|AHFS/Drugs.com||Consumer Drug Information|
|by mouth, topical|
nicotinic acid amide
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||122.13 g·mol−1|
|3D model (Jmol)|
|Density||1.40 g/cm3 g/cm3|
|Melting point||129.5 °C (265.1 °F)|
|Boiling point||334 °C (633 °F)|
Nicotinamide (NAA), also known as niacinamide, is a vitamin found in food, used as a dietary supplement, and used as a medication. As a supplement it is used by mouth to prevent and treat pellagra (niacin deficiency). While nicotinic acid (niacin) may be used nicotinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing. As a cream it is used to treat acne.
Side effects are minimal. At high doses liver problems may occur. Normal amounts are safe for use during pregnancy. Nicotinamide is in the vitamin B family of medications. It is an amide of nicotinic acid. Foods that contain nicotinamide include yeast, meat, milk, and green vegetables.
Nicotinamide was discovered between 1935 and 1937. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Nicotinamide is available as a generic medication and over the counter. In the United Kingdom a 60 gm tube costs the NHS about 7.10 pounds. Commercially nicotinamide is made from either nicotinic acid or 3-cyanopyridine. In a number of countries grains have nicotinamide added to them.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is one known cause of nicotinamide deficiency.
It has anti-inflammatory actions. These may be of benefit to people with inflammatory skin conditions.
Nicotinamide increases the biosynthesis of ceramides in human keratinocytes in vitro and improves the epidermal permeability barrier in vivo. The application of 2% topical nicotinamide for 2 and 4 weeks has been found to be effective in lowering the sebum excretion rate in study participants. Nictotinamide has been shown to prevent Propionibacterium acnes-induced activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, which ultimately results in the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory IL-8 production.
Nicotinamide lacks the vasodilator, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and hypolipidemic actions of nicotinic acid. As such, nicotinamide has not been shown to produce the flushing, itching, and burning sensations of the skin as is commonly seen when large doses of nicotinic acid are administered orally. High-dose nicotinamide should still, however, be considered as a drug with toxic potential at adult doses in excess of 3 g/day and unsupervised use should be discouraged. Overall, however, it rarely causes side effects, and is considered generally safe as a food additive, and as a component in cosmetics and medication.
In cells, niacin is incorporated into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), although the pathways for nicotinic acid amide and nicotinic acid are very similar. NAD+ and NADP+ are coenzymes in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions.
Nicotinamide occurs in trace amounts mainly in meat, fish, nuts, and mushrooms, as well as to a lesser extent in some vegetables.
Some countries require fortification with nicotinamide of some foods. For example, the UK requires fortification of flour and bread with nicotinamide.
In 2014 31,000 tons of nicotinamide were sold.
There is tentative evidence that it may reduce the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancers among people who have had a previous basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. There is also tentative evidence for bullous pemphigoid.
Nicotinamide may aid chemotherapy-and-radiation therapy by acting as a sensitizing agent/cancer-growth-promoter resulting in enhanced blood flow to tumors and thus increased oxygen supply to tumors, thereby reducing tumor hypoxia. Niacinamide also inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP-1), enzymes involved in the rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation or chemotherapy.
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- Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the IFA
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