Nikolai Stepánovich Turczanínow (1796 in Nikitovka, now in Krasnogvardeysky District, Belgorod Oblast, Russia – 1863 in Kharkov) was a Russian botanist who first identified several genera, and many species of plants. Several species have been named after him, including Connarus turczaninowii, Hydrocotyle turczaninowii, and Sisymbrium turczaninowii.
In 1814, Turczaninow graduated from Kharkov University and went to work as a civil servant in St. Petersburg, where he published his first botanical list in 1825. In 1828 Turczaninov was assigned an administrative post in Irkutsk, Siberia. This allowed him to collect in the Lake Baikal area, and a spate of papers followed.
- 1857: Demidov Prize of the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg.
- Marchant, N. G. (1988) "The contribution of the Russian botanist Turczaninov to Australian plant taxonomy" in Short, P.S. (ed.) (1990) History of Systematic Botany in Australasia: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the University of Melbourne, 25–27 May 1988 Australian Systematic Botany Society, Melbourne, pp. 121–130, ISBN 0-7316-8463-X
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