|President of Venezuela|
19 April 2013
Interim: 5 March 2013 – 19 April 2013
|Vice President||Jorge Arreaza (2013–16)
Aristóbulo Istúriz (2016–17)
Tareck El Aissami (since 2017)
|Preceded by||Hugo Chávez|
|Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement|
17 September 2016
|Preceded by||Hassan Rouhani|
|President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations|
23 April 2016
|Preceded by||Tabaré Vázquez|
|Vice President of Venezuela|
13 October 2012 – 5 March 2013
|Preceded by||Elías Jaua|
|Succeeded by||Jorge Arreaza|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
9 August 2006 – 15 January 2013
|Preceded by||Alí Rodríguez Araque|
|Succeeded by||Elías Jaua|
|President of the National Assembly|
5 January 2005 – 7 August 2006
|Preceded by||Francisco Ameliach|
|Succeeded by||Cilia Flores|
|Born||Nicolás Maduro Moros
23 November 1962
|Political party||United Socialist Party (2007–present)
Fifth Republic Movement (Before 2007)
|Children||Nicolás Maduro Guerra|
Nicolás Maduro Moros (Spanish: [nikoˈlas maˈðuɾo ˈmoɾos]; born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has been the President of Venezuela since assuming office in 2013. Previously he served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
A former bus driver, Maduro rose to become a trade union leader, before being elected to the National Assembly in 2000. He was appointed to a number of positions within the Venezuelan Government under Chávez, ultimately being made Foreign Minister in 2006. He was described during this time as the "most capable administrator and politician of Chávez's inner circle". After Chávez's death was announced on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the president. A special election was held on 14 April 2013 to elect a new president, and Nicolas Maduro won with 50.62% of the votes as the candidate of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela. He was formally inaugurated on 19 April.
Since being elected president, Maduro has ruled Venezuela by decree since 19 November 2013 As a result of Chávez's policies and Maduro's continuation of them, Venezuela's socioeconomic status declined, with crime, inflation, poverty and hunger increasing. Shortages in Venezuela and decreased living standards resulted in protests beginning in 2014 that escalated into daily riots nationwide by 2016, with Maduro's popularity suffering. The loss of popularity saw the election of an opposition-led National Assembly in 2015 and a movement toward recalling Maduro in 2016, though Maduro still maintains power through loyal political bodies, such as the Supreme Court and electoral authority, as well as the military. Maduro, like Chávez, has been accused of authoritarian leadership with conventional media describing him as a dictator, especially following the suspension of the recall movement that was directed towards him.
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Vice President of Venezuela
- 4 President of Venezuela
- 5 Policies
- 6 Controversies
- 6.1 Conspiracy theories
- 6.2 Homophobic comments and insults
- 6.3 Jose Zalt wedding incident
- 6.4 Drug trafficking and money laundering incidents
- 6.5 2017 Venezuelan constitutional crisis
- 7 Recognition
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
His father, Nicolás Maduro Garcia, died in a motor vehicle accident on 22 April 1989. His mother, Teresa de Jesús Moros, was born in Cúcuta, a Colombian border town at the boundary with Venezuela on "the 1st of June of 1929, as it appears in the National Registry of Colombia." Nicolás Maduro was raised as a Roman Catholic, although in 2012 it was reported that he was a follower of Indian guru Sathya Sai Baba.
Racially, Maduro has indicated that he identifies as mestizo ("mixed [race]"), stating that he includes as a part of his mestizaje ("racial mixture") admixture from the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Africans.
Early life and education
Officially, Maduro was born into a leftist family, with his father being a union leader and "militant dreamer of the Movimiento Electoral del Pueblo (MEP)." The only male of four siblings, he had "three sisters, María Teresa, Josefina, and Anita".
Maduro was purportedly raised in "Calle 13", a street in Los Jardines, El Valle, a working-class neighborhood on the western outskirts of Caracas. He attended a public high school, the Liceo José Ávalos, in El Valle. His introduction to politics was when he became a member of his high school's student union. According to school records, Maduro never graduated from high school.
At 24 years of age, "Maduro travelled through the streets of Havana with other militants of leftist organizations in South America that moved to Cuba in 1986, to attend a one year course in the Escuela Nacional de Cuadros Julio Antonio Mella, a centre of political indoctrination directed by the Union of Communist Youth."
Marriage and family
Maduro is married to Cilia Flores, a lawyer and politician who replaced Maduro as President of the National Assembly in August 2006, when he resigned to become Minister of Foreign Affairs, becoming the first woman to serve as President of the National Assembly. The two had been in a romantic relationship since the 1990s when Flores was Hugo Chávez's lawyer following the 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts and were married in July 2013 months after Maduro became president.
Maduro has one son, Nicolás Maduro Guerra, whom he appointed to senior government posts: Chief of the presidency's Special Inspectors Body, head of the National Film School, and a seat in the National Assembly, while Flores has an adopted son, Efraín Campos, who is her nephew from her deceased sister. He has two granddaughters, Paula and Sofía.
