Nicolás Bravo

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Nicolás Bravo Rueda
Nicolás Bravo (Joaquín Ramírez).jpg
11th President of Mexico
In office
10 July 1839 – 19 July 1839
Preceded byAntonio López de Santa Anna
Succeeded byAnastasio Bustamante
In office
26 October 1842 – 4 March 1843
Preceded byAntonio López de Santa Anna
Succeeded byAntonio López de Santa Anna
In office
28 July 1846 – 4 August 1846
Vice PresidentHimself
Preceded byMariano Paredes
Succeeded byJosé Mariano Salas
Vocal of the
Regence of the Mexican Empire
In office
11 April 1822 – 18 May 1822
Escudo de la Primera República Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.svg
1st Vice President of United Mexican States
In office
10 October 1824 – 23 December 1827
PresidentGuadalupe Victoria
Succeeded byAnastasio Bustamante
Escudo de la República Central Mexicana.svg
4th Vice President of Mexican Republic
In office
12 June 1846 – 6 August 1846
PresidentMariano Paredes
Himself
Preceded byAntonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Succeeded byValentín Gómez Farías
Personal details
Born(1786-09-10)10 September 1786
Chichihualco, Guerrero, New Spain
Died22 April 1854(1854-04-22) (aged 67)
Chilpancingo, Guerrero (now Mexico)
Political partyCentralist

Nicolás Bravo Rueda (10 September 1786 – 22 April 1854) was the 11th President of Mexico and a soldier. He distinguished himself in both roles during the 1846–1848 U.S. invasion of Mexico.

Army career[edit]

During the Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), Bravo fought alongside Hermenegildo Galeana and then José María Morelos in the campaign of the south. In 1811, with Hermenegildo Galeana, Bravo obtained the military command of the province of Veracruz. He was also involved in the defense of the Congress of Chilpancingo.

In 1817, the royalists took him prisoner and it was only in 1820 that he recovered his freedom. He allied himself with the Plan de Iguala, and on 27 September 1821, he entered Mexico City with the triumphant Ejército Trigarante (in the "Army of the Three Guarantees").

Political career[edit]

Monument to Bravo Rueda in Puebla de Zaragoza, Puebla.

When independence was attained, he was named advisor of state by the Constituent Congress.

When Agustín de Iturbide was crowned emperor, he took up arms in opposition and formed a governing body in Oaxaca City. Bravo created an army and marched on Mexico City via Puebla. When Iturbide was overthrown, Bravo, Guadalupe Victoria, and Pedro Celestino Negrete governed the country until in 1824 there were elections. Bravo lost the elections and of vice presidency under the presidency of Guadalupe Victoria (1824–27).

Political parties had not yet formed, and country's the political elites were associated with two Masonic lodges, the centrist Scottish Rite (los escoseses) and the somewhat more liberal York Rite (los yorquinos). Bravo was the grand master of the Scottish Rite lodge between 1823 and 1827, and the lodge had captured most positions of political influence in the country. Over the course of 1827, however, the opposing York Rite began to gain swiftly in power and influence. Fearing that his side would lose its privileged position, Bravo led a military insurrection (known variously as the Revolution of Tulancingo, after the central Mexican town in which it was centered, or the Revolt of Montaño, after a minor political figure who nominally headed it) against the York-controlled federal army. The rebellion was a fiasco; launched on 23 December 1827, it attracted only a few hundred rebels and fell apart after Bravo was captured on 7 January 1828. Despite calls for his execution, Bravo was exiled to Ecuador. He returned to Mexico in 1829 after a change in national government.

He occupied several governmental positions. In 1842 to 1843, he served as president of Mexico for a little over four months; he also served as president in 1839 and 1846 (the latter as vice president), for short periods.

During the Mexican–American War, he fought against the United States at Castillo de Chapultepec. At the Battle of Chapultepec on 13 September 1847, he was made prisoner.

Death[edit]

Bronze sculpture created by Guanajuato Juan Fernando Olaguíbel Rosenzweig in 1964.

Bravo died in his hacienda at Chichihualco, Guerrero, on 22 April 1854 at the same time as his wife, which caused a rumor that they had been poisoned.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
President of Mexico
10−19 July 1839
Succeeded by
President of Mexico
1842−1843
Succeeded by
Preceded by
President of Mexico
28 July - 4 August 1846
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Office creation
Vice President of Mexico
1824−1827
Succeeded by