3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||334.221 g·mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Nicotinamide mononucleotide ("NMN", "NAMN", and "β-NMN") is a nucleotide derived from ribose and nicotinamide. NMN is made from B vitamins in the body, and is a molecule naturally occurring in all life forms. Like nicotinamide riboside, NMN is a derivative of niacin, and humans have enzymes that can use NMN to generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). In mice, NMN enters cells via the small intestines within 10 minutes converting to NAD+ through the Slc12a8 NMN transporter.
Because NADH is a cofactor for processes inside mitochondria, for sirtuins, and for PARP, NMN has been studied in animal models as a potential neuroprotective and anti-aging agent. Dietary supplement companies have aggressively marketed NMN products claiming those benefits. Doses of up to 500 mg was shown safe in men in a recent human study at Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo Japan. Multiple long-term human studies are underway.
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) kinase enzymes are essential for exogenously administered utilization of NR and NMN. When administered exogenously, NMN must be converted to NR in order to enter a cell and be re-phosphorylated back to NMN. Both NR and NMN are vulnerable to extracellular degradation by CD38 enzyme.
- Bogan, KL; Brenner, C (2008). "Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition". Annual Review of Nutrition. 28: 115–30. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.28.061807.155443. PMID 18429699.
- "What is NMN ?". NMN.com.
- "About NMN (Beta-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide)".
- "Slc12a8 is a nicotinamide mononucleotide transporter". Nature. January 2019.
- Brazill, JM; Li, C; Zhu, Y; Zhai, RG (June 2017). "NMNAT: It's an NAD+ synthase… It's a chaperone… It's a neuroprotector". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 44: 156–162. doi:10.1016/j.gde.2017.03.014. PMC 5515290. PMID 28445802.
- "Long-Term Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Mitigates Age-Associated Physiological Decline in Mice". Cell Metabolism. 13 December 2016.
- Stipp, David (March 11, 2015). "Beyond Resveratrol: The Anti-Aging NAD Fad". Scientific American Blog Network.
- "Effect of oral administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide on clinical parameters and nicotinamide metabolite levels in healthy Japanese men". Endocrine Journal. November 2019.
- "Effect of long-term oral administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) on human health".
- "Assessment of the safety of long-term nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)".
- Fletcher RS, Lavery GG (2018). "The emergence of the nicotinamide riboside kinases in the regulation of NAD+ metabolism". Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 61 (1): R107–R121. doi:10.1530/JME-18-0085. PMC 6145238. PMID 30307159.
- Cambronne XA, Kraus WL (2020). "Location, Location, Location: Compartmentalization of NAD + Synthesis and Functions in Mammalian Cells". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 45 (10): 858–873. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2020.05.010. PMC 7502477. PMID 32595066.