Early political career
Maduro found employment as a bus driver for many years for the Caracas Metro company. He began his political career in the 1980s, by becoming an unofficial trade unionist representing the bus drivers of the Caracas Metro system. He was also employed as a bodyguard for José Vicente Rangel during Rangel's unsuccessful 1983 presidential campaign.
In the early 1990s, he joined MBR-200 and campaigned for the release of Hugo Chávez when Chávez was jailed for his role in the 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts. In the late 1990s, Maduro was instrumental in founding the Movement of the Fifth Republic, which supported Chávez in his run for president in 1998.
Maduro was elected on the MVR ticket to the Venezuelan Chamber of Deputies in 1998, to the National Constituent Assembly in 1999, and finally to the National Assembly in 2000, at all times representing the Capital District. The Assembly elected him as Speaker, a role he held from 2005 until 2006.
On 9 August 2006, Maduro was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. According to Rory Carroll, Maduro did not know how to speak any foreign languages while serving as the Minister of Foreign Affairs. During his time as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Venezuela's foreign policy stances included support for Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, and a turnaround in relations with Colombia. Maduro served as the Venezuelan Minister of Foreign Affairs until he was appointed to the vice presidency by President Chavez in 2012.
Vice President of Venezuela
Prior to his appointment to the vice presidency, Maduro had already been chosen by Chávez in 2011 to succeed him in the presidency if he were to die from cancer. This choice was made due to Maduro's loyalty to Chávez and because of his good relations with other chavista hard-liners such as Elías Jaua, former minister Jesse Chacón and Jorge Rodríguez. Bolivarian officials predicted that following Chávez's death, Maduro would have more difficulties politically and that instability in the country would arise.
Chávez appointed Maduro Vice President of Venezuela on 13 October 2012, shortly after his victory in that month's presidential election. Two months later, on 8 December 2012, Chávez announced that his recurring cancer had returned and that he would be returning to Cuba for emergency surgery and further medical treatment. Chávez said that should his condition worsen and a new presidential election be called to replace him, Venezuelans should vote for Maduro to succeed him. This was the first time that Chávez named a potential successor to his movement, as well as the first time he publicly acknowledged the possibility of his demise.
Chávez's endorsement of Maduro sidelined Diosdado Cabello, a former Vice President and powerful Socialist Party official with ties to the armed forces, who had been widely considered a top candidate to be Chávez's successor. After Maduro was endorsed by Chávez, Cabello "immediately pledged loyalty" to both men.
Upon the death of Hugo Chávez on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the president. He appointed Jorge Arreaza to take his place as vice president. Since Chávez died within the first four years of his term, the Constitution of Venezuela states that a presidential election had to be held within 30 days of his death. Maduro was unanimously adopted as the Socialist Party's candidate in that election. At the time of his assumption of temporary power, opposition leaders argued that Maduro violated articles 229, 231, and 233 of the Venezuelan Constitution, by assuming power over the President of the National Assembly.
In his speech during the short ceremony in which he formally took over the powers of the president, Maduro said: "Compatriots, I am not here out of personal ambition, out of vanity, or because my surname Maduro is a part of the rancid oligarchy of this country. I am not here because I represent financial groups, neither of the oligarchy nor of American imperialism... I am not here to protect mafias nor groups nor factions."
President of Venezuela
The succession to the presidency of Maduro, according to Corales and Penfold, was due to multiple mechanisms that were established by Maduro's predecessor, Hugo Chávez. Initially, oil prices were high enough for Maduro to maintain necessary spending for support, specifically with the military. Foreign ties that were established by Chávez were also utilised by Maduro as he applied skills that he had learned while serving as a foreign minister for his advantage. Finally, the PSUV and government institutions aligned behind Maduro, and "the regime used the institutions of repression and autocracy, also created under Chávez, to become more repressive vis-à-vis the opposition".
On 14 April 2013, Maduro was elected President of Venezuela, narrowly defeating opposition candidate Henrique Capriles with just 1.5% of the vote separating the two candidates. Capriles immediately demanded a recount, refusing to recognize the outcome as valid. Maduro was later formally inaugurated as President on 19 April, after the election commission had promised a full audit of the election results. On 24 October 2013, he announced the creation of a new agency, the Vice Ministry of Supreme Happiness, to coordinate all the social programmes.
On 2 May 2016, opposition leaders in Venezuela handed in a petition to the National Electoral Council (CNE) calling for a recall referendum, with the populace to vote on whether to remove Maduro from office. On 5 July 2016, the Venezuelan intelligence service detained five opposition activists involved with the recall referendum, with two other activists of the same party, Popular Will, also arrested. After delays in verification of the signatures, protestors alleged the government was intentionally delaying the process. The government, in response, argued the protestors were part of a plot to topple Maduro. On 1 August 2016, CNE announced that enough signatures had been validated for the recall process to continue. While opposition leaders pushed for the recall to be held before the end of 2016, allowing a new presidential election to take place, the government vowed a recall would not occur until 2017, ensuring the current vice president would potentially come to power.
