A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin. It is used in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), a process for smoking cessation. Endorsed and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it is considered one of the safer NRTs available.
A meta-analysis found that fewer than 20% of people treated with nicotine replacement therapy remain abstinent from smoking at one year.
The first study of the pharmacokinetics of a transdermal nicotine patch in humans was published in 1984 by Jed Rose, Murray Jarvik, and Daniel Rose, and was followed by publication by Rose et al. (1985) of results of a study of smokers showing that a transdermal nicotine patch reduced craving for cigarettes. Frank Etscorn filed a patent in the United States on January the 23rd 1985 and was issued the patent on July 1, 1986. The University of California filed a competing patent application nearly three years after Etscorn's filing on February the 19th, 1988, which was granted on May 1, 1990. Subsequently, the U.S. Patent Office declared an interference action and, after a thorough review of conception, reduction to practice and patent filing dates, issued on September 29, 1993 a priority decision in favor of the Rose et al. patent.
Studies are being conducted about the use of transdermal nicotine patches to treat anxiety, depression, and inattentiveness in subjects with ADHD[verification needed] and to treat late-life depression.
Two small studies have shown that transdermal nicotine patches improve some symptoms of ulcerative colitis. However, this is not the case with Crohn's disease, a similar health condition, where smoking and nicotine intake in general worsen the disease's effects.
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- Rose, J. E.; Jarvik, M. E.; Rose, K. D. (1984). "Transdermal administration of nicotine". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 13 (3): 209–213. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(84)90061-9. PMID 6734425.
- Rose, J. E.; Herskovic, J. E.; Trilling, Y.; Jarvik, M. E. (1985). "Transdermal nicotine reduces cigarette craving and nicotine preference". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 38 (4): 450–456. doi:10.1038/clpt.1985.203. PMID 4042528.
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- OLIVIA M. DUVALL (21 February 1995). "Adverse Decisions in Interference". Board of Patent Appeals & Interferences. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
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- Cocores, James A. (2008). "Transdermal Nicotine in Adult ADHD With Depression and Anxiety". Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 10 (3): 253–4. doi:10.4088/pcc.v10n0312f. PMC 2446482. PMID 18615164.
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- Cheah, Matthew, and Reena Khanna. "Current Medical Therapies for Ulcerative Colitis." In Pouchitis and Ileal Pouch Disorders, pp. 1-15. Academic Press, 2019.