: A-M. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 483. ISBN 9783540489948. 
  6. ^ "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  7. ^ "Niclosamide". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 1 December 2016. 
  8. ^ Weinbach EC, Garbus J (1969). "Mechanism of action of reagents that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation". Nature. 221 (5185): 1016–8. doi:10.1038/2211016a0. PMID 4180173. 
  9. ^ Repurposing Salicylanilide Anthelmintic Drugs to Combat Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus at PLOS
  10. ^ Xu, Miao; Lee, Emily M; Wen, Zhexing; Cheng, Yichen; Huang, Wei-Kai; Qian, Xuyu; TCW, Julia; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Ogden, Sarah C; Hammack, Christy; Jacob, Fadi; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Itkin, Misha; Hanna, Catherine; Shinn, Paul; Allen, Chase; Michael, Samuel G; Simeonov, Anton; Huang, Wenwei; Christian, Kimberly M; Goate, Alison; Brennand, Kristen J; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Ming, Guo-li; Zheng, Wei; Song, Hongjun; Tang, Hengli (2016). "Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Zika virus infection and induced neural cell death via a drug repurposing screen". Nature Medicine. doi:10.1038/nm.4184. ISSN 1078-8956. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Taber, Clarence Wilbur; Venes, Donald; Thomas, Clayton L. (2001). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary. Philadelphia: F.A.Davis Co. 

External links[edit]