Rule by decree
Beginning six months after being elected, Maduro has ruled by decree for the majority of his presidency: from 19 November 2013 to 19 November 2014, 15 March 2015 to 31 December 2015, 15 January 2016 to present.
||It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Presidency of Nicolás Maduro#Policies. (Discuss) (September 2016)|
Many of the policies that were in action throughout Maduro's presidency were the same or similar to policies created by his predecessor Hugo Chávez. Maduro stuck to Chávez's policies in order to remain popular to those who find a connection between the two. Despite the increasingly difficult crises facing Venezuela such as a faltering economy and high crime rate, Maduro continued the use of Chávez's policies. According to Marsh, instead of making any policy changes, Maduro placed attention on his "hold on power by closing off the legal channels through which the opposition can act". Shannon K. O'Neil of the Council on Foreign Relations stated that "After Chavez's death, Maduro has just continued and accelerated the authoritarian and totalitarian policies of Chavez".
According to Professor Ramón Piñango, a sociologist from the Venezuelan University of IESA, "Maduro has a very strong ideological orientation, close to the Communist ideology. Contrary to Diosdado, he is not very pragmatic."
One of the first important presidential programs of Maduro became the "Safe Homeland" program, a massive police and military campaign to build security in the country. 3,000 soldiers were deployed to decrease homicide in Venezuela, which has one of the highest rates of homicide in Latin America. Most of these troops were deployed in the state of Miranda (Greater Caracas), which has the highest homicide rate in Venezuela. According to the government, in 2012, more than 16,000 people were killed, a rate of 54 people per 100,000, although the Venezuela Violence Observatory, a campaign group, claims that the homicide rate was in fact 73 people per 100,000. The government claims that the Safe Homeland program has reduced homicides by 55%. The program had to be reinitiated one year later after the program's creator, Miguel Rodríguez Torres, was replaced by Carmen Melendez Teresa Rivas. Murder also increased over the years since the program's initiation according to the Venezuela Violence Observatory, with the murder rate increasing to 82 per 100,000 in 2014.
When elected in 2013, Maduro continued the majority of existing economic policies of his predecessor Hugo Chávez. When entering the presidency, Maduro's Venezuela faced a high inflation rate and large shortages of goods that was left-over from the previous policies of President Chávez.
Maduro blamed capitalism for speculation that is driving high rates of inflation and creating widespread shortages of staples, and often said he was fighting an "economic war", calling newly enacted economic measures "economic offensives" against political opponents he and loyalists state are behind an international economic conspiracy. However, Maduro has been criticized for only concentrating on public opinion instead of tending to the practical issues economists have warned the Venezuelan government about or creating any ideas to improve the economic situation in Venezuela such as the "economic war".
Venezuela was ranked as the top spot globally with the highest misery index score in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. In 2014, Venezuela's economy entered an economic depression that has continued as of 2017.
Maduro has accused the United States of intervention in Venezuela several times with his allegations ranging from post-election violence by "neo-Nazi groups", economic difficulties from what he called an "economic war" and various coup plots. The United States denied such accusations while analysts have called such allegations by Maduro as a way to distract Venezuelans from their problems.
In early 2015 the Obama administration signed an executive order which imposed targeted sanctions on 7 Venezuelan officials whom the White House argued were instrumental in human rights violations, persecution of political opponents and significant public corruption and said that the country posed an "unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States." Maduro responded to the sanctions in a couple of ways. He wrote an open letter in a full page ad in The New York Times in March 2015, stating that Venezuelans were "friends of the American people" and called President Obama's action of making targeted sanctions on the alleged human rights abusers a "unilateral and aggressive measure". Examples of accusations of human rights abuses from the United States to Maduro's government included the murder of a political activist prior to legislative elections in Venezuela. Maduro threatened to sue the United States over an executive order issued by the Obama Administration that declared Venezuela to be a threat to American security. He also planned to deliver 10 million signatures, or signatures from about 1/3 of Venezuela's population, denouncing the United States' decree declaring the situation in Venezuela an "extraordinary threat to US national security". and ordered all schools in the country to hold an "anti-imperialist day" against the United States with the day's activities including the "collection of the signatures of the students, and teaching, administrative, maintenance and cooking personnel". Maduro further ordered state workers to apply their signatures in protest, with some workers reporting that firings of state workers occurred due to their rejection of signing the executive order protesting the "Obama decree". There were also reports that members of Venezuelan armed forces and their families were ordered to sign against the United States decree.
On 6 April 2015, twenty-five (25) ex-presidents issued called Declaración de Panamá, a statement denouncing the VII Cumbre de las Américas, what they called "democratic alteration" in Venezuela, promoted by the government of Nicolas Maduro. The statement calls for the immediate release of "political prisoners" in Venezuela. Among the former heads of government that have called for improvements in Venezuela are: Jorge Quiroga (Bolivia); Sebastián Piñera (Chile): Andrés Pastrana, Álvaro Uribe and Belisario Betancur (Colombia); Miguel Ángel Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia, Laura Chinchilla, Óscar Arias, Luis Alberto Monge (Costa Rica), Osvaldo Hurtado (Ecuador); Alfredo Cristiani and Armando Calderón (EL Salvador); José María Aznar (Spain); Felipe Calderón and Vicente Fox (México), Mireya Moscoso (Panamá), Alejandro Toledo (Perú) and Luis Alberto Lacalle (Uruguay).
