|Trade names||Niclocide, Fenasal, Phenasal, others|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||327.119 g/mol|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||225 to 230 °C (437 to 446 °F)|
|(what is this?)|
Niclosamide, sold under the trade name Niclocide among others, is a medication used to treat tapeworm infestations. This includes diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and taeniasis. It is not effective against other worms such as pinworms or roundworms. It is taken by mouth.
Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and itchiness. It may be used during pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby. Niclosamide is in the anthelmintic family of medications. It works by blocking the uptake of sugar.
Niclosamide was discovered in 1958. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.24 USD for a course of treatment. It is not commercially available in the United States. It is effective in a number of other animals.
Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and itchiness. Rarely, dizziness, skin rash, drowsiness, perianal itching, or an unpleasant taste occur. For some of these reasons, praziquantel is a preferable and equally effective treatment for tapeworm infestation.
Mechanism of action
Niclosamide's metabolic effects are relevant to wide ranges of organisms, and accordingly it has been applied as a control measure to organisms other than tapeworms. For example it is an active ingredient in some formulations for killing lamprey larvae, as a molluscide, and as a general purpose piscicide in aquaculture. Niclosamide has a short half-life in water in field conditions; this makes it valuable in ridding commercial fish ponds of unwanted fish; it loses its activity soon enough to permit re-stocking within a few days of eradicating the previous population.
Niclosamide, along with oxyclozanide, another anti-tapeworm drug, was found in a 2015 study to display "strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)". A 2016 drug repurposing screening study suggested that niclosamide may inhibit Zika virus replication in vitro.
- CID 4477 from PubChem
- WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. pp. 81, 87, 591. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-13.
- "Niclosamide Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- Jim E. Riviere; Mark G. Papich (13 May 2013). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1096. ISBN 978-1-118-68590-7. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
- Mehlhorn, Heinz (2008). Encyclopedia of Parasitology: A-M. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 483. ISBN 9783540489948. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20.
- "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- "Niclosamide". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Weinbach EC, Garbus J (1969). "Mechanism of action of reagents that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation". Nature. 221 (5185): 1016–8. doi:10.1038/2211016a0. PMID 4180173.
- Boogaard, Michael A. Delivery Systems of Piscicides "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-06-01. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
- Who Specifications And Evaluations. For Public Health Pesticides. Niclosamide [www.who.int/whopes/quality/en/Niclosamide.pdf]
- Repurposing Salicylanilide Anthelmintic Drugs to Combat Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Archived 2015-05-02 at the Wayback Machine. at PLOS
- Xu, Miao; Lee, Emily M; Wen, Zhexing; Cheng, Yichen; Huang, Wei-Kai; Qian, Xuyu; TCW, Julia; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Ogden, Sarah C; Hammack, Christy; Jacob, Fadi; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Itkin, Misha; Hanna, Catherine; Shinn, Paul; Allen, Chase; Michael, Samuel G; Simeonov, Anton; Huang, Wenwei; Christian, Kimberly M; Goate, Alison; Brennand, Kristen J; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Ming, Guo-li; Zheng, Wei; Song, Hongjun; Tang, Hengli (2016). "Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Zika virus infection and induced neural cell death via a drug repurposing screen". Nature Medicine. 22: 1101–1107. doi:10.1038/nm.4184. ISSN 1078-8956. PMID 27571349.
- Taber, Clarence Wilbur; Venes, Donald; Thomas, Clayton L. (2001). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary. Philadelphia: F.A.Davis Co.
- Niclosamide in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB)
- "MedlinePlus Drug Information: Niclosamide (Oral)". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 1995-06-23. Archived from the original on 2006-12-16.
- "Helminths: Cestode (tapeworm) infection: Niclosamide". WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases - Second Edition. WHO. 1995. Retrieved 2015-11-01.