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Nidogens, formerly known as entactins, are a family of sulfated monomeric glycoproteins located in the basal lamina.[1] Two nidogens have been identified in humans: nidogen-1 (NID1) and nidogen-2 (NID2).[2] Remarkably, vertebrates are still capable of stabilizing basement membrane in the absence of either identified nidogen.[3] In contrast, those lacking both nidogen-1 and nidogen-2, typically die prematurely during embryonic development as a result of defects existing in the heart and lungs.[4] Nidogen have been shown to play a crucial role during organogenesis in late embryonic development, particularly in cardiac and lung development.[5] From an evolutionary perspective, nidogens are highly conserved across vertebrates and invertebrates, retaining their ability to bind laminin.[6]

In nematodes, nidogen-1 is necessary for axon guidance, but not for basement membrane assembly.[7]


  1. ^ Hortsch M, Umemori H (2009). The Sticky Synapse: Cell Adhesion Molecules and Their Role in Synapse Formation and Maintenance. New York, NY: Springer. p. 66. ISBN 9780387927084.
  2. ^ Miosge N, Holzhausen S, Zelent C, Sprysch P, Herken R (2001). "Nidogen-1 and nidogen-2 are found in basement membranes during human embryonic development". The Histochemical Journal. 33 (9–10): 523–30. doi:10.1023/A:1014995523521. PMID 12005023.
  3. ^ Lössl P, Kölbel K, Tänzler D, Nannemann D, Ihling CH, Keller MV, Schneider M, Zaucke F, Meiler J, Sinz A (2014-11-11). Kobe B (ed.). "Analysis of nidogen-1/laminin γ1 interaction by cross-linking, mass spectrometry, and computational modeling reveals multiple binding modes". PLOS ONE. 9 (11): e112886. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9k2886L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112886. PMC 4227867. PMID 25387007.
  4. ^ Fox MA, Ho MS, Smyth N, Sanes JR (September 2008). "A synaptic nidogen: developmental regulation and role of nidogen-2 at the neuromuscular junction". Neural Development. 3 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/1749-8104-3-24. PMC 2567315. PMID 18817539.
  5. ^ Bader BL, Smyth N, Nedbal S, Miosge N, Baranowsky A, Mokkapati S, Murshed M, Nischt R (August 2005). "Compound genetic ablation of nidogen 1 and 2 causes basement membrane defects and perinatal lethality in mice". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 25 (15): 6846–56. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.15.6846-6856.2005. PMC 1190363. PMID 16024816.
  6. ^ Mayer U, Kohfeldt E, Timpl R (October 1998). "Structural and genetic analysis of laminin-nidogen interaction". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 857 (1): 130–42. Bibcode:1998NYASA.857..130M. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb10113.x. PMID 9917838.
  7. ^ Kim, S. (2000-04-07). "Positioning of Longitudinal Nerves in C. elegans by Nidogen". Science. 288 (5463): 150–154. doi:10.1126/science.288.5463.150. ISSN 0036-8075.