Maduro has reached out to China for economic assistance while China has funneled billions of dollars from multiple loans into Venezuela. China is Venezuela's second largest trade partner with two-thirds of Venezuelan exports to China composed of oil. According to Mark Jones, a Latin American expert of the Baker Institute, China was "investing for strategic reasons" rather than ideological similarities. The Venezuelan military has also used military equipment from China using the NORINCO VN-4 armoured vehicle against protesters during the 2014–15 Venezuelan protests, ordering hundreds more as a result of the demonstrations.
Maduro and members of his entourage have voiced on several occasions of alleged conspiracies against Maduro and his government. Maduro continued the practice of his predecessor, Hugo Chávez, of denouncing alleged conspiracies and in a period of fifteen months following his election, dozens of conspiracies, some supposedly linked to assassination and coup attempts, were reported by Maduro's government. In this same period, the number of attempted coups claimed by the Venezuelan government outnumbered all attempted and executed coups occurring worldwide in the same period. In TV program La Hojilla, Mario Silva, a TV personality of the main state-run channel Venezolana de Televisión, stated in March 2015 that President Maduro had received about 13 million psychological attacks.
Analysts and observers of such allegations state that Maduro uses such conspiracy theories as a strategy to distract Venezuelans from the root causes of some problems facing his government. According to Foreign Policy, Maduro's predecessor, Hugo Chávez, "relied on his considerable populist charm, conspiratorial rhetoric, and his prodigious talent for crafting excuses" to avoid backlash from troubles Venezuela was facing, with Foreign Policy further stating that for Maduro, "the appeal of reworking the magic that once saved his mentor is obvious". Such conspiracy theories presented by the Venezuelan government have never involved any substantial evidence.
Andrés Cañizales, researcher from the Andrés Bello Catholic University, pointed that, as a result of the lack of reliable mainstream news broadcasting, most Venezuelan stay informed with social networking services. As a result, fake news and internet hoaxes have a higher impact in Venezuela than in other countries.
United States involvement accusations
In early 2015, the Maduro government accused the United States of attempting to overthrow him. The Venezuelan government performed elaborate actions to respond to such alleged attempts and to convince the public that its claims were true. The reactions included the arrest of Antonio Ledezma in February 2015, forcing American tourists to go through travel requirements and holding military marches and public exercises "for the first time in Venezuela's democratic history". After the United States ordered sanctions to be placed on seven Venezuelan officials for alleged human rights violations, Maduro used anti-US rhetoric to bump up his approval ratings. However, according to Venezuelan political scientist Isabella Picón, only about 15% of Venezuelans believed in the alleged coup attempt accusations at the time.
In 2016, Maduro again claimed that the United States was attempting to assist the opposition with a coup attempt. On 12 January 2016, Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS), Luis Almagro, threatened to invoke the Inter-American Democratic Charter, an instrument used to defend democracy in the Americas when threatened, when opposition National Assembly member were barred from taking their seats by the Maduro-aligned Supreme Court. Human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch, and the Human Rights Foundation called for the OAS to invoke the Democratic Charter. After more controversies and pursuing a recall on Maduro, on 2 May 2016, opposition members of the National Assembly met with OAS officials to ask for the body to implement the Democratic Charter. Two days later on 4 May, the Maduro government called for a meeting the next day with the OAS, with Venezuelan Foreign Minister Delcy Rodriguez stating that the United States and the OAS were attempting to overthrow Maduro. On 17 May 2016 in a national speech, Maduro called OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro "a traitor" and stated that he worked for the CIA.
A day later on 18 March 2016, Almagro sent a letter rebuking Maduro stating:
"I am not a CIA agent. And your lie, even if it is repeated a thousand times, will never be true ... I am not a traitor ... But you are, President. You betray your people and your supposed ideology with your rambling tirades, you are a traitor to ethics in politics with your lies and you betray the most sacred principle in politics, which is to subject yourself to the scrutiny of your people. You should return the riches of those who have governed with you to your country, because they belong to the people ... You should give the National Assembly back its legitimate power, because this comes from the people, you should return to the people the decision about their future. You will never be able to give back the lives of the children who have died in hospitals because they did not have medicine, you will never be able to free your people from so much suffering, so much intimidation, so much misery, so much distress and anxiety."
Homophobic comments and insults
During a tenth anniversary gathering commemorating the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt going into the 2012 Venezuelan presidential election, Maduro called opposition members "snobs" and "big faggots".
During the presidential campaign of 2013, Maduro used homophobic attacks as a political weapon, calling representatives of the opposition "faggots". Maduro used a homophobic speech against his opponent Henrique Capriles calling him a "little princess" and saying "I do have a wife, you know? I do like women!"
