Nietzsche and Philosophy became a celebrated work. According to Ronald Bogue, its publication marked a significant turning-point in French philosophy, which had previously given little consideration to Nietzsche as a serious philosopher. It was the first French study of Nietzsche to treat him as a systematically coherent philosopher, and raised questions that became central to Nietzsche studies and to French post-structuralism. Many of the central themes of Deleuze's later work were first stated in the work.
Michael Tanner finds Nietzsche and Philosophy "quite wild about Nietzsche, but interesting about Deleuze." Daniel W. Smith identifies the book as "one of the most important and influential, as well as idiosyncratic, readings of Nietzsche to have appeared in Europe."