In December 2014, amid the celebration of 15 years of the "Bolivarian Constitution", Maduro commented on the American drafted bill that would potentially penalize some government officials involved in corruption, drug trafficking and violation of human rights, saying on radio and television, "they grab their visa and where the mess has to shove, insert the visa in the ass".
In April 2015, the Spanish Congress, held criticism of the situation in Venezuela, to which Maduro said "go to yours mother's" .
Jose Zalt wedding incident
At the wedding of Jose Zalt, a Syrian-Venezuelan businessman who owns the clothing brand Wintex, on 14 March 2015, Maduro's son, Nicolas Ernesto Maduro Guerra, was seen being showered with American dollars at a gathering in the luxurious Gran Melia Hotel in Caracas. The incident caused outrage among Venezuelans, who believed this to be hypocritical of President Maduro, especially since many Venezuelans were experiencing hardships due to the poor state of the economy and Maduro's public denouncements of capitalism. The incident took place hours after the Venezuelan government military parade conducted against the United States which Maduro's government claims is behind an "economic war" with Venezuela.
Drug trafficking and money laundering incidents
Two nephews of Maduro's wife, Efraín Antonio Campo Flores and Francisco Flores de Freitas, were found guilty of involvement in illicit activities such as drug trafficking in November 2016, with some of their funds possibly assisting Maduro's presidential campaign in the 2013 Venezuelan presidential election and potentially for the 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary elections, with the funds mainly used to "help their family stay in power". One informant stated that the two often flew out of Terminal 4 of Simon Bolivar Airport, a terminal reserved for the president. Due to the fact that the nephews were arrested for narcotics trafficking, the media described the nephews as the "narcosobrinos".
After Maduro's nephews were apprehended by the US Drug Enforcement Agency for the illegal distribution of cocaine on 10 November 2015, Maduro posted a statement on Twitter criticizing "attacks and imperialist ambushes", which was viewed by many media outlets as being directed towards the United States. Diosdado Cabello, a senior official in Maduro's government, was quoted as saying the arrests were a "kidnapping" by the United States.
Secretary of the President investigation
In December 2015 following controversial investigations of money laundered drug money by the Bal Harbour Police Department and Glades County Police without the cooperation of the United States Department of Justice, a report from Miami Herald revealed that much of the drug money was ultimately funneled from multiple banks into the Venezuelan Banesco Bank with some of the largest payments wired to the bank. It was found that William Amaro Sanchez, a secretary and longtime friend of Maduro who was described as his "right-hand-man", had over $200,000 of the drug money transferred to his account. Juan Carlos Escort, head of Banesco, denied the allegations, although unnamed Banesco employees told The Miami Herald that it was Amaro's account and provided information that included his account number, full name and Venezuelan government identification number.
Following these revelations, Panamanian lawyer and politician Guillermo Cochez called on Panama's Public Ministry to investigate accounts in Banesco related to the Venezuelan government, including accounts belonging to Willam Amaro Sanchez and also possible accounts belonging to relatives of President Maduro's wife, Cilia Flores. After Flores' nephews were arrested by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, it was discovered that one of the arrested nephews, Efraín Campo Flores, owned a Panamanian company, with Cilia Flores and other relatives belonging to the company's board of directors.
2017 Venezuelan constitutional crisis
- In 2014, Maduro was named as one of TIME magazine's 100 Most Influential People. In the article, it explained that whether or not Venezuela collapses "now depends on Maduro" saying it also depends on whether Maduro "can step out of the shadow of his pugnacious predecessor and compromise with his opponents".
- In 2016, the Reporters Without Borders (RSF) Top 35 Predators of Press Freedom list placed Maduro as a "predator" to press freedom in Venezuela, with RSF noting his method of "carefully orchestrated censorship and economic asphyxiation" toward media organizations.
- 2016 state of emergency in Venezuela
- List of Presidents of Venezuela
- Venezuelan parliamentary election, 2015
- Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Venezuela)
- "Venezuela's Chavez Says Cancer Back, Plans Surgery". USA Today. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- de Córdoba, José; Vyas, Kejal (9 December 2012). "Venezuela's Future in Balance". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- "Nicolas Maduro sworn in as new Venezuelan president". BBC News. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.</% of votess
- Diaz-Struck, Emilia; Forero, Juan (19 November 2013). "Venezuelan president Maduro given power to rule by decree". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "Venezuela: President Maduro granted power to govern by decree". BBC News. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- Brodzinsky, Sibylla (15 January 2016). "Venezuela president declares economic emergency as inflation hits 141%". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Worely, Will (18 March 2016). "Venezuela is going to shut down for a whole week because of an energy crisis". The Independent. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- Osmary Hernandez, Mariano Castillo and Deborah Bloom (February 21, 2017). "Venezuelan food crisis reflected in skipped meals and weight loss". CNN. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- Anders Aslund (May 2, 2017). "Venezuela Is Heading for a Soviet-Style Collapse". Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- Loris Zanatta (May 30, 2017). "Cuando el barco se hunde" [When the ship sinks] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- Scharfenberg, Ewald (1 February 2015). "Volver a ser pobre en Venezuela". El Pais. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Washington, Richard (22 June 2016). "'The Maduro approach' to Venezuelan crisis deemed unsustainable by analysts". CNBC. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- Lopez, Linette. "Why Venezuela is a nightmare right now". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- "A 2016 Presidential Recall Seems Less and Less Likely". Stratfor. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- Corrales, Javier; Penfold, Michael (2014). Dragon in the tropics : Hugo Chavez and the political economy of revolution in Venezuela. (Second ed.). [S.l.]: Brookings Institution Press. p. xii. ISBN 0815725930.
- "Venezuela Dialogue". TeleSUR. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- Corrales, Javier. "Venezuela’s Odd Transition to Dictatorship". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- Brodzinsky, Sibylla (21 October 2016). "Venezuelans warn of 'dictatorship' after officials block bid to recall Maduro". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Almagro: Maduro se transforma en dictador por negarles a venezolanos derecho a decidir su futuro". CNN en Español. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Perfil | ¿Quién es Nicolás Maduro?" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 27 December 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Profile: Nicolas Maduro – Americas". Al Jazeera English. March 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Perfil de Nicolás Maduro - Archivo Digital de Noticias de Colombia y el Mundo desde 1.990 - eltiempo.com". eltiempo.com. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Neuman, William (22 December 2012). "Waiting to See if a ‘Yes Man’ Picked to Succeed Chávez Might Say Something Else". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- Maduro: Rectifique presidente Obama, somos mestizos. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2016 – via YouTube.
- Lopez, Virginia; Watts, Jonathan (15 April 2013). "Who is Nicolás Maduro? Profile of Venezuela's new president". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "MinCI – Maduro: perfecto heredero de Chávez". MinCI. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Lopez, Virginia (13 December 2012). "Nicolás Maduro: Hugo Chávez's incendiary heir | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Oropeza, Valentina (15 April 2013). "El 'delfín' que conducirá la revolución bolivariana". El Tiempo (in Spanish).
- Cawthorne, Andrew; Naranjo, Mario (9 December 2012). "Who is Nicolas Maduro, Possible Successor to Hugo Chávez?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Dreier, Hannah (12 November 2015). "US Court: Nephews of Venezuela First Lady Held Without Bail". Associated Press. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Guererro, Kay; Dominguez, Claudia; Shoichet, Catherine E. (12 November 2015). "Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's family members indicted in U.S. court". CNN. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Venezuelan president's son, Nicolas Maduro Jr., showered in dollar bills as economy collapses". Fox News Latino. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Biografía – Blog de Nicolas Maduro". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Nicolás Maduro a la cabeza de la revolución" Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (in Spanish). Últimas Noticias. 9 December 2012.
- Carroll, Rory (2013). "5: Survival of the fittest". Comandante: Inside Hugo Chávez's Venezuela. Penguin Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-59420-457-9. LCCN 2012039514.
- Shoichet, Catherine E. (9 December 2012). "Venezuela: As Chavez Battles Cancer, Maduro Waits in the Wings". CNN.
- "Publicista brasileña revela que en 2011 ya se sabía que Maduro sería el sucesor de Chávez". Diario Las Americas (in Spanish). 15 May 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- James, Ian (8 December 2012). "Venezuela's Chavez Says Cancer Back, Plans Surgery". USA Today. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Crooks, Nathan (8 December 2012). "Venezuela's Chavez Says New Cancer Cells Detected in Cuba Exams". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "Profile: Nicolas Maduro". BBC News. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Shoichet, Catherine E.; Ford, Dana (5 March 2013). "Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez dies". CNN.
- CBS/AP (6 March 2013). "Hugo Chavez's handpicked successor at helm in Venezuela, for time being". CBS News.
- "Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" Archived 21 August 2011 at WebCite.
- "Venezuela's foreign minister says VP Maduro is interim president". Fox News. 5 March 2013.
- Carroll, Rory; Lopez, Virginia (9 March 2013). "Venezuelan opposition challenges Nicolás Maduro's legitimacy". London: The Guardian.
- "Constitución de la República de Venezuela" (in Spanish).
- "Maduro convoca a elecciones inmediatas – Pim pom papas noticias". Noticias.pimpompapas.com. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- VTV (8 March 2013). "Presidente Maduro: Asumo está banda de Chávez para cumplir el juramento de continuar la Revolución (+Fotos+Video) – Venezolana de Televisión" (in Spanish). Vtv.gob.ve. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- Corrales, Javier; Penfold, Michael (2 April 2015). Dragon in the Tropics: The Legacy of Hugo Chávez. Brookings Institution Press. p. 13. ISBN 0815725930.
- Shoichet, Catherine (15 April 2013). "Chavez's Political Heir Declared Winner; Opponent Demands Recount". CNN. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Kroth, Olivia (18 April 2013). "Delegations from 15 countries to assist Maduro's inauguration in Venezuela". Pravda.ru. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "Venezuela Fights Shortage Blues With New Happiness Agency". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 October 2013.
- "Venezuela starts validating recall referendum signatures". BBC. 21 June 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Kurmanaev, Anatoly (6 July 2016). "Venezuela Detains Activists Calling for Maduro's Ouster". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Sibylla Brodzinsky (27 July 2016). "Venezuela government stalling recall vote to keep power, opposition claims". The Guardian.
- Cawthorne, Andrew (1 August 2016). "Venezuela election board okays opposition recall push first phase". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Kraul, Chris (17 May 2017). "Human rights activists say many Venezuelan protesters face abusive government treatment". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- Porzucki, Nina (13 January 2016). "It's not Hugo Chavez's Venezuela anymore, or is it?". Public Radio International. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- "Marsh Political Risk Map | 2017". Marsh. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- "What's behind Venezuela's crippling crisis, and why it matters to the U.S.". NBC News. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
- "Venezuela launches massive street security operation". BBC News. 13 May 2013.
- "Venezuelan Anti-Crime Program Records 55% Homicide Reduction". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Safe Homeland plan reduced murder by 55% in Caracas parish". AVN. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Carmen Melendez (1 November 2014). "Relanzado Plan Patria Segura este sábado en todo el territorio nacional (+Fotos)". Venezolana de Television. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- "Venezuela Ranks World's Second In Homicides: Report". NBC News. 29 December 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Venezuela's economy: Medieval policies". The Economist. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Venezuela's April inflation jumps to 5.7 percent: report". Reuters. 17 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Venezuela’s black market rate for US dollars just jumped by almost 40%". Quartz. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Kevin Voigt (6 March 2013). "Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable". CNN. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Corrales, Javier (7 March 2013). "The House That Chavez Built". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Siegel, Robert (25 December 2014). "For Venezuela, Drop In Global Oil Prices Could Be Catastrophic". NPR. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
- "Mr. Maduro in His Labyrinth". The New York Times. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- "Venezuela's government seizes electronic goods shops". BBC. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Maduro anuncia que el martes arranca nueva "ofensiva económica"". La Patilla. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- "Maduro insiste con una nueva "ofensiva económica"". La Nacion. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Decree powers widen Venezuelan president's economic war". CNN. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- Yapur, Nicolle (24 April 2014). "Primera ofensiva económica trajo más inflación y escasez". El Nacional. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Gupta, Girish (3 November 2014). "Could Low Oil Prices End Venezuela’s Revolution?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "New Year's Wishes for Venezuela". Bloomberg. The Washington Post. 2 January 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
- Hanke, John H. "Measuring Misery around the World". The Cato Institute. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Amid Rationing, Venezuela Takes The Misery Crown". Investors Business Daily. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Anderson, Elizabeth (3 March 2015). "Which are the 15 most miserable countries in the world?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Saraiva, A Catarina; Jamrisko, Michelle; Fonseca Tartar, Andre (2 March 2015). "The 15 Most Miserable Economies in the World". Bloomberg. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- The World’s Most – And Least – Miserable Countries in 2016
- Pons, Corina; Cawthorne, Andrew (30 December 2014). "Recession-hit Venezuela vows New Year reforms, foes scoff". Reuters.
- "Venezuela Launches Reforms to Tackle Economic War". TeleSUR. 30 December 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Maduro blames US for violence over Venezuela vote". Associated Press. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Otis, John (8 March 2015). "Venezuela's President Sees Only Plots As His Economy Crumbles". NPR. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Mogollon, Mery; Kraul, Chris (5 March 2015). "Venezuela commemorates Hugo Chavez amid economic and other woes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Seven Venezuelan officials targeted by US". BBC. 10 March 2015.
- "Venezuela launches anti-American, in-your-face propaganda campaign in the U.S.". Fox News Latino. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Venezuela lashes U.S., opposition amid blame over activist's slaying". Reuters. 27 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Vyas, Kejal. "Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro Says He Will Sue U.S.". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "Expresidentes iberoamericanos piden cambios en Venezuela". Panamá América. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Tegel, Simeon (2 April 2015). "Venezuela’s Maduro is racing to collect 10 million signatures against Obama". GlobalPost. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Trabajadores petroleros que no firmen contra el decreto Obama serán despedidos". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Despiden a dos trabajadores de Corpozulia por negarse a firmar contra decreto Obama". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Confirman despido de dos trabajadores de Corpozulia por no firmar contra decreto Obama". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Diario El Vistazo". Diario El Vistazo. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Sabrina Martín. "Bajo amenazas, chavismo recolecta firmas contra Obama en Venezuela". PanAm Post. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "MCM: Declaración de Panamá es un hito histórico en la lucha por la democracia en Venezuela". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "25 expresidentes iberoamericanos firmaron Declaración de Panamá". El Mundo Economía y Negocios. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Rey Mallén, Patiricia (15 April 2014). "China's Paying Venezuela To Stay Afloat. Now Maduro Wants To Be Friends". International Business Times. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Chinese systems get 'combat experience' in Venezuela". IHS Jane's. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Venezuela will buy 300 new anti-riot vehicles". Army Recognition. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Dreir, Hannah (23 July 2014). "Venezuelan Conspiracy Theories a Threat to Critics". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Hilo histórico: Plan de magnicidio contra Nicolás Maduro en Venezuela". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Lansberg-Rodríguez, Daniel (15 March 2015). "Coup Fatigue in Caracas". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Nicolas Maduro recebeu 13 milhões de ataques psicológicos - lainfo.es". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Maduro dice que telenovelas generan delincuencia". Informe21.com. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Wallis, Daniel; Buitrago, Deisy (23 January 2013). "Venezuela's vice president says he's target of assassination plot". Reuters. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Esteban Rojas (May 6, 2017). "La guerra informativa invade las redes" [The informative war invades the networks] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
- Lee, Brianna (25 March 2015). "Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's Approval Rating Gets A Tiny Bump Amid Tensions With US". International Business Times. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "Woman who hit Venezuelan president with mango given new home". Special Broadcasting Service. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "Letter of the OAS Secretary General to the President of Venezuela". Organization of American States. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Venezuela: OAS Should Invoke Democratic Charter". Human Rights Watch. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "The Inter-American Democratic Charter and Mr. Insulza". Human Rights Foundation. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- Ordonez, Franco (4 May 2016). "Venezuela calls for extraordinary OAS meeting". Miami Herald. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- Ordonez, Franco (5 May 2016). "Venezuela accuses U.S. of conspiring to topple Nicolás Maduro". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Maduro sobre Almagro: "Es un traidor, algún día contaré su historia"". Noticias24. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Message from the OAS Secretary General to the President of Venezuela". Organization of American States. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Canciller Maduro llama "sifrinitos" y "fascistas" a dirigentes opositores". El Universal. 12 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Avery, Dan (13 April 2012). "Hugo Chavez’s Foreign Minister Calls Opposition Party "Little Faggots"". Queerty. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Nicolás Maduro utiliza la homofobia para captar votos". Espiritu Gay. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Venezuela Says U.S. Plans To Kill Capriles, Maduro Accused Of Homophobic Slur". The Huffington Post. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Reuters: controversia sobre la sexualidad toma protagonismo en la carrera electoral de Venezuela". Noticias24. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "La "tremenda grosería" que se le salió a Maduro en plena cadena nacional". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Maduro a Congreso de España: "Vayan a opinar de su madre"". LARED21. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "El hijo de Nicolás Maduro bailó bajo una lluvia de dólares en una fiesta". La Nación. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Polémica por un video del hijo de Maduro en el que baila entre billetes". Infobae. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Hijo de Maduro baila bajo lluvia de billetes". La Razón. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "En video: el hijo de Nicolás Maduro baila en una 'lluvia' de billetes". El Tiempo. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Como el hijo de Maduro: Otros escándalos del chavismo". El Comercio. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Hijo de Nicolás Maduro baila en boda mientras le lanzan billetes". El Universo. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Yagoub, Mimi. "Venezuela Military Officials Piloted Drug Plane". InSight Crime. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Blasco, Emili J. (19 November 2015). "La Casa Militar de Maduro custodió el traslado de droga de sus sobrinos". ABC. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Raymond, Nate (19 November 2016). "Venezuelan first lady's nephews convicted in U.S. drug trial". Reuters. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Narcosobrinos Archivo". La Patilla. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "EEUU: postergaron una vez más la audiencia de los narcosobrinos de Maduro | Nicolás Maduro, Narcotráfico en Venezuela, Nueva York - América". Infobae. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Restan días para el juicio de los "narcosobrinos"". Venezuela al Día. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Carrillo Mazzali, Jessica. "Difieren audiencia del caso de los "narcosobrinos" de Cilia". Tal Cual. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "La mujer de Maduro acusa a la DEA de secuestrar a sus "narcosobrinos"". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Lozano, Daniel. "Nicolás Maduro, seis días de silencio en torno al escándalo de los 'narcosobrinos'". El Mundo. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "What's Wrong with Venezuela?". International Policy Digest. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "U.S. arrests Nicolas Maduro's family members". CNN.com. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Kurmanaev, Anatoly. "Arrest of Nicolas Maduro Relatives a ‘Kidnapping,’ Venezuelan Official Says". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Sallah, Michael; Delgado, Antonio (26 December 2015). "Bal Harbour to Caracas: Millions in drug money". Miami Herald. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Sallah, Michael (28 December 2015). "Bank denies report that Maduro aide was sent drug money". Miami Herald. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Denuncian en Panamá a Maduro y a su esposa por posible blanqueo de dólares". El Nuevo Herald. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Kumar, Nikhil (23 April 2014). "The man who holds Venezuela's future". TIME. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Portrait of Nicolás Maduro | Reporters without borders". Reporters Without Borders (in French). Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- "RSF issues new list of press freedom predators". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nicolás Maduro.|
- Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores (Venezuelan Foreign Ministry) (Spanish)
- Biography by CIDOB (Spanish)
|President of the National Assembly
Alí Rodríguez Araque
|185th Minister of Foreign Affairs
9 August 2006 – 15 January 2013
|Vice President of Venezuela
|President of Venezuela
